Snow Sports Merit Badge

2014
Troop 53
Sugar Mountain
Requirements
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Discuss winter sports safety, and show that you know first aid for injuries or
illnesses that co...
Snow Sports
Alpine
DOWNHILL (ALPINE) SKIING
a. Show how to use and maintain your own release bindings and explain the use of two other...
Nordic
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CROSS-COUNTRY (NORDIC) SKIING
a. Show your ability to select, use, and repair, if nec...
Snowboarding
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SNOWBOARDING
a. Discuss forward-fall injuries. Tell about preventi...
Winter Sports Safety
and First Aid
• Discuss winter sports safety, and show
that you know first aid for injuries or
illnes...
Winter Sports Safety
Be sure your winter outdoor activities always follow these
guidelines:
• All winter activities must b...
Winter Sports Safety
• Winter sports activities often place greater demands on a
participant’s cardiopulmonary system, and...
First Aid
Hypothermia
• It is important to recognize hypothermia and treat it
promptly:
• Get the person indoors.
• Remove wet cloth...
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Frostbite
Gradually warming the affected skin is key to treating frostbite. To do so:
Protect your skin ...
Shock
• Depending on the type or the cause of the
shock, treatments differ. In general, fluid
resuscitation (giving a larg...
Dehydration
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Dehydration occurs when your body loses too much fluid. This can happen
when you stop drinking...
Sunburn
• When you get a sunburn, your skin turns
red and hurts. If the burn is severe, you
can develop swelling and sunbu...
Fractures
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Symptoms of fractures include:
Severe pain
Difficulty in movement
Swelling/ bruising / bleeding
Def...
Bruises
Reduce Bruising and Swelling
• Ice the area on and off for the first 24-48 hours.
• Apply ice for about 15 minutes...
Sprains and Strains
To treat sprains, follow the instructions for R.I.C.E.
• Rest the injured limb. Your doctor may recomm...
Applying Splints
• Applying a Splint
• Find a rigid straight object that is longer than the bone and
joint that you are go...
Explain why every skier should be
prepared to render first aid
Every skier should be ready to render first
aid because the...
How to report an accident
to the ski patrol
How to report an accident
to the ski patrol
• Use a cell phone or ask for help from nearby
skiers. Cross ski poles.
• At S...
Responsibility Code
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Skiing and snowboarding can be enjoyed in many ways. At areas, you may see
people ...
Responsibility Code
Smart Style Safety
• There are four main messages that are associated
with Smart Style:
• 1. MAKE A PLAN Every time you us...
Safety Style
Smart Style safety program is particularly
important in terrain parks and half pipes.
Terrain parks are areas...
Avalanche Safety
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Before You Go....
Take an avalanche safety course or clinic. These educational opportuni...
Avalanche Safety
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Once You're There....
Always carry avalanche equipment, including avalanche transceivers, p...
Avalanche Safety
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General rules of the road....
Don't overlook clues. Evidence of potential avalanche ha...
Wilderness Use Policy
• Leave No Trace is a plan that helps people to
be more concerned about their environment
and to hel...
Wilderness Use Policy
As a skier or snow boarder, it is important to protect
the mountain by remembering that while you ar...
Alpine Skiing
Alpine Bindings
• The vast majority of bindings for Alpine skiing work by fixing the ski boot to the ski at
...
Alpine Bindings
Alpine Skiing
Basic Ski Bindings Maintenance
• Your ski bindings maintenance plan should begin at the start
of the season....
Alpine Skiing
Keep Bindings Clean and Dry
• Remember to dry your bindings after each use in order to prevent
the build up ...
Cross Country Bindings
• There are three common Nordic binding systems:
• NNN (New Nordic Norm), where a bar in the toe of...
Nordic Bindings
Telemark Bindings
Like Nordic bindings, Telemark bindings fix only
the toe leaving the heel free to move. The main
differe...
Telemark Binding
Alpine Ski Touring
Also known as Randonee, an Alpine Touring
ski is a special ski binding that allows the
heel to be clipp...
DIN
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The DIN Range is the range of adjustment that any particular binding has.
Some examples are; Marker M51 ...
American Teaching System
• The ATS is the most recent PSIA system to integrate teaching,
service and skiing models in the ...
Hyland and Elm Creek SnowSports Academy

American Teaching System (ATS) Skills Progression
Alpine Skiing
The skills of ski...
Ski Organizations
• United States Ski and Snow Board
Association
• Professional Ski Instructors of America &
American Asso...
USSA
• The U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association (USSA) is
the national governing body of Olympic skiing and
snowboarding. It...
The Professional Ski Instructors of
America and American Association of
Snowboard Instructors (PSIA-AASI) is the
world’s l...
NSP
• As the leading authority of on-mountain
safety, the National Ski Patrol (NSP) is
dedicated to serving the public and...
• The U.S. Ski & Snowboard Hall of Fame
and Museum is located in the City of
Ishpeming in the Upper Peninsula of
Michigan,...
U.S. Ski Team
The U.S. Ski Team was developed to facilitate
participation in national and international competition,
the O...
NSAA
The National Ski Areas Association is the trade
association for ski area owners and operators. It
represents 325 alpi...
NASTAR

• NAtional STandard Race is the largest public
grassroots ski race program in the world. Participants
compete with...
Types of Alpine Skis
• Sports Model - Sport models are soft flexing and have a moderate
side cut. They are designed to mak...
Strength, Endurance, Flexibility
• What makes skiing such a great exercise is that is
uses all of your muscle groups. Howe...
Skiing Exercises
• Endurance exercises include:
• 3 to 5 days each week of your favorite activity. The best for
skiing inc...
Clothing and Equipment
Having the proper clothing is essential for having a blast in the snow.
• Base Layer: Wear a synthe...
Riding Lifts
Riding on a Two-person chair lift (non-detachable, with outside
poles.)
• Get in line for the lift; the highe...
Demonstrate While Skiing
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On a gentle slope, demonstrate some of the beginning maneuvers learned...
Trail Marking System
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Green Circle = easiest
Blue Square = intermediate
Black Diamond = expert
Double Black Diamon...
Trail Markings
SUGAR MOUNTAIN
Riding Lifts

Riding a Gondola
• Many of the bigger ski resorts use gondolas to transport
skiers up the mountain. A gondol...
Riding Lifts

Gondola
Riding Lifts
Riding on a T-Bar (rope tow)
• Always ask the Lift attendant if you are unsure for instructions.
Remove strap...
Riding Lifts
Riding a High Speed Quad lift
• This is very similar to a standard chair lift. Glide your way to
the lifting ...
High Speed Quad
Sugar Mountain Lifts
LIFT NETWORK: One triple chairlift, four double chairlifts
(including the two longest in North Caroli...
Complete Worksheet
• Print out the work sheet and fill out the
appropriate spaces. Bring it on the trip to
get it signed.
Snow sports
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Snow sports

  1. 1. Snow Sports Merit Badge 2014 Troop 53 Sugar Mountain
  2. 2. Requirements • • • • • Discuss winter sports safety, and show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while skiing or riding, including hypothermia, frostbite, shock, dehydration, sunburn, fractures, bruises, sprains, and strains. Tell how to apply splints. Explain why every skier or snowboarder should be prepared to render first aid in the event of an accident. Explain the procedure used to report an accident to the local ski patrol for the area where you usually ski or ride. Do EACH of the following: a. Tell the meaning of the Your Responsibility Code for skiers and snow-boarders. Explain why each rider must follow this code. 
b. Explain the Smart Style safety program. Tell why it is important and how it applies to skiers and snowboarders in terrain parks and pipes. 
c. Explain the precautions pertaining to avalanche safety, including the responsibility of individuals regarding avalanche safety. 
d. Tell the meaning of the Wilderness Use Policy. Explain why each skier and snowboarder must adopt this policy. 
 Complete all of the requirements for ONE of the following options: downhill (Alpine) skiing or cross-country (Nordic) or snowboarding.
  3. 3. Snow Sports
  4. 4. Alpine DOWNHILL (ALPINE) SKIING a. Show how to use and maintain your own release bindings and explain the use of two others. Explain the international DIN standard and what it means to skiers. b. Explain the American Teaching System and a basic snow-skiing progression c. Name the major ski organizations in the United States and explain their functions. d. Discuss the five types of Alpine skis. Demonstrate two ways to carry skis and poles safely and easily. e. Explain the importance of strength, endurance, and flexibility in downhill skiing. Demonstrate exercises and activities you can do to get fit for skiing. f. Present yourself properly clothed and equipped for downhill skiing. Discuss how the clothing you have chosen will keep you warm and protected. g. Demonstrate how to ride one kind of lift and explain how to ride two others. h. Explain the international trail-marking system. i. On a gentle slope, demonstrate some of the beginning maneuvers learned in skiing. Include the straight run, gliding wedge, wedge stop, sidestep, and herringbone maneuvers. j. On slightly steeper terrain, show linked wedge turns. k. On a moderate slope, demonstrate five to 10 christies. l. Make a controlled run down an intermediate slope and demonstrate the following: 1. Short-, medium-, and long-radius parallel turns 2. A sideslip and safety (hockey) stop to each side 3. Traverse across a slope m. Demonstrate the ability to ski in varied conditions, including changes in pitch, snow conditions, and moguls. Maintain your balance and ability to turn.
  5. 5. Nordic • • • • • • • • • • • • • • CROSS-COUNTRY (NORDIC) SKIING a. Show your ability to select, use, and repair, if necessary, the correct equipment for ski touring in safety and comfort. b. Discuss classical and telemark skis. Demonstrate two ways to carry skis safely and easily. c. Discuss the basic principles of waxing for cross-country ski touring. d. Discuss the differences between cross-country skiing, ski touring, ski and downhill skiing. e. Explain the importance of strength, endurance, and flexibility in cross-country skiing. Demonstrate exercises and activities you can do to get fit for skiing. f. List items you would take on a one-day ski tour. g. Present yourself properly clothed and equipped for a one-day ski tour. Discuss the correct use of your clothing and equipment, and how the clothing you have chosen will keep you warm and protected. h. Demonstrate the proper use of a topographic map and compass. i. Show a degree of stamina that will enable you to keep up with an average ski-touring group your age. j. On a gentle, packed slope, show some basic ways to control speed and direction. Include the straight run, traverse, sideslip, step turn, wedge stop, and wedge turn maneuvers. k. On a cross-country trail, demonstrate effective propulsion by showing proper weight transfer from ski to ski, pole timing, rhythm, flow, and glide. l. Demonstrate your ability, on a tour, to cope with an average variety of snow conditions. m. Demonstrate several methods of dealing with steep hills or difficult conditions. Include traverses and kick turns going uphill and downhill, sidesteps, pole drag, and ski-pole "glissade."
  6. 6. Snowboarding • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SNOWBOARDING a. Discuss forward-fall injuries. Tell about prevention and what action must be taken in the event of any type of injury or accident. b. Do the following: 1. Demonstrate your ability to select the correct equipment for snowboarding and to use it for safety and comfort. 2. Present yourself properly clothed and equipped for snowboarding. Discuss how the clothing you have chosen will keep you warm and protected. c. Show how to use and maintain your own bindings, and explain the use of the different binding methods. Explain the need for leashes. d. Discuss the four types of snowboards. Demonstrate how to carry a snowboard easily and safely. e. Demonstrate exercises and activities that will get you fit for snowboarding. f. Demonstrate how to ride one kind of lift and explain how to ride two others. g. Explain the international trail-marking system. h. Demonstrate the basic principles of waxing a snowboard. i. Do the following: 1. On a gentle slope, demonstrate beginning snowboarding maneuvers. Show basic ways to control speed and direction. Include the sideslipping maneuver. 2. On slightly steeper terrain, show traversing. j. On a moderate slope, demonstrate an ollie, a nose-end grab, and a wheelie. k. Make a controlled run down an intermediate slope and demonstrate the following: 1. Skidded, carved, and jump turns 2. Stops 3. Riding fakie l. Demonstrate your ability to ride in varied conditions, including changes in pitch, snow conditions, and moguls. Maintain your balance and ability to turn. m. Name the major snowboarding organizations in the United States and explain their functions.
  7. 7. Winter Sports Safety and First Aid • Discuss winter sports safety, and show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while skiing or riding , including hypothermia, frostbite, shock, dehydration, sunburn, fractures, bruises, sprains, and strains. • Most of this is covered by the First Aid Merit Badge
  8. 8. Winter Sports Safety Be sure your winter outdoor activities always follow these guidelines: • All winter activities must be supervised by mature and conscientious adults (at least one of whom must be age 21 or older) who understand and knowingly accept responsibility for the well-being and safety of the youth in their care. • Winter sports activities embody intrinsic hazards that vary from sport to sport. Participants should be aware of the potential hazards of any winter sport before engaging in it. • Appropriate personal protective equipment is required for all activities. The use of helmets is required for the following activities: downhill skiing, snowboarding and operating snowmobiles (requires full face helmets).
  9. 9. Winter Sports Safety • Winter sports activities often place greater demands on a participant’s cardiopulmonary system, and people with underlying medical conditions should not participate without medical consultation and direction. • For winter sports that utilize specialized equipment, it is essential that all equipment fit and function properly. • When youth are engaging in downhill activities such as sledding or tobogganing, minimize the likelihood of collision with immobile obstacles. Use only designated areas where potential obstacles have been identified and marked, cleared away, shielded, or buffered in some way. • All participants should know, understand, and respect the rules and procedures for safe winter activity. Rules for safety, plus common sense and good judgment, keep the fun from being interrupted by tragedy. • http://www.scouting.org/scoutsource/HealthandSafety/GSS/gss12.aspx
  10. 10. First Aid
  11. 11. Hypothermia • It is important to recognize hypothermia and treat it promptly: • Get the person indoors. • Remove wet clothing and dry the person off, if needed. • Warm the person's trunk first, not hands and feet. Warming extremities first can cause shock. • Warm the person by wrapping him or her in blankets or putting dry clothing on the person. • Do not immerse the person in warm water. Rapid warming can cause heart arrhythmia. • If using hot water bottles or chemical hot packs, wrap them in cloth; don't apply them directly to the skin.
  12. 12. • • • • • • • Frostbite Gradually warming the affected skin is key to treating frostbite. To do so: Protect your skin from further exposure. If you're outside, warm frostbitten hands by tucking them into your armpits. Protect your face, nose or ears by covering the area with dry, gloved hands. Don't rub the affected area and never rub snow on frostbitten skin. Get out of the cold. Once you're indoors, remove wet clothes. Gradually warm frostbitten areas. Put frostbitten hands or feet in warm water — 104 to 107.6 F (40 to 42 C). Wrap or cover other areas in a warm blanket. Don't use direct heat, such as a stove, heat lamp, fireplace or heating pad, because these can cause burns before you feel them on your numb skin. Don't walk on frostbitten feet or toes if possible. This further damages the tissue. If there's any chance the affected areas will freeze again, don't thaw them. If they're already thawed, wrap them up so that they don't become frozen again. Get emergency medical help. If numbness or sustained pain remains during warming or if blisters develop, seek medical attention
  13. 13. Shock • Depending on the type or the cause of the shock, treatments differ. In general, fluid resuscitation (giving a large amount of fluid to raise blood pressure quickly) with an IV in the ambulance or emergency room is the firstline treatment for all types of shock. The doctor will also administer medications such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, or dopamine to the fluids to try to raise a patient's blood pressure to ensure blood flow to the vital organs.
  14. 14. Dehydration • • • • • • • Dehydration occurs when your body loses too much fluid. This can happen when you stop drinking water or lose large amounts of fluid through diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, or exercise. Not drinking enough fluids can cause muscle cramps. You may feel faint. Usually your body can reabsorb fluid from your blood and other body tissues. But by the time you become severely dehydrated, you no longer have enough fluid in your body to get blood to your organs, and you may go into shock, which is a life-threatening condition. If you become mildly to moderately dehydrated while working outside or exercising: Stop your activity and rest. Get out of direct sunlight and lie down in a cool spot, such as in the shade or an air-conditioned area. Prop up your feet. Take off any extra clothes. Drink a rehydration drink, water, juice, or sports drink to replace fluids and minerals. Drink 2 qt (2 L) of cool liquids over the next 2 to 4 hours. You should drink at least 10 glasses of liquid a day to replace lost fluids.
  15. 15. Sunburn • When you get a sunburn, your skin turns red and hurts. If the burn is severe, you can develop swelling and sunburn blisters. You may even feel like you have the flu -feverish, with chills, nausea, headache, and weakness. It is important to wear sunblock when in the sun, such as at the beach or when skiing. Keep it with you so it can be reapplied throughout the day. Prevention is the key.
  16. 16. Fractures • • • • • • Symptoms of fractures include: Severe pain Difficulty in movement Swelling/ bruising / bleeding Deformity / abnormal twist of limb Tenderness on applying pressure • For open fractures • Control bleeding before treatment • Rinse and dress the wound • • • • For open / closed fractures Immobilize the affected area Apply ice to reduce pain / swelling Consult a doctor
  17. 17. Bruises Reduce Bruising and Swelling • Ice the area on and off for the first 24-48 hours. • Apply ice for about 15 minutes at a time, and always put something like a towel or wash cloth between the ice and your skin. • Rest the affected area. • If possible, elevate the affected area. Treat Symptoms • For pain, take acetaminophen (Tylenol). Avoid aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), which can prolong bleeding.
  18. 18. Sprains and Strains To treat sprains, follow the instructions for R.I.C.E. • Rest the injured limb. Your doctor may recommend not putting any weight on the injured area for 48 hours. But don't avoid all activity. Even with an ankle sprain, you can usually still exercise other muscles to minimize deconditioning. For example, you can use an exercise bicycle with arm exercise handles, working both your arms and the uninjured leg while resting the injured ankle on another part of the bike. • Ice the area. Use a cold pack, a slush bath or a compression sleeve filled with cold water to help limit swelling after an injury. Try to ice the area as soon as possible after the injury and continue to ice it for 15 to 20 minutes, four to eight times a day, for the first 48 hours or until swelling improves. If you use ice, be careful not to use it too long, as this could cause tissue damage. • Compress the area with an elastic wrap or bandage. Compressive wraps or sleeves made from elastic or neoprene are best. • Elevate the injured limb above your heart whenever possible to help prevent or limit swelling.
  19. 19. Applying Splints • Applying a Splint • Find a rigid straight object that is longer than the bone and joint that you are going to support. You are going to be using this as the splint. • Cover any broken skin with a sterile cloth. Pad the splint with softer materials such as cloth. • Tie the splint to the injured limb using tape or rope. Make sure the splint is tight but not so tight that it cuts of blood circulation of the victim. Make sure the splint is applied in a way that prevents the limb from further movement or strain. • If available, place an ice bag over the splinted break area. Do not place it directly on the skin or wound but cover it with cloth.
  20. 20. Explain why every skier should be prepared to render first aid Every skier should be ready to render first aid because there may not be a ski patrol available immediately. When you ski with a buddy or a group, you can render first aid until emergency service arrives. With some injuries every second can count and it is important to know what will help and what will further hurt an injured skier.
  21. 21. How to report an accident to the ski patrol
  22. 22. How to report an accident to the ski patrol • Use a cell phone or ask for help from nearby skiers. Cross ski poles. • At Sugar Mountain, ski patrol hits are at the top of Peak #1 and at the Base. • Nature of the emergency • Location of the emergency • If calling from a phone, phone number where you are calling from • Remain calm, speak clearly and answer all questions
  23. 23. Responsibility Code • • • • • • • • • Skiing and snowboarding can be enjoyed in many ways. At areas, you may see people using alpine skis, snowboards, telemark skis, cross country skis, and other specialized equipment, such as that used by the disabled. Regardless of how you decide to enjoy the slopes, always show courtesy to others and be aware that there are elements of risk in skiing that common sense and personal awareness can help reduce. Observe the code listed below, and share with other skiers and riders the responsibility for a great skiing experience. Always stay in control, and be able to stop or avoid other people or objects. People ahead of you have the right of way. It is your responsibility to avoid them. You must not stop where you obstruct a trail, or are not visible from above. Whenever starting downhill or merging into a trail, look uphill and yield to others. Always use devices to help prevent runaway equipment. Observe all posted signs and warnings. Keep off closed trails and out of closed areas. Prior to using any lift, you must have the knowledge and ability to load, ride and unload safely. Know the code. It's your responsibility.
  24. 24. Responsibility Code
  25. 25. Smart Style Safety • There are four main messages that are associated with Smart Style: • 1. MAKE A PLAN Every time you use freestyle terrain, make a plan for each feature you want to use. Your speed, approach and take off will directly affect your maneuver and landing • 2. LOOK BEFORE YOU LEAP Scope around the jumps first, not over them. Know your landings are clear and clear yourself out of the landing area. • 3. EASY STYLE IT Start small and work your way up. (Inverted aerials not recommended). • 4. RESPECT GETS RESPECT From the lift line through the park.
  26. 26. Safety Style Smart Style safety program is particularly important in terrain parks and half pipes. Terrain parks are areas where Smart Style is particularly important. With the various trick areas, it can be difficult to see others so you need to make sure each terrain element is clear before starting. Also since these areas are designed to perform tricks, it is very important to know limitations and proceed slowly with your progression of more demanding and dangerous tricks. It is also important to take turns.
  27. 27. Avalanche Safety • • • • • • Before You Go.... Take an avalanche safety course or clinic. These educational opportunities provide invaluable hands-on experience in personal safety and rescue techniques. (The National Ski Patrol offers excellent Basic Avalanche and Advanced Avalanche Courses for a minimal fee.) Read up on avalanches. Supplement what you’ve learned in the courses by devouring as much additional information as you can. It’s important to maintain a healthy respect for these deadly forces of nature, no matter how experienced you are at backcountry skiing or snowboarding. Learn to recognize avalanche terrain. Most avalanches travel in paths, on smooth exposed slopes of between 25 and 60 degrees, but there are many exceptions. To make an informed assessment of avalanche danger, it’s essential to understand the significance of various terrain features, including slope angles, rocks, cornices and other wind-snow formations, ledges, and vegetation. This takes experience, preferably in the company of a guide or instructor. Practice searching for your companions' avalanche transceivers. Rehearse this until everyone you’ll be traveling with feels confident about his or her ability to locate each beacon as quickly as possible. It takes only one incident to realize the importance of this level of preparation. Do your homework. Research your route and snow conditions in the exact location(s) you plan to ski. Call your local avalanche warning center and check the current and forecasted weather before heading into the backcountry. Be prepared to adjust plans and/or routes accordingly.
  28. 28. Avalanche Safety • • • • • Once You're There.... Always carry avalanche equipment, including avalanche transceivers, probes, and shovels (in addition to basic camping gear, extra clothing, high-energy food, and plenty of water). Every member of the group needs to carry all three of these avalanche rescue items, and know how to use them. Be aware of your surroundings. Stay alert, and constantly be on the lookout for information about the environment that indicates the potential for a slide. This includes recent avalanche activity and changes in terrain, snowpack, and the weather. Analyze the snowpack stability. As with studying terrain features, reading the snowpack takes years of experience. There are however, several tests that reveal the layers in the snow and can help you assess risks involved with unstable snow. These include ski-pole tests, snowpit tests, resistance tests, and "shear" tests. In the National Ski Patrol’s avalanche courses, students learn how to conduct these tests and have the opportunity to see the snowpack firsthand. Cross potential avalanche slopes one at a time. If you doubt a slope's stability but still intend to cross it, only expose one person at a time to the potential for danger. When climbing or traversing, each person should be at least 100 yards from the next person. Travelers should climb steep narrow chutes one at a time, and when descending the slope, ski it alone. This not only minimizes the number of people who might get caught (and maximizes the number of people available for rescue), but it also reduces the stress put on the snowpack.
  29. 29. Avalanche Safety • • • • • • • • General rules of the road.... Don't overlook clues. Evidence of potential avalanche hazards will be there, so pay attention. If you educate yourself and communicate with your companions, you should have the tools needed to make smart decisions in the backcountry. Try to avoid traveling in the backcountry alone. Also, never leave the group. Otherwise, if you run into trouble, you'll be on your own. Don't assume avalanches occur only in obvious large paths. While most slides travel on broad, steep, and smooth slopes, they can also wind down gullies or through forested areas. Remember, if you can ski or snowboard through it, an avalanche can slide through it. Never travel in the backcountry on the day after a big storm. Allow the snowpack to settle for at least 24 hours. Don't assume a slope is safe because there are tracks going across it. Wind, sun, and temperature changes are constantly altering snowpack stability. What was safe yesterday (or this morning) could slide this afternoon. Further, when you cross a slope, you apply stress to the snowpack, which can cause it to slide. Don't allow your judgment to be clouded by the desire to ride the steepest pitch or get the freshest snow. Staying alive is much more important. Don't hesitate to voice concerns or fears. As Chuck Tolton said, "No one is going to criticize you for wanting to be safe in the backcountry."
  30. 30. Wilderness Use Policy • Leave No Trace is a plan that helps people to be more concerned about their environment and to help them protect it for future generations. Leave No Trace applies in a backyard or local park (frontcountry) as much as it does in the wilderness (backcountry). • We should practice Leave No Trace in our attitude and actions--wherever we go. Understanding nature strengthens our respect toward the environment. One person with thoughtless behavior or one shortcut on a trail can spoil the outdoor experience for others. • http://www.scouting.org/scoutsource/CubScouts/resourc es/LeavenoTrace.aspx
  31. 31. Wilderness Use Policy As a skier or snow boarder, it is important to protect the mountain by remembering that while you are there, you are a visitor. When you visit the ski slopes take special care of the area. Leave everything just as you find it. The Wilderness Use Policy it is crucial to minimize human impact, on fragile ecosystems of the mountains. It is important for us to be aware of ways to preserve and protect these natural areas so that we will be able to enjoy them in the future. If everyone adheres to these principles we will be able to enjoy the slopes for years to come and preserve their natural beauty for ourselves and others. If everyone is not responsible for themselves it will be impossible to preserve than natural beauty of the ski slopes.
  32. 32. Alpine Skiing Alpine Bindings • The vast majority of bindings for Alpine skiing work by fixing the ski boot to the ski at the toe and heel. The binding attaches the boot to the ski, but to reduce injury also allows the boot to release in case of a fall. Generally, the toe piece is designed to allow the boot to rotate to the sides, while the heel piece rotates up. In modern bindings a wide variety of motions is available from both toe and heel pieces. • The boot is released by the binding if a certain amount of torque is applied, usually created by the weight of a falling skier. The amount of torque required to release the boot is adjusted by turning a screw on the toe and heel piece. This is called (colloquially) the DIN setting, because the standards for Alpine ski binding settings are issued by Deutsches Institut für Normung. The correct DIN setting is based on height, weight, ski boot sole length, the skiing style of the skier (cautious, average, or aggressive) and, age (if the skier is younger than 10 years old, or 50 years old or older).[3] • Normally, torque itself does not cause injury, not until a natural limit of the human skeleton is reached. For instance, a very strong vertical torque, twisting the knee, will not cause damage unless the knee is forced to travel beyond a certain angle. Some bindings move relatively short distances before releasing, leading to the possibly of "pre-release", where the ski releases long before the motion could have caused damage. Bindings with longer "float" may hold on during events that require those with shorter motion would require higher DIN settings. • Alpine ski bindings employ the use of a snow brake to prevent the ski from moving while it is not attached to a boot. Snow brakes work by the use of a sprung square 'C' shape, typically made of metal, which makes contact with the snow. When a ski boot is put in the ski binding, the brake pivots under the downward pressure and runs parallel with the ski allowing free movement. When the boot comes out of the ski, the brakes spring out perpendicular to the ski and stop the ski from sliding.
  33. 33. Alpine Bindings
  34. 34. Alpine Skiing Basic Ski Bindings Maintenance • Your ski bindings maintenance plan should begin at the start of the season. Bring your bindings to a well-respected ski shop, and have them checked for common defects, which include broken parts and loose screws. Additionally, if you have purchased new ski boots or skis, you will need to check the compatibility between your boots, skis and bindings. • The anti-friction device plate should also be checked for damage. It is easily replaceable, as long as you catch the damage before it becomes severe. Most experts suggest that your DIN setting should be lowered when you reach the age of 50. On the other hand, if you are starting to ski in more challenging terrain, you might want to take your bindings to the shop and have them adjusted to a higher DIN setting.
  35. 35. Alpine Skiing Keep Bindings Clean and Dry • Remember to dry your bindings after each use in order to prevent the build up of dirt and grime. If you frequent a resort that has a shuttle bus with ski racks, you might want to think twice before placing your skis on outdoor racks. On longer rides, this can lead to an excess build up of dirt. As soon as you lift the skis by the bindings, your gloves will be filthy. In fact, in Summit County Colorado, the problem was so severe that the free Summit Stage shuttle bus eliminated the ski racks. Likewise, if you keep your bindings on your vehicle's ski rack, be sure to invest in a pair of binding covers. Many experts suggest that twice a year you grease the heel piece of your binding, and some suggest that you lower your DIN setting for summer storage. During the off-season, be sure to store your skis in a warm, dry place. If you did a good deal of aggressive skiing in the previous season, you might want to take your skis to the shop and have the technicians perform a torque test on the bindings. This is also important if you did a good deal of late or early season skiing on rocky terrain. While these maintenance tips should be all that you need, in certain extreme situations repairs may be an important part of your binding maintenance. http://ski.lovetoknow.com/Ski_Bindings_Maintenance
  36. 36. Cross Country Bindings • There are three common Nordic binding systems: • NNN (New Nordic Norm), where a bar in the toe of the shoe is hooked into a catch in the binding. • NIS (Nordic Integrated System) is the latest incarnation of NNN. The new system features integrated binding plate on the top of the ski to which the bindings attach, allowing easy installation of bindings and even adjusting them on-the-fly depending on weather and snow conditions. NIS bindings and boots are fully compatible with NNN boots and bindings, and NIS skis allow installation of non-NIS bindings. • SNS (Salomon Nordic System) looks very similar to NNN binding, except it has one large ridge and the bar is narrower. Three variants exist: Profil, the standard model; Pilot, specific for either skate-style or classic-style cross-country skiing, and the "X-Adventure" variant for backcountry skiing. Previous SNS systems exist with a loop protruding from the front of the boot rather than a bar flush with the front, and these are obsolete and no longer available.
  37. 37. Nordic Bindings
  38. 38. Telemark Bindings Like Nordic bindings, Telemark bindings fix only the toe leaving the heel free to move. The main difference is that Telemark bindings are more heavy-duty to withstand the increased forces encountered in high speed descents. The cable binding (aka Kandahar binding), where the toe section of the boot is anchored, and an adjustable cable around the heel (for which there is a groove in the heel of the shoe) secures the boot. Used for cross-country (to a certain extent), Telemark and ski jumping.
  39. 39. Telemark Binding
  40. 40. Alpine Ski Touring Also known as Randonee, an Alpine Touring ski is a special ski binding that allows the heel to be clipped down to the ski when skiing downhill, but which allows it to be released when climbing.
  41. 41. DIN • • • • • The DIN Range is the range of adjustment that any particular binding has. Some examples are; Marker M51 and Salomon S912 both have a din range from 4 to12, Rossignol Axle Scratch has a DIN of 4-14, and a Marker Duke's DIN is 6-16. The highest DIN to be had is a 24 that racers use. DIN is an abbreviation for Deutsches Institut für Normung, it's a German organization which resembles ANSI here in the U.S. It was adopted as the standard for binding ratings so that there is consistency from one binding to another, i.e, if your old bindings are on 9 and you replace them with a different brand of new ones they would (in theory) also be set at 9. The DIN is adjusted based on the skier's weight, height, boot length and type, and skill level to allow for release at a predetermined pressure level, so as to keep from ripping ligaments or breaking stuff. Setting your Ski Bindings to the correct Release Setting is essential for your safety. Dangerous situations can arise on both sides of the setting: if too loose, then the Ski can let go unexpectedly causing a fall. If too tight, then the Ski will not release if you come to a fall causing your Skis to act as levers and increasing your chance of injury. Make sure to check your DIN setting with a qualified technician.
  42. 42. American Teaching System • The ATS is the most recent PSIA system to integrate teaching, service and skiing models in the US. A full reference is from PSIA Manual. The basic teaching progression starts a student with balancing on a moving ski on a flat area and progresses to 2 skis, making a wedge turn in each direction, and stopping by turning uphill by stepping out of the position. Once the student can turn both ways and stop on command on a gentle slope, edging of the skis by side stepping up and downhill and climbing with a herringbone maneuver is introduced and the skill is developed to let the student climb and slide on a gentle slope. At this point the student is shown how to ride and unload from a beginners lift, the next stage is to ski a great deal and to practice the 3 skills they have been shown and to learn about pressuring the ski edge. This initial lesson can usually be taught in about 1.5 hours in many ski resorts. The next lesson will involve more skiing, and some new turns to help the student to become a good skier.
  43. 43. Hyland and Elm Creek SnowSports Academy American Teaching System (ATS) Skills Progression Alpine Skiing The skills of skiing are Balance, Edging, Rotary, and Pressure. Below are approximate skill developments for each level of the ATS as used at Hyland. These skills are meant as guidelines only and may be modified as snow conditions change, students mature and instructors interact with their classes. GOAL TERRAIN ZONE 1: BASIC TURNS Beginning Stop on command. Make basic turns left/right. Training Hill. Easy greens. Intermediate Link basic turns. All greens and easy blues with guidance. Advanced Complete basic turns. Explore varied terrain. All greens and most blues. Beginning Skis matched at end of turn. Can manage speed thru turn shape/size. Starting pole use. All greens/blues, some blacks. Intermediate Skis matched in fall line. Variety of turn shape/sizes for speed management. Appropriate pole use. All greens/blues, some blacks. Advanced Skis matched before fall line. Speed is managed thru turn shape/size. Pole/turn initiation is consistent. All greens, blues, and blacks. Beginning Skis are parallel on most terrain. Use medium- to long-radius OP. Consistent pole use to start turns. All greens/blues, some blacks and easy mogul runs. Intermediate Skis are parallel on most terrain. Can use smalland medium-radius OP. Always uses poles effectively. All greens, blues, blacks, and most moguls. Advanced Ski dynamic OP on most terrain and moguls. A variety of turn shapes and sizes are used. Pole use is always used effectively. All greens, blues, blacks, and most moguls. Beginning Dynamic turns on most terrain and gates. Uses turn shape/size for speed control. Can carve/skid on most terrain. Always uses poles. Ski most conditions. All greens, blues, blacks, and most moguls and race gates. Adults can ski powder and steeps under control. Intermediate Dynamic turns on most terrain and gates. Uses turn shape/size for speed control. Can carve/skid on most terrain. Always uses poles. Ski most conditions. All greens, blues, blacks, and most moguls and race gates. Adults can ski powder and steeps under control. Advanced Dynamic turns on most terrain and gates. Uses turn shape/size for speed control. Can carve/skid on most terrain. Always uses poles. Ski all conditions. All greens, blues, blacks, and most moguls and race gates. Adults can ski powder and steeps under control. ZONE 2: CHRISTY TURNS ZONE 3: OPEN PARALLEL ZONE 4: DYNAMIC PARALLEL > Register for Alpine skiing lessons at Elm Creek or Hyland
  44. 44. Ski Organizations • United States Ski and Snow Board Association • Professional Ski Instructors of America & American Association of Snowboard Instructors • National Ski Patrol • U.S. Ski and Snowboard Hall of Fame • U.S. Ski Team • National Ski Areas Association • NAtional STAndard Race
  45. 45. USSA • The U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association (USSA) is the national governing body of Olympic skiing and snowboarding. It is the parent organization of the U.S. Ski Team, U.S. Snowboarding and U.S. Freeskiing. Developed to facilitate participation in national and international competition, the Olympic sports organization provides structure for competitive skiing and snowboarding. From grassroots programs to governance of sport, management of rules, competitions and athletic rankings, the USSA oversees athletic pipelines for development in the sports. With a vision to make the USA the best in the world in Olympic skiing and snowboarding, the USSA provides leadership and direction for tens of thousands of young skiers.
  46. 46. The Professional Ski Instructors of America and American Association of Snowboard Instructors (PSIA-AASI) is the world’s largest nonprofit education association dedicated to promoting the sports of skiing and snowboarding through instruction. With more than 31,500 members instructing at 300 member ski and snowboard schools, PSIAAASI establishes certification standards for snowsports instructors and develops education materials to be used as the core components of instructor training.
  47. 47. NSP • As the leading authority of on-mountain safety, the National Ski Patrol (NSP) is dedicated to serving the public and outdoor recreation industry by providing education and accreditation to emergency care and safety service providers. The organization is made up of more than 28,000 members serving over 650 patrols, including alpine, Nordic, and auxiliary patrollers. Our members work on behalf of local ski and snowboard areas to improve the overall experience for outdoor recreationalists.
  48. 48. • The U.S. Ski & Snowboard Hall of Fame and Museum is located in the City of Ishpeming in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, the birthplace of organized skiing in the United States. It is home to an extensive collection of artifacts and archives relating to the history of skiing. It has 20,000 square feet of space containing displays on over 375 Honored Members, trophies, clothing and equipment. There is a gift shop, library and theater.
  49. 49. U.S. Ski Team The U.S. Ski Team was developed to facilitate participation in national and international competition, the Olympic sports organization provides structure for competitive skiing and snowboarding. From grassroots programs to governance of sport, management of rules, competitions and athletic rankings, the USSA oversees athletic pipelines for development in the sports. With a vision to make the USA the best in the world in Olympic skiing and snowboarding, the USSA provides leadership and direction for tens of thousands of young skiers and snowboarders who share an Olympic dream while maintaining a strong adherence to core values. The USSA, established in 1905, operates out of the national training and education facility, the Center of Excellence, in Park
  50. 50. NSAA The National Ski Areas Association is the trade association for ski area owners and operators. It represents 325 alpine resorts. NSAA analyzes and distributes ski industry statistics. The association also provides educational programs and employee training materials on industry issues including environmental laws and regulations; state regulatory requirements; aerial tramway safety; and resort operations and guest service. The association's primary objective is to meet the needs of ski area owners and operators nationwide and to foster, stimulate and promote growth in the industry.
  51. 51. NASTAR • NAtional STandard Race is the largest public grassroots ski race program in the world. Participants compete within their age and gender groups to win platinum, gold, silver and bronze medals. In addition, participants are ranked in their medal group and the top ranked racers qualify to compete in the Nature Valley NASTAR National Championships. • The NASTAR handicap system is a standardized scoring program that provides participants with a tangible number that represents their ability. The NASTAR.com web site records each participants stats and ranks each racer at the host resort, in their state of residence and nationally.
  52. 52. Types of Alpine Skis • Sports Model - Sport models are soft flexing and have a moderate side cut. They are designed to make turning easier for beginner and intermediate skiers. • Twin Tip or Trick - are turned up at the tip and the tail and are designed for performing on jumps, rails, and half pipes, but their design makes many other conditions other than the terrain park more challenging. • Racing - These skis are designed for high speeds and hard snow. They generally have a stiff flex that make turning more difficult, but it makes the skis more stable in high speeds. They are specialized for turning around gates. • All Mountain - These skis come it all types of flexes and side cuts. They range form very wide skis with little side cut. They range from very wide ski with little side cut and a soft flex that are designed to float on powder, to very straight, narrow skis with little side cuts that are designed to ski in the bumps. • Carving - Carving Skis: Carving skis have a narrow waist and a wide tip and tail to help bend the ski into a tight arc as it is tipped.
  53. 53. Strength, Endurance, Flexibility • What makes skiing such a great exercise is that is uses all of your muscle groups. However, some muscles are used more than others. Those are the ones you want to concentrate on when it comes to your strength workouts. • Most of us hit the slopes and plan on skiing all day, even if it's been months or years since we last skied. Without porper endurance, by afternoon, you're so tired that your legs feel like jello, a prime time for injuries and accidents happen. • Flexibility is important to avoid injuries when you are skiing. It is important to do some stretching before and after each day of skiing.
  54. 54. Skiing Exercises • Endurance exercises include: • 3 to 5 days each week of your favorite activity. The best for skiing include running, the stairmaster, step aerobics, elliptical trainer and rollerblading. • Strengthening and stretching exercises involve: • Quadriceps. Probably the most used muscle in skiing are the muscles of the quads. These muscles hold you in position as you ski and they also provide protection for your knees. Great exercises for the quads include squats and lunges. • Calves. Because your knees are bent as you ski, your calves (specifically the soleus) help you stay upright so you don't fall over (your ski boots help too). You can work this muscle by doing standing calf raises or machine calf raises.
  55. 55. Clothing and Equipment Having the proper clothing is essential for having a blast in the snow. • Base Layer: Wear a synthetic layer, long sleeves or short sleeves, both works. This is to keep you dry and when you sweat, it won’t stay in and make you cold, wet • 2nd Layer: Wear a fleece jacket. This will preserve body and keep you warm. • Outer Shell: Wear a snow jacket. This will keep you warm and dry • Head Gear: 1. Helmet – protects you from breaking your skull and some other head injuries. 2. Ski Mask – protects your face from the cold wind and keep your face dry. • Eye Gear: Ski Goggles or Sunglasses – this is to protect your eyes from the sun reflecting off the snow. Also, it helps keep snow out of your eyes. • Hand Gear: Gloves – to keep your hand from frostbite. • Feet Gear: Ski Socks – to protect your foot from injuries and to keep your feet warm. • Optional Protection: 1. Knee Pads (flexible ones) – to protect your knees when you fall.
  56. 56. Riding Lifts Riding on a Two-person chair lift (non-detachable, with outside poles.) • Get in line for the lift; the higher up the mountain the lift goes, the faster the chair lift may move. Glide your way to the lifting area and keep your poles close to you and remove the straps. Stop on the marked line. If you'll be sitting on the left, put both poles in your right hand, and look over your left shoulder. If you'll be sitting on the right, do the opposite. Bend your knees slightly because the chair (lift) will hit them, but this is normal. As the chair approaches, you may want to reach for it with your free hand. Sit down when the lift touches the backs of your knees. Pull the metal bar down over you as a seat belt and you are on your way to the trail. Sit back in your chair and do not rock the chair. To unload, stand up at designated point and ski down the incline. 
Move quickly away from moving chair and keep unloading area clear • http://www.wikihow.com/Get-on-and-off-a-Ski-Lift
  57. 57. Demonstrate While Skiing • • • • • • • • • • • • • On a gentle slope, demonstrate some of the beginning maneuvers learned in skiing. Include the straight run, gliding wedge, wedge stop, sidestep, and herringbone maneuvers. straight run gliding wedge wedge stop Sidestep Herringbone On slightly steeper terrain, show linked wedge turns. On a moderate slope, demonstrate five to 10 christies. Make a controlled run down an intermediate slope and demonstrate the following: Short-, medium-, and long-radius parallel turns A sideslip and safety (hockey) stop to each side Traverse across a slope Demonstrate the ability to ski in varied conditions, including changes in pitch, snow conditions, and moguls. Maintain your balance and ability to turn.
  58. 58. Trail Marking System • • • • Green Circle = easiest Blue Square = intermediate Black Diamond = expert Double Black Diamond = most difficult of all. • The catch is, the difficulty ratings are only meant in comparison to other trails AT THE SAME RESORT. So a blue square in the midwest could possibly be easier than a green circle in the Rockies.
  59. 59. Trail Markings SUGAR MOUNTAIN
  60. 60. Riding Lifts Riding a Gondola • Many of the bigger ski resorts use gondolas to transport skiers up the mountain. A gondola is an enclosed carriage (like a cable car). You will need to remove your skis to ride on the gondola. Depending on the gondola, you will bring your skis inside with you, or place them on an outside rack. You will bring your poles inside the gondola with you. • When it is time to exit the gondola, the doors will open and you step out. Remove your skis from the rack (or, if you're carrying your skis, carry them out of the gondola) and leave the gondola unloading area. http://skiing.about.com/od/beginningskiers/ss/chairlift_5.htm
  61. 61. Riding Lifts Gondola
  62. 62. Riding Lifts Riding on a T-Bar (rope tow) • Always ask the Lift attendant if you are unsure for instructions. Remove straps from your wrists. Hold the poles in outside hand. Step quickly into position. Look over inside shoulder, grasp bar as it approaches and place against back of thighs. Do Not Sit Down. When Riding, Flex Knees, keep skis in tracks and do not sit down or lean back. http://www.saddlebackmaine.com/riding-the-lifts
  63. 63. Riding Lifts Riding a High Speed Quad lift • This is very similar to a standard chair lift. Glide your way to the lifting area and keep your poles close to you and remove the straps. Stop on the marked line. If you'll be sitting on the left, put both poles in your right hand, and look over your left shoulder. If you'll be sitting on the right, do the opposite. If you'll be sitting in the middle, do it either way. The chair will slow down as it approaches and you should bend your knees slightly because the chair (lift) will hit them, but this is normal. As the chair approaches, you may want to reach for it with your free hand. Sit down when the lift touches the backs of your knees. Pull the metal bar down over you as a seat belt and you are on your way to the trail. Sit back in your chair and do not rock the chair. To unload, stand up at designated point and ski down the incline. 

  64. 64. High Speed Quad
  65. 65. Sugar Mountain Lifts LIFT NETWORK: One triple chairlift, four double chairlifts (including the two longest in North Carolina), and two surface lifts make up Sugar's lift network. This allows the transport of a possible 8,800 people up the mountain each hour. Sugar Mountain Resort is constantly upgrading the lift system to make your lift ride more enjoyable.
  66. 66. Complete Worksheet • Print out the work sheet and fill out the appropriate spaces. Bring it on the trip to get it signed.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

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