Adult (Andragogy) - Learners need to know, self- concept, role of learner’s experience, readiness to learn, orientation to learning (applicable), motivation to learnExperiential - Based Upon: Personal involvement, Learner-initiated, Evaluated by learner, Pervasive effects on learnerExperiential – personal involvement and acquisition of knowledge, relevant and self-intiated
Traditional DQ and rigid format not always student centered. Disagreement and conflict can be very useful online
Mention APA vs. content. Many colleges and universities are looking for online educators, but many are not sure how to proceed. “We want online education…”
Social Presence – degree to which person is perceived as “real”. Rarely occurs f2f
A simple bio in the beginning of the course may not be enough – it needs to be an ongoing interchange of more than just knowledge, ideas and experiences.
Occurs over the semester – move away from “Welcome to week 1, etc. Introduced to a community to care for.
Can not just take the f2f material and place it online, especially if the material is not student centered in terms of strategies
Real time virtual methods of meeting (building blocks)CMS is important, but the “how” is what matters most for student and faculty successWCET (Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications) is a cooperative network of member institutions and organizations that provides a leading source of critical thinking and expertise on the evolving role of technology in higher education. Our membership includes many of the top technology innovators from colleges, universities, non-profit organizations, and companies around the country—and the world. In the realm of higher education, a cross-section of leaders, administrators and faculty add to the diversity that distinguishes the richness of WCET’s work.
4 areas of function – Ped-educational facilitation; Social – social presence and the online learning community; Manager – agenda, pace setting, set objectives, rule making and decision making; Tech – technical proficiency
Model of online communities of inquiry. Cognitive – construct meaning through sustained communication; Teaching – general role that may be shared with students; Social – emotional expression, group cohesion
People – social presence, interaction and communication Process – interaction & communication, reflection, transformation, team work Purpose – establish guidelines, shared goals
Start with small history of what I did at Maryland. Another area of research that I presented at NONPF was transforming the FNP program to PBL away from traditional methods
Students were surveyed after their first semester using PBL after starting with traditional methods.
Sloane – 5 pillars
Educause – 7 things to do in virtual world. Need to look outside nursing to other professions.
The future of online education
JOHN W. DISTLER, DPA, MBA, MS, FNP-C, FAANP
Overview Vision Teaching Philosophy Online Facilitation Online Learning Communities Virtual Classroom Faculty transition to online Faculty development and mentoring research PBL f2f research Initial goals
Teaching Philosophy Experiential Learning Theory (Rogers) Adult Learning Theory (Knowles) PBL Empowered Learner Facilitation vs. Expert Lecture/Test Collaborative Innovation Clear differences in styles between f2f, hybrid and fully online
Online Facilitation Philosophy More flexibility Student engagement Participation Handling disagreement and Conflict Self-motivated and self-disciplined Many courses still faculty driven as with f2f Move to online not because it is easier but move to online because it is more effective
Online Facilitation Philosophy E- portfolios – build upon past work as they move from novice to expert Collaborative faculty organization Focus on lifelong learning Think globally Effective, timely feedback
Online Communities Social Presence Active creation of knowledge, meaning and application Collaborative Activities Reflection opportunities Resource sharing Students become expert learners and begin to work on being an “expert” in their chosen area
ONLINE COMMUNITIES (Shared values and identities) Social PresenceBelonging Social Successful aspect ofto the Learninggroup learning Identities of Participants MUTUAL EXPLORATION OF IDEAS
Virtual Community Learning occurs through the interaction of students and facilitators as they work together to problem solve using both primary and secondary prevention interventions Available Chat areas set up by students – can be asynchronous and synchronous (student unions, virtual chat, resource centers) Students are introduced to an online community Move from DQs to problem solving in the “real world”
Transitioning Online Courses Target Population & Programs Hybrid vs. Fully Online Technical Support Infrastructure CMS. Important, yet, how course is developed & placed online, facilitated, evaluated and updated is even more crucial Use of current technologies and expand their use Embedded video, audio Viddler Links to articles via library or facilitators own library
Faculty transition to online Faculty have student experience first Establishing an Online presence Making it Real Highly interactive courses (Set DQs are not always the best approach) Faculty Training Student training and support
Course Management Systems Blackboard Building Blocks WebCT Wimba Live Classroom eCollege Wimba Voice Tools Scholar360 Learning Objects Waypoint Frontier Platform Webex OLAT Go to meeting ILIAS ANGEL Moodle wcet’s edutools - http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=4&page=HOME
Faculty Development andMentoring Empowers learners Increases student to student interaction Creates effective learning community Co-creates meaning and knowledge Uses reflection Improves self-direction Reinforces presence
FACULTY ROLE & FUNCTION Social Technical Outcomes Managerial Pedagogical (Collins & Berge, 1996)
FACULTY ROLE & FUNCTIONPRESENCE Cognitive Social Teaching (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000)
FACULTY ROLE & FUNCTION People Process Purpose (Palloff & Pratt, 2007)
FACULTY EVALUATIONTraditional Online Virtual community Online 5 of 7 days Establishes social presence Responds to students Projects self as a “real” person questions in 24 hours Established an open line of Responds to each student’s communication initial post Negotiated and maintains personal boundaries Has a minimum of 18% of Handles crisis professionally total posts Kept learning community Posts grades to grade book by centered day 3 of the following online Effective use of group week dynamics
PROBLEM-BASED LEARNINGUSING PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN TEACHINGADVANCED PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT
RATIONALE Clinical Competence in the 21st century Preceptor readiness Student satisfaction and preparedness Faculty satisfaction Positive patient outcomes Traditional methods deemed ineffective Going from complete PE to episodic
PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING Definition- Curriculum organized around problems relevant to desired learning outcomes – not by topics Small group work, self-directed learner, independent study, functional knowledge, CT, life-long learning and self-evolutionRideout, E. (2001). Transforming nursing education through problem based learning.
Survey Results (n=25) 91%- More information seeking 82%- More classroom flexibility 56%- Improved creativity 55%- Resulted in less work 55% - Developed CT skills 52% - Improved Knowledge Retention Most not sure if it better prepared them for first clinical encounter
Results: Student Comments Difficulty in understanding content that was “important to know” and study Seemed unorganized Wanted more test questions Those with more clinical experience had better outcomes PBL helped me remember information better
Results: Student Comments Took some getting used to – did not have this before Should be used in the last semester only Resulted in an exchange of information among faculty and students Use more small group work – large groups did not seem to work well.
Recommendations for Success DON’T: Assume that PBL works for everyone and every situation Assume new faculty are capable of implementing PBL in the classroom – they will need mentoring Do not give up – it gets better over time
Recommendations for Success DO: Prepare students for the change Start with a hybrid mix of classes Use more short-answer quizzes to assess knowledge to ensure student’s they are being “tested” Offer guidance at each class along with research into PBL effectiveness. Incorporate EBP at the same time Arrange hands-on clinical experience to fit learning needs if possible Keep going! PBL is difficult in the beginning
Resources & References Sloane Consortium (Sloane-c.org) Palloff, R. & Pratt, K. (2007). Building online learning communities. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco Journal of Internet Commerce Quarterly Review of Distance Education Teaching in Higher Education Innovative Higher Education The American Journal of Distance Education
Resources & References EDUCAUSE (educause.edu) Secondlife (secondlife.com) International Society for Technology in Education (iste.org)