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KIDS BE AWARE

KIDS BE AWARE
a program for parents and children

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    Kba Speakers Presentation Kba Speakers Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • INFECTIOUS AND CHRONIC DISEASE EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN AND PARENTS KIDS BE AWARE
    • HISTORY The mission of Kids Be Aware is to educate children ages 5-12 about infectious and chronic diseases to  build knowledge with regard to disease prevention, health promotion and  to promote healthy relationships while teaching healthy behaviors. Founded in 2009, Kids Be Aware is a program that provides a spectrum of learning opportunities and services to children. First started as a school project in 2007 and then a practicum experience in 2008, Kids Be Aware now continues its focus on raising  awareness of infectious and chronic disease  in children.    
    • Achievements
      • Kids Be Aware carries out its mission through education, research, empowerment, family engagement and community service.
      • It relies on volunteers at all levels.
      • Kids be Aware has made oral and posters presentations at many conferences ( CDC TBENT conference—Diabetes association conference—and the AIDS Association)
      • Public awareness
      • -Brochures/books, newsletters
      • -Seminars
      • In the next pages, you will learn about infectious and chronic diseases.
    • INFECTIOUS DISEASE
      • WHAT IS IT?
      • An infectious disease or communicable disease is a disease caused by a virus, bacteria, parasites or fungi. The disease can then spread directly or indirectly from one person to another.
      • Of the seven biggest killers worldwide, TB, malaria, hepatitis, and, in particular, HIV/AIDS continue to surge, with HIV/AIDS and TB likely to account for the overwhelming majority of deaths from infectious diseases
    • INFECTIOUS DISEASE
      • TRANSMISSION
      • An infectious disease can be transmitted through different canals depending if it is respiratory, gastrointestinal, sexually or through blood borne.
      • If it is respiratory then it will transmit through:
      • Cough—sneeze—droplet—talking –kissing– or even singing
      • If it is gastrointestinal, it will transmit through:
      • Contaminated water or food
      • If it is sexually, it will transmit through:
      • Contact with bodily fluid as a result of sexual encounter or contaminated object
    • INFECTIOUS DISEASE
      • Transmission continue..
      • If it is blood borne, it will transmit through:
      • Needle sticks, vectors transports such as mosquitoes, blood transfusion.
    • INFECTIOUS DISEASE
      • PREVENTION
      • PREVENTION
      • To prevent infectious diseases, one should first recognize its characteristics including virulence and distance traveled by victims.
      • The use of standard precautions is recommended
      • Mouth covering during cough
      • Constant hand washing
      • The use of condoms for those sexually active (adults)
      • Abstinence for young children
      • Proper hygiene
      • Sterilization of instruments used
      • Avoidance of needle exchange among individuals especially drug users
    • INFECTIOUS DISEASE
      • Common infectious diseases
      • Common Infectious diseases
      • Tuberculosis
      • HIV/AIDS
      • West Nile
      • Yellow fever
      • Viral pneumonia
      • Syphilis
      • Rabbies
      • Small pox
      • Pertussis (whooping cough)
      • Influenza
      • Hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E)
      • Pelvic inflammatory disease(PID)
      • Salmonellosis
      • Shingles
      • Malaria
    • INFECTIOUS DISEASE
      • STATISTICS this include children as well.
      • Morbidity
      • Number of new tuberculosis cases: 13,779 (2006)
      • Number of new salmonella cases: 45,808 (2006)
      • Number of new Lyme disease cases: 19,931 (2006)
      • Number of new meningococcal disease cases: 1,194 (2006)
      • Number of visits to office-based physicians for infectious and parasitic diseases: 26.7 million
      • Number of hospital outpatient department visits for infectious and parasitic diseases: 3.5 million
      • Number of hospital emergency department visits for infectious and parasitic diseases: 3.5 million
    • Chronic diseases
      • Chronic diseases are diseases of long duration and generally slow progression. Chronic diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes, are by far the leading cause of mortality in the world, representing 60% of all deaths. Out of the 35 million people who died from chronic disease in 2005, half were under 70 and half were women.
    • CHRONIC DISEASE
      • RISKS FACTORS
      • According to WHO:
      • 7 of the top 12 leading risks to health - high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, physical inactivity and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables - together with alcohol and smoking, account for more than half the global burden of disease.
      • Raised blood pressure is estimated to cause 7.1 million deaths, about 13% of the global total. There are at least 600 million hypertensives worldwide.
      • Raised cholesterol is estimated to cause about 4.4 million deaths, about 7.9% of the global total.
      • Low fruit and vegetable intake accounts for 2.7 million deaths.
    • CHRONIC DISEASE
      • RISKS FACTORS
      • High cholesterol
      • High blood pressure
      • Low fruit and vegetables intake
      • Lack of physical activity
      • Bad health habits
      • Alcohol usage
      • Cigarette Smoke
      • Stress– anxiety
      • Environmental exposure
      • Genes etc..
    • CHRONIC DISEASE
      • PREVENTION
      • Adopting healthy behaviors such as:
      • Eating nutritious foods,
      • Being physically active,
      • Avoiding tobacco
      • Weight management
      • Can prevent or control the devastating effects of these diseases.
    • Chronic disease in children
      • COMMON CHRONIC CHILDHOOD DISEASES
      • Obesity and overweight in children is a major public health problem. More children are overweight, obese, or morbidly obese than ever before. Many children who are overweight maintain their obesity as adults, leading to obesity-related complications such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stroke, some cancers, arthritis, and sleep-disordered breathing.
      • Malnutrition—poor nutrition leads to anemia (low blood count), inadequate immune system function, and susceptibility to illness and intellectual development problems.
      • Developmental disabilities, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the autism spectrum disorders
      • Cerebral palsy
      • Consequences of low birth weight and prematurity, including chronic lung disease, retinopathy of prematurity (an eye disorder causing low vision or blindness), and developmental delays
      • Mental illnesses—early diagnosis and treatment is important to decrease effects on development.
    • CHRONIC DISEASE
      • COMMON CHRONIC CHILDHOOD DISEASES
      • Asthma—the number of children with asthma increases each year. Better treatment for asthma reduces the chance of hospitalization, need for emergency treatment, and death due to asthma.
      • Cystic fibrosis—an inherited lung disease for which there is no cure. Early (even prenatal) diagnosis can lead to better treatment for children with cystic fibrosis.
      • Diabetes—Having diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) causes increased risk of heart and blood vessel disease, stroke, and diabetes-related complications at an early age.
    • CHRONIC DISEASE
      • STATISTICS
      • Mortality
      • 1-4 years of age
      • Number of deaths: 4,631
      • Deaths per 100,000 population: 28.4
      • Leading causes of death
        • Accidents (unintentional injuries)
        • Congenital malformations
      • 5-14 years of age
      • Number of deaths: 6,149
      • Deaths per 100,000 population: 15.2
      • Leading causes of death
        • Accidents (unintentional injuries)
        • Cancer
    • WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT KIDS BE AWARE!INC?
      •   Of the seven biggest killers worldwide, TB, malaria, hepatitis, and, in particular, HIV/AIDS continue to surge, with HIV/AIDS and TB likely to account for the overwhelming majority of deaths from infectious diseases
      • Overweight children and adolescents are more likely to become overweight or obese adults; one study showed that children who became obese by age 8 were more severely obese as adults.
      • The prevalence of overweight among children aged 6-11 years has more than doubled in the past 20 years and among adolescents aged 12-19 has more than tripled.
      •    Less than 40% of children and adolescents in the United States meet the U.S. dietary guidelines for saturated fat.
    • WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT KIDS BE AWARE!INC?
      • K.B.A encourages and enables children’s and parents health decisions along with support for a healthy lifestyle
      • K.B.A focuses on infectious and chronic disease education in children to lead them on a healthy path
      • K.B.A is a program that raises disease awareness in children while helping parents reinforce parental expectations for a healthy lifestyle at home and in the community.
    • WHAT K.B.A DOES?
      • Kids-Be-Aware creates and produces health books for children ages 5-12 to expose them to stories of their peers who are infected (or has a family member or friend infected) with a particular infectious or chronic disease.
      • We also organize seminars to expose children to a range of information needed to adopt healthy behaviors; and develop Empowerment programs, such as organized field trips, teach methods and role plays that expose children to healthy matters and science.
      • We also collect data for research purposes
    • WHAT K.B.A IS DOING?
      • Organize children’s activities such as:
      • Art and Writing Contest                  Art and writing contest form
      • Empowerment program Teach Back Methods
      • Infectious Disease Awareness program
      • Children's Disease Awareness Certification
      •  
      • Family take home activities
      •  
      • Chronic Disease Awareness Program
      • Seminars and fields trips
      • Research 
    • HOW CAN YOU HELP?
      • Volunteer
      • Participate in K.B.A sponsored events
      • Make a financial contribution
      • Share your knowledge
    • VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES
      • Diabetes, HIV, TB and Asthma walks
      • Christmas card—Buy a Christmas card from K.B.A to encourage a child to adopt healthy behaviors
      • Participate in fundraising and events
      • Facilitate programs and meetings such as:
      • a- Health fair, become a speaker and facilitate a presentation in a school or community
      • Prepare marketing and promotional materials
      • Assist in coordinating children’s education programs
      • Encourage the program in schools etc..
    • Sources
      • Center for disease control and prevention, Chronic and infectious diseases. 2009
      • World health Organization, Chronic disease statistics. 2009
    • TUBERCULOSIS OR TB DISEASE
      • WHAT IS TB DISEASE?
      • Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis . The bacteria usually attack the lungs. But, TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.
    • How TB Spreads?
      • TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with active TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected. TB is NOT spread by
      • shaking someone’s hand
      • sharing food or drink
      • touching bed linens or toilet seats
      • sharing toothbrushes
      • kissing
    • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LATENT TB AND TB DISEASE A Person with Latent TB Infection A Person with TB Disease • Has no symptoms • Has symptoms that may include: - a bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer - pain in the chest - coughing up blood or sputum - weakness or fatigue - weight loss - no appetite - chills - fever - sweating at night • Does not feel sick • Usually feels sick • Cannot spread TB bacteria to others • May spread TB bacteria to others • Usually has a skin test or blood test result indicating TB infection • Usually has a skin test or blood test result indicating TB infection • Has a normal chest x-ray and a negative sputum smear • May have an abnormal chest x-ray, or positive sputum smear or culture • Needs treatment for latent TB infection to prevent active TB disease
    • What to Do If You Have Been Exposed to TB
      • contact your doctor or local health department about getting a TB skin test or a special TB blood test.
      • Be sure to tell the doctor or nurse when you spent time with the person who has TB.
    • PEOPLE at high risk for developing active TB disease
      • People with HIV infection
      • People who became infected with TB bacteria in the last 2 years
      • Babies and young children
      • People who inject illegal drugs
      • People who are sick with other diseases that weaken the immune system
      • Elderly people
      • People who were not treated correctly for TB in the past.
    • DATA AND STATISTICS
      • Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world’s deadliest diseases:
      • One third of the world’s population are infected with TB.
      • Each year, over 9 million people around the world become sick with TB.
      • Each year, there are almost 2 million TB-related deaths worldwide.
      • TB is a leading killer of people who are HIV infected.
      • In total, 12,904 TB cases (a rate of 4.2 cases per 100,000 persons) were reported in the United States in 2008. Both the number of TB cases reported and the case rate decreased; this represents a 2.9% and 3.8% decline, respectively, compared to 2007
    • Percent of Pediatric TB Cases by Age Group 1993–2006 N=15,946
    • States with the Greatest Percent of the National Total Pediatric TB Cases, 1993–2006 N=15,946
    • SOURCES
      • CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION. TUBERCULOSIS DISEASE. RETRIEVED, NOVEMBER 18 TH 2009
    • HIV/AIDS
      • WHAT IS HIV/AIDS
      • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that is responsible for causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The virus destroys or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers
      • In children under the age of 13 are from vertical transmission, which means the virus is passed to the child when they are in their mother's womb or as they pass through the birth canal.
      • The virus has also been detected in breast milk. Before 1985, a small group of children were infected with the virus by contaminated blood products. Routine screening of blood products began in 1985.
      • Not every child born to an HIV-infected mother will acquire the virus
    • HIV/AIDS AND TEENS
      • Teens between the ages of 13 to 19, especially among minority groups, represent one of the fastest growing HIV-positive groups
    • How is HIV transmitted or spread?
      • The following are the means by which the HIV virus is spread:
      • vertical transmission HIV can be spread to babies born to, or breastfed by, mothers infected with the virus.
      • sexual contact In adults and adolescents, HIV is spread most commonly by sexual contact with an infected partner. The virus enters the body through the lining of the vagina, vulva, penis, rectum, or mouth through sexual activity.
      • blood contamination HIV may also be spread through contact with infected blood. However, due to the screening of blood for evidence of HIV infection, the risk of acquiring HIV from blood transfusions is extremely low.
      • needles HIV is frequently spread by sharing needles, syringes, or drug use equipment with someone who is infected with the virus. Transmission from patient to healthcare worker, or vice-versa, through accidental sticks with contaminated needles or other medical instruments, is rare.
    • STATISTICS
      • At the end of 2007, there were 2 million children living with HIV around the world.
      • An estimated 370,000 children became newly infected with HIV in 2007.
      • Of the 2 million people who died of AIDS during 2007, more than one in seven were children. Every hour, around 31 children die as a result of AIDS
    • STATISTICS WORLDWIDE Children living with HIV/AIDS in 2007 2.0 million 1.9-2.3 million People newly infected with HIV in 2007 2.7 million 2.2-3.2 million Children newly infected with HIV in 2007 0.37 million 0.33-0.41 million AIDS deaths in 2007 2.0 million 1.8-2.3 million Child AIDS deaths in 2007 0.27 million 0.25-0.29 million
    • SOURCES
      • WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
      • CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION
      • UNICEF
    • OBESITY
      • WHAT IS OBESITY?
      • A child is not considered obese until the weight is at least 10 percent higher than what is recommended for the height and body type. 
      • Obesity most commonly begins in childhood between the ages of 5 and 6, and during adolescence. 
      • Studies have shown that a child who is obese between the ages of 10 and 13 has an 80 percent chance of becoming an obese adult. 
    • WHAT CAUSES OBESITY?
      • Obesity in childhood and adolescence can be related to:
      • poor eating habits
      • overeating
      • lack of exercise (i.e., couch potato kids)
      • family history of obesity
      • medical illnesses (endocrine, neurological problems)
      • medications (steroids)
      • stressful life events or changes (separations, deaths, etc..)
      • family and peer problems
      • low self-esteem
      • Depression or other emotional problems
    • RISKS AND COMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY
      • There are many risks and complications with obesity:
      • increased risk of heart disease
      • high blood pressure
      • diabetes
      • breathing problems
      • Trouble sleeping
    • Ways to manage obesity in children and adolescents
      • start a weight-management program
      • change eating habits (eat slowly, develop a routine)
      • plan meals and make better food selections (eat less fatty foods, avoid junk and fast foods)
      • control portions and consume less calories
      • increase physical activity (especially walking) and have a more active lifestyle
      • know what your child eats at school
      • eat meals as a family instead of while watching television or at the computer
      • do not use food as a reward
      • limit snacking
      • attend a support group
    • Obesity facts
      • Overweight children and adolescents are more likely to become overweight or obese adults; one study showed that children who became obese by age 8 were more severely obese as adults.
      • 7-  The prevalence of overweight among children aged 6-11 years has more than doubled in the past 20 years and among adolescents aged 12-19 has more than tripled.
      •  
      • 8- Less than 40% of children and adolescents in the United States meet the U.S. dietary guidelines for saturated fat
    • SOURCES
      • Center for Disease Control and prevention(CDC)
      • World Health Organization (WHO)
    • Salmonellosis
      • What is Salmonellosis?
      • Salmonellosis is an infection in the lining of the small intestine caused by Salmonella bacteria.
      • Symptoms
      • The time between infection and symptom development is 8 - 48 hours. Symptoms include:
      • Abdominal pain or cramping or tenderness
      • Chills
      • Diarrhea
      • Fever
      • Muscle pain
      • Nausea
      • Vomiting
    • Causes
      • You are more likely to get this type of infection if you have:
      • Eaten improperly prepared or stored food (especially undercooked turkey or chicken, unrefrigerated turkey dressing, undercooked eggs)
      • Family members with recent salmonella infection
      • Had a recent family illness with gastroenteritis
      • Been in an institution
      • Eaten chicken recently
      • A pet iguana or other lizards, turtles, or snakes (reptiles are carriers of salmonella)
      • A weakened immune system
    • Prevention
      • Proper food handling and storage can help prevent Salmonella enterocolitis. Good hand washing is important, especially when handling eggs and poultry.
      • If you own a reptile, wear gloves when handling the animal or its feces because animals can easily pass Salmonella to humans.
    • WHEN TO CALL A DOCTOR?
      • Call your health care provider if there is blood in the stools, or if there is no improvement after 2-3 days. Also call if any of the following occurs:
      • Severe vomiting or abdominal pain
      • Signs of dehydration: decreased urine output, sunken eyes, sticky or dry mouth, no tears when crying
      • Unresponsiveness
    • STATISTICS
      • Every year, approximately 40,000 cases of Salmonellosis are reported in the United States.
      • Because many milder cases are not diagnosed or reported, the actual number of infections may be twenty or more times greater.
      • An estimated 1.4 million cases occur annually in the United States; of these, approximately 40,000 are culture-confirmed cases reported to CDC
      • Every year, approximately 800,000 to 4 million cases of Salmonella result in 500 deaths in the United States.
      • Children are the most likely to get Salmonella . Young children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised are the most likely to have severe infections
    • SOURCES
      • Center for disease control and prevention (CDC)
    • Diabetes
      • What is diabetes?
      • Diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood.
    • SYMPTOMS
      • Symptoms of type 1 diabetes:
      • Fatigue
      • Increased thirst
      • Increased urination
      • Nausea
      • Vomiting
      • Weight loss in spite of increased appetite
      • Symptoms of type 2 diabetes:
      • Blurred vision
      • Fatigue
      • Increased appetite
      • Increased thirst
      • Increased urination
    • CAUSES
      • Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both.
      • Genetics
    • TYPES OF DIABETES
      • Type I Diabetes: is usually diagnosed in childhood.
      • Type II Diabetes: is far more common than type 1. It makes up most of diabetes cases. It usually occurs in adulthood, but young people are increasingly being diagnosed with this disease.
      • Gestational Diabetes: is high blood glucose that develops at any time during pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes.
    • RISKS FACTORS
      • RISKS FACTORS IN TYPE II DIABETES:
      • Age over 45 years
      • A parent, brother, or sister with diabetes
      • Gestational diabetes or delivering a baby weighing more than 9 pounds
      • Heart disease
      • High blood cholesterol level
      • Obesity
      • Not getting enough exercise
    • PREVENTION
      • Maintaining an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle may prevent type 2 diabetes.
      • Currently there is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes.
      • Screening for type 2 diabetes and people with no symptoms is recommended for:
      • Overweight children who have other risk factors for diabetes starting at age 10 and repeating every 2 years
      • Overweight adults (BMI greater than 25) who have other risk factors
      • Adults over 45, repeated every 3 years
    • WHEN TO CONTACT A DOCTOR?
      • Abdominal pain
      • Deep and rapid breathing
      • Increased thirst and urination
      • Loss of consciousness
      • Nausea
      • Sweet-smelling breath
      • Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have symptoms of extremely low blood sugar (hypoglycemic coma or severe insulin reaction):
      • Confusion
      • Convulsions or unconsciousness
      • Dizziness
      • Double vision
      • Drowsiness
      • Headache
      • Lack of coordination
      • Weakness
    • STATISTICS
      • Every 24 hours:
        • 4,100 new cases of diabetes are diagnosed
        • 810 die from diabetes
        • 230 people with diabetes will have a diabetes-related amputation
        • 120 new patients will require kidney dialysis or transplant
        • 55 will go blind
      • Government data suggest that 2 million US children age 12-19 have pre-diabetes
    • SOURCES
      • Center for disease control and prevention
      • Diabetes association
    • ASTHMA
      • WHAT IS ASTHMA?
      • Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways, which causes attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.
    • SYMPTOMS
      • Difficulty breathing
      • Fast (rapid) breathing
      • Shortness of breath, even at rest
      • Tightness in the chest
      • Cough
      • Note: A persistent night-time cough is one common sign of asthma, even in children without other symptoms.
      • Emergency symptoms:
      • Difficulty breathing
      • Bluish color to the lips and face
      • Severe anxiety due to shortness of breath
      • Rapid pulse
      • Sweating
      • Decreased level of alertness, such as severe drowsiness or confusion
    • TRIGGERS
      • Common asthma triggers include:
      • Animals (hair or dander)
      • Aspirin and other medications
      • Changes in weather (most often cold weather)
      • Chemicals in the air or in food
      • Dust
      • Exercise
      • Mold
      • Pollen
      • Strong emotions
      • Tobacco smoke
      • Viral infections, such as the common cold
    • PREVENTION
      • There is no fool-proof method to prevent asthma attacks.
      • The best way to reduce the number of attacks is to eliminate triggers (especially cigarette smoke) and follow the asthma plan that you develop with your doctor.
      • When families take control of their home environment, asthma symptoms and attacks can be significantly decreased.
    • COMPLICATIONS
      • The complications of asthma can be severe. Some include:
      • Persistent cough
      • Lack of sleep due to nighttime symptoms
      • Decreased ability to exercise and take part in other activities
      • Missed school
      • Missed work for parents
      • Emergency room visits and hospital stays
      • Trouble breathing that requires breathing assistance (ventilator)
      • Permanent changes in the function of the lungs
      • Death
    • WHEN TO CONTACT A DOCTOR
      • Call your health care provider if you think that a child has symptoms of asthma.
      • It is very important for asthma to be diagnosed and treated early in order to reduce the risk of complications.
      • If your child is having trouble breathing or having an asthma attack, seek medical attention immediately
    • STATISTICS
      • Number of children who currently have asthma: 7.0 million
      • Asthma accounts for approximately 500,000 hospitalizations each year.
      • Children 5-17 years of age missed 12.8 million school days due to asthma in 2003.
      • Asthma accounts for about 10.1 million missed work days for adults annually.
      • Asthma was responsible for 3,384 deaths in the United States in 2005.
      • Percent of children who currently have asthma: 9.4%
    • SOURCE
      • Center for disease control and prevention
      • American Academy of asthma and allergy
    • HEPATITIS B
      • WHAT IS IT?
      • Hepatitis B is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver due to the hepatitis B virus (HBV).
    • SYMPTOMS
      • It takes about 1-6 months from the time of infection until symptoms of acute hepatitis appear. Early symptoms may include:
      • Appetite loss
      • Fatigue
      • Low-grade fever
      • Muscle and joint aches
      • Nausea and vomiting
      • Yellow skin and dark urine due to jaundice
    • CAUSES
      • The hepatitis B virus spreads through blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and other body fluids. Infection can occur if you have:
      • Blood transfusions
      • Contact with blood in health care settings
      • Had direct contact with the blood of an infected person by touching an open wound or been stuck with a needle
      • Had unsafe sex with an infected person
      • Received a tattoo or acupuncture with contaminated instruments
      • Shared needles during drug use
      • Shared personal items (such as toothbrushes, razors, and nail clippers) with an infected person
      • The hepatitis B virus can be passed to an infant during childbirth if the mother is infected.
    • PREVENTION
      • All children should receive their first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine at birth, and complete their vaccination series by age 6 - 18 months.
      • Children younger than age 19 who have not been vaccinated should receive "catch-up" doses.
      • get the hepatitis B vaccine.
      • Avoid sexual contact with a person who has acute or chronic hepatitis B. Using condoms consistently and properly may also reduce your risk of developing this condition
    • WHEN TO CONTACT A DOCTOR
      • Call your health care provider if:
      • You develop symptoms of hepatitis B
      • Hepatitis B symptoms do not go away in 2 or 3 weeks, or new symptoms develop
      • You belong to a high-risk group for hepatitis B and have not yet received the HBV vaccine.
    • STATISTICS
      • People of all ages, including children, can get hepatitis B and about 5,000 die per year from sickness caused by HBV.
      • The latest estimates suggest that there are 1.25 million chronically infected Americans with HBV, of whom 20-30% acquired their infection during childhood.
      • 12 million Americans have been infected (1 out of 20 people).
      • More than one million people are chronically infected .
      • Up to 100,000 new people will become infected each year.
      • 5,000 people will die each year from hepatitis B and its complications.
      • Approximately 1 health care worker dies each day from hepatitis B.
    • SOURCE
      • Center for disease control and prevention
      • Hepatitis B Foundation
    • H1N1 VIRUS
      • 2009 H1N1 (sometimes called “swine flu”) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people.
    • HOW DOES IT SPREAD?
      • The 2009 H1N1 virus is contagious and is spreading from human to human
      • Spread of 2009 H1N1 virus is thought to occur in the same way that seasonal flu spreads.
      • Flu viruses are spread mainly from person to person through coughing or sneezing by people with influenza.
      • Sometimes people may become infected by touching something – such as a surface or object – with flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose
    • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
      • The symptoms of 2009 H1N1 flu virus in people include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue.
      • Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea. People may be infected with the flu, including 2009 H1N1 and have respiratory symptoms without a fever.
      • Severe illnesses and deaths have occurred as a result of illness associated with this virus
    • PREVENTION
      • Get vaccinated
      • Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze.
      • Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.
      • Wash your hands often with soap and water. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand rub.
      • Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread this way.
      • Try to avoid close contact with sick people
    • EMERGENCY SYMPTOMS IN CHILDREN
      • Fast breathing or trouble breathing
      • Bluish skin color
      • Not drinking enough fluids
      • Not waking up or not interacting
      • Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held
      • Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough
      • Fever with a rash
    • STATISTICS Hospitalizations, ICU cases, and Deaths 6069   Deaths 318
    • SOURCE
      • Center for disease control and prevention
      • California department of Public Health
    • Child Abuse
      • WHAT IS IT?
      • Child abuse is the physical or psychological/emotional mistreatment of children.
      • The CDC defines child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child
    • TYPES OF ABUSE
      • NEGLECT
      • Neglect is the instance in which the responsible adult fails to adequately provide for various needs, including physical (failure to provide adequate food, clothing, or hygiene), emotional (failure to provide nurturing or affection) or educational (failure to enroll a child in school).
      • PHYSICAL
      • is physical aggression directed at a child by an adult. It can involve striking, burning, choking or shaking a child
      • CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE
      • is any sexual act between a child and adult.Such as penetration, oral sex or force nudity infront of the adult
    • CAUSES
      • Multiple causes; understanding the causes is crucial in preventing child abuse
      • Substance abuse problem
      • Abusive parent
    • EFFECTS
      •   does not trust  fearful of physical contact startles easily, cowers, cringes afraid when other children cry   aggressiveness or withdrawn
      •   exaggerated politeness
      •   profound sadness  difficulties in school  difficulty concentrating   lying  stealing  low self-worth  psychosomatic illnesses
    • PREVENTION/EMPOWERING CHILDREN
      • Child abuse prevention is also empowering children and youth by teaching them:
      •    what child abuse is why child abuse happens   how to recognize when someone is being abused, and where to go for help
      • Be a nurturing parent.
      • Children need to know that they are special, loved and capable of following their dreams.
      • Help a friend, neighbor or relative.
      • Being a parent isn’t easy. Offer a helping hand take care of the children, so the
      • parent(s) can rest or spend time together.
      • Help yourself.
      • When the big and little problems of your everyday life pile up to the point you feel
      • overwhelmed and out of control.
    • STATISTICS
      • According to the (American) National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, in 1997 neglect represented 54% of confirmed cases of child abuse, physical abuse 22%, sexual abuse 8%, emotional maltreatment 4%, and other forms of maltreatment 12%.
    • SOURCE
      • Prevent child abuse America
      • Center for disease control and prevention