Weather And Climate


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Weather And Climate

  1. 1. Weather and Climate A Course for S1
  2. 2. Weather Elements <ul><li>1. Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>2. Precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Wind Speed </li></ul><ul><li>4. Wind Direction </li></ul><ul><li>5. Cloud Cover </li></ul><ul><li>6. Cloud Type </li></ul><ul><li>7. Visibility </li></ul><ul><li>8. Air Pressure </li></ul>
  3. 3. How do we measure the weather ? Temperature Precipitation Air Pressure Wind Speed Wind Direction Cloud Type Cloud Cover Visibility Max & Min. Thermometer Rain Gauge Barometer Anemometer Wind Vane Observation Observation Observation
  4. 4. The Stevenson Screen <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has slatted sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has a double roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is on stilts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its door opens northwards </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Name all of the following instruments
  6. 6. What type of cloud is this ? Found at high altitudes - CIRRUS
  7. 7. What type of cloud is this ? They rise to very great heights and are associated with thunderstorms - CUMULONIMBUS
  8. 8. What type of cloud is this ? Often known as fair-weather clouds - CUMULUS
  9. 9. What type of cloud is this ? Fog-like cloud near the ground - STRATUS.
  10. 10. An interesting website <ul><li> </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is the difference between weather and climate ? <ul><li>WEATHER </li></ul><ul><li>is about day to day </li></ul><ul><li>changes in the </li></ul><ul><li>atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature, rainfall, sunshine & wind) </li></ul><ul><li>CLIMATE </li></ul><ul><li>is the average or typical weather of a place worked out over a long period of time. </li></ul>We know that in Britain it gets cold in the winter and warm in the summer. This is climate. But we don't know if it is going to be warm tomorrow or not. This is the weather.
  12. 12. Microclimate <ul><li>Differences in TEMPERATURE are due to : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hills - make the climate cooler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees - also make the climate cooler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water - also cools down the surrounding area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Surface - a dark surface is warmer than a light surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings - may give off heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspect - south-facing slopes are warmer - WHY ? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Microclimate (continued) <ul><li>Differences in wind speed are affected by : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hills - hilltops are windier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water areas - produce more wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings - generally reduce wind speed but can channel winds and increase their speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees, hedges and walls - reduce wind speed over a short distance </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. United Kingdom – Rainfall Figures <ul><li>Look at the map of rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>figures for the United </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Which area is the wettest ? </li></ul><ul><li>Which area is the </li></ul><ul><li>driest ? </li></ul>                                    
  15. 15. United Kingdom – January Temperatures <ul><li>Where are the temperatures warmest ? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are the temperatures coldest ? </li></ul>                                   
  16. 16. United Kingdom – July Temperatures <ul><li>Where are the temperatures warmest ? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are the temperatures coldest ? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the pattern differ from January ? </li></ul>                                   
  17. 17. Relief Rainfall <ul><li>Stage 1. Warm wet air is forced to rise over high land. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2. As the air rises it cools and condenses. Clouds form and precipitation occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3. The drier air descends and warms. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Any moisture in the air (e.g. cloud) evaporates. </li></ul>