SAINT AUGUSTINE
The Theologian of Grace
QUESTIONS
Who was Augustine and what made
him “tick”?
What doctrines did he help clarify for
the Church?
What are Sacramen...
HIS INFLUENCE
Saint Augustine of Hippo (A.D. 354-430) is by far the most quoted person on
the doctrines of the Church outs...
He was born on a small farm
in Thagaste (in modern-day
Algeria)
BIBLE BELT
Christianity had long since become
established in that region of Roman
Africa
His mother was a staunch Catholic...
In modern-American terms,
he was born in Hicksville in
the middle of the Bible Belt
STEALING PEARS
At one point, he and his friends, in addition to a lot of
other “normal” teenage pranks, went onto his neig...
A MAJOR SIN?
Why, do you suppose, would he see
stealing some pears to throw to the
pigs as being so bad?
SEARCHING FOR TRUTH
The fall into heresy was because he
was searching for the truth, but
going about it in the wrong way
BASIC NEEDS/DESIRES
The fornication and the like were
attempts to satisfy basic
needs/desires, though in the wrong
way
THE THRILL OF SIN
Stealing the pears was sin for sin’s own sake
He was not hungry, he had a pear tree of his
own, etc.
The...
BIG EMPIRE DREAMS
Growing up, he was by far the smartest
person around, and he knew it
Ambitious and arrogant, he went int...
His studies take him to the
major metropolitan city of
Carthage
For historical context, the Council of
Constantinople (381 AD) met while he was
in Carthage and finally finished the Nicen...
Manichaeanism was gnostic religion
out of Persia that at its height
“conquered” from Britain to China,
and was Christianit...
Being both highly mystical and
rational, they had answers for many
of the questions about God that
nobody else really had ...
While in Carthage, Augustine
became a Manichaean, finally finding
answers to the questions that no one
else he’d met could...
LEARNING TO LOVE TRUTH
While in Carthage he lead a rather hedonistic
life, but he reads a great deal by Cicero, the
famous...
Growing up he had indulged in many
“youthful indiscretions,” but now he
started to settle down
He lived with his girlfrien...
GETTING ENGAGED

When his mother, Monica, joins him much later,
she makes arrangements for Augustine to become
engaged to ...
After over a decade in
Carthage, he moved to Milan
as professor of rhetoric at the
imperial court there
BOOKS OF THE PLATONISTS
Augustine read “books of the Platonists” and finally got the answers to some of
the questions that...
MEETING AMBROSE
He went to listen to Bishop Ambrose speak because Ambrose
was one of the best living orators, and Augustin...
AMBROSE OPENS THE BIBLE
From the influence of Ambrose he saw that what
he recognized as Truth was also what the
Christian ...
As he read the Bible and became increasingly convinced of
its truths, he recognized an old and bitter conflict in his
will...
It was very much the same with his conversion: even
though he willed that he could turn himself over to
God and become a C...
As he wrote later, the inner struggle
was forcing him to the brink of
madness, with his will tearing his
mind and soul apa...
While in a garden he heard a child’s
voice repeatedly saying, “Take up and
read.”
He rushed and grabbed a Bible from his friend and
read the first passage he came across:
Let us pass our time honorably, a...
That did it – that was when God had “flipped
the switch” and Augustine finally became a
Christian
He was baptized, along w...
LOCAL BOY DONE GOOD
After his mother dies, he returned to
Thagaste to found a monastic
community
Monasticism was a new mov...
A few years later, while visiting Hippo, a priest begins
talking in his sermon about how desperately the
Church needs peop...
After only four years as a priest,
he distinguished himself so much
as a man of God that he was
made the Bishop of Hippo
Fifteen years after his appointment as Bishop,
Rome falls for the first time in her thousand
year history
This sparked an enormous political and
cultural crisis
The pagans blamed the Empire’s conversion
to Christianity, saying that it was the gods’
punishment on Rome for leaving her...
This prompted Augustine to
write “The City of God”, his
most famous book alongside
“The Confessions”
He spelled-out the differences
between the City of God and
the City of Man
In 430 A.D., as the Vandals are at
the gates of Hippo, Augustine died
FREE WILL
“Free will” means that we are able
to make own our choices
It is what makes us moral beings
WHAT DOES THAT MEAN??
Does that mean that a pagan can choose to live a righteous
life, pleasing to God, and therefore go t...
SOVEREIGN? ELECT PUPPETS?
When the Bible talks about God’s
“elect,” is He reacting to the choice we
make to believe in Him...
SOVEREIGN! PUPPETS?
Does He control every aspect of our lives, manipulating
us like puppets?
If God makes the choice for u...
FREE! SOVEREIGN?
Does He leave us to our own devices, “hoping”
that we come back to Him (or stay with Him
once we’re His c...
How we view free will defines not
only how we see ourselves, but how
we see God
The Heart of the Church
Every time we say things like, “I was
saved” or “I chose Christ” or even “I have
sinned,” we expre...
PELAGIANISM
“Grant what thou commandest, and
“Grant what thou commandest, and
command what thou dost desire.”
command what thou dost d...
He had no qualms with the second part as God has
every right to command what He desires; God is
Lord, after all
Pelagius w...
God is completely holy and perfectly just, he argued:
God wouldn’t command us to do something that He
knows we don’t have ...
Pelagius rejected the idea of Original Sin, saying that
God’s creation was good and His good creation can’t
be anything ot...
Charles Finney, the father of modern
evangelism (he was a direct influence on
Dwight L. Moody, J. Wilber Chapman,
Billy Su...
“II object to the doctrine of constitutional sinfulness
“ object to the doctrine of constitutional sinfulness
[Original Si...
“The human will is free, therefore men have power
“The human will is free, therefore men have power
or ability to do all t...
Against these teachings of Pelagius and
his followers, Augustine took his famous
stand that earned him his title as The
Th...
…it was by the evil use of his free-will that man destroyed both it
…it was by the evil use of his free-will that man dest...
A Middle Ground?
With Pelagius and Augustine defining the
polar opposites of the debate, a lot of people
came in seeking s...
Semi-Pelagianism
However – contrary to the Augustinian position that
we are dead in our sins, wholly against God and His
r...
Some illustrations are that of a man drowning: the lifesaver ring is tossed, but it’s up to that person to grab a
hold of ...
Most Popular Definition of “Free Will”
A strong emphasis on the need for God’s
help in our salvation but still very much
k...
Who is the author of our
faith?
Pelagian & Semi-Pelagian
Man is ultimately who reaches out and
accepts God
God then responds to our good decision
so that ...
Augustinian
God reaches into our evil hearts that hate Him,
and recreates them into hearts that love Him
We have no claim ...
And now for something completely different…
(16)And the Lord spake, saying, “First shalt thou take out the Holy
Pin.
(17)Then, shalt thou count to three; no more, no ...
What makes that scene funny (besides the rabbit) is all
the ways that he says the same thing, approaching it from
every po...
While God has chosen to leave some things hidden from
us, there are some things that He repeats over and over
and over aga...
At the Council of Carthage in 418, the
bishops agreed that the Bible was indeed
very clear on the matter and issued
severa...
Pope Zosimus (who had earlier endorsed
Pelagius) retreated from his earlier
position and issued a statement
requesting tha...
At the third ecumenical council in
Ephesus in 431 (a year after
Augustine’s death) Pelagianism was
officially declared a h...
This did not fully settle the issue between
the Augustinians and the Semi-Pelagians,
though…
Over eleven hundred years later that
controversy would be one of the focal points of
the Reformation in debates over “sola...
Are we saved principally by grace, as the
Roman Catholic Church teaches?
Are we saved by grace alone, as the Protestants
(...
DONTATIST
SCHISM
CAVING TO PERSECUTION
During the Roman persecution
there were those that caved to
the pressure and made
“compromises” with...
LEADERS FELL TOO
Included in the list of “not
entirely faithful” were many
of the leaders in the Church
ONLY THE FAITHFUL
Because of their zeal for
maintaining an “untainted”
communion of believers, a group
of Christians bande...
They, along with the Catholics, believed in Apostolic
Succession – specifically, where new church leaders are
ordained by ...
UNFAITHFUL INFECTION
The problem was that the Catholic Church had
been infected with unfaithful leaders, who, the
Donatist...
CORRUPTED CHAIN
Any leader that had been
“compromised” three hundred years
prior had likely ordained a number of
successor...
BROKEN LINKS?
But the Apostolic link had been
broken with the first leader, so
none of the successors had a
legitimate ord...
A CANCER IN THE CHURCH?

By Augustine’s time, that
effectively called most of the
Catholic Church illegitimate…
DONATIST ISSUES
There were three major issues that the
Donatist schism presented the Church
with:
Purity
Unity
Baptism
PURITY

Is the Church a gathering of the
Pure, or something else?
UNITY

How does the Church stay one
Church?
BAPTISM
The Donatists said that Baptism
by an illegitimate Catholic was not
a real Baptism, and would
therefore rebaptize ...
UNBAPTIZED CHRISTIANS?
It was Baptism that was the real kicker,
because the “working” definition of a
Christian held by th...
LEGITIMATE BAPTISM
So if you’re a Christian by your Baptism,
and Donatists are the only ones that can
properly administer ...
DONATIST DILEMA
Everybody agreed in the vitality of
a true Baptism, which created a
big problem for the Catholics…
DONTATIST BAPTISMS
VALID?
If they regard the Donatist baptism as
valid, then they are essentially validating
the legitimac...
DONATIST BAPTISM
INVALID?
But if it is invalid, and they
rebaptize people coming to the
Catholic Church from the Donatists...
WHAT IS A VALID BAPTISM?
Hopefully, the resolution to the
problem is obvious to you, but
that’s because we’ve all learned
...
HAVING THE TOOLS
Augustine led the fight against the Donatists
by providing the philosophical tools needed
to clarify the ...
REASONS FOR SUPRESSION
We’ll talk about the way he dealt with the
Sacramental issues later, so here we’ll talk
about the r...
ARGUING THE CASE
At the Conference of Carthage in 411
A.D., the Donatists and the Catholics
debated before an Imperial off...
AUGUSTINE WINS
Augustine led the Catholic
side and trounced the
Donatists quite neatly
CRIMINALS…
Donatism was then declared
illegal, and Augustine spelled-out
how to get rid of the Donatists
ENCOURAGEMENT
Augustine knew well that you can’t
force someone to become a
Christian (a.k.a., a Catholic), but
you could “...
MAKING THE CASE
With his usual clarity and zeal he laid-out the
theological reasons to fine the Donatists and
confiscate t...
IS INACTION AN ANSWER?
On the other side of that spectrum, we can’t
not “encourage” or “discourage” because we
are clearly...
TIME OF GRACE
Better to have people see the error of
their ways during their time of grace
than to die in their sin and – ...
POWER OF THE SWORD
How hard to you “encourage” someone to follow
Christ or “discourage” him from going to Hell –
and possi...
MAJOR QUESTIONS
This still leaves open major
questions about the purity of the
Church, the unity of the Church,
and the na...
QUESTIONS: PURITY
How important is “purity” to the
Church?
If a lack of purity can be accepted,
how much impurity, and wha...
QUESTIONS: UNITY
What is the basis for unity in the
church?
Is there ever a reason for Christians to not be united?
If the...
QUESTIONS: BAPTISM

What is the nature of Baptism?
What gives it power?
WHAT ARE SACRAMENTS?

This gets into what any Sacrament
is and what it does...
SIGNS &
SACRAMENTS
LEARNING FROM SIGNS
Signs, to Augustine, teach things and
convey information, though they carry
no power in themselves to ...
EXAMPLE OF A “SIGN”
If you see smoke, it acts as an indicator (sign) of
fire, but you have to know that “where there’s
smo...
OUTWARD SIGN OF INWARD GIFT

The grace that grants faith, and
therefore salvation, is an inward gift
Sacraments are an out...
NEED FOR INTERPRETATION

Symbols, since they themselves are not
information, need to be “interpreted”
The same symbols can...
THE INTERPRETER

The principle “interpreter” of spiritual
things for the Christian is the Holy Spirit,
who translates the ...
BAPTISM
DIFFERENT UNDERSTANDINGS
While every major Christian denomination
agrees completely with Baptism being an
outward sign tha...
DIFFERENT UNDERSTANDINGS OF
BAPTISM

How do Catholics and
Lutherans understand Baptism?
Calvinists (e.g. Presbyterians)?
B...
CATHOLIC & LUTHERAN
The sign is an indication of the grace
that God is working in the person,
bringing them to faith at th...
CALVINIST: CIRCUMCISION
Calvinists view it more as a New
Testament form of circumcision,
whereby God is marking the person...
CALVINIST: PRESERVATION

The difference between it and baptismal
regeneration is subtle, but best
understood in light of t...
CALVINIST: SPECIAL BLESSING
God is probably infusing His grace into the person,
but He may not be
Not every Jewish boy tha...
BAPTIST
Baptism is a sign akin to a diploma, saying
that you have confessed Jesus as your
Savior and acting as an outward ...
REBAPTIZE?
In light of the different understandings of
the symbolism involved in Baptism, how
does that explain why Cathol...
REBAPTIZE? BAPTISTS
For Baptists, since it acts as a sign that
you gave a proper confession, if you
were not baptized for ...
REBAPTIZE? AUGUSTINIANS

For those following in the
Augustinian tradition, Baptism is
an indelible mark on the soul
placed...
Baptism caries with it power that is dependent
upon what God has done for the person, not
what the person has said or done...
LORD’S SUPPER
“THIS IS MY BLOOD…”
In light of this definition of signs and
what we know about the major
sacramental division in the Chur...
CATHOLIC & LUTHERAN
Christ is physically there and conveys
the forgiveness of sins through the
administration of the body ...
CALVINIST: SYMBOLICLY
Christ’s body and blood are there
symbolically (not physically) and the
blessings of the sacrament a...
CALVINIST: SYMBOLS
Of course, saying that Christ’s body and blood are
“merely” there symbolically doesn’t diminish it in a...
BAPTIST: MEMORIAL
The Lord’s Supper acts as a
symbol along the lines of a
memorial
BAPTIST: IN REMEMBERENCE
OF ME

Focus is less on “This is my body”
and more on “Do this in
remembrance of me”
BAPTIST: REMEMBERENCES
Similar to how we celebrate Christmas and
Easter and other church “remembrances,” the
Lord’s Supper...
LOVE
OUR HEARTS
“You have made us for yourself, and our hearts
“You have made us for yourself, and our hearts
are restless, unt...
GROW IN LOVE
For Augustine, the goal of all of
our interpretations should be to
grow in our love for God (which
then exten...
SIGNS OF LOVE
All of the symbols that God gives
us show His love for us (directly or
indirectly), and when we interpret
th...
MY WILL IS MY WEIGHT
Probably the best way to
summarize how Augustine
approached everything is his
statement, “my will is ...
GRAVITY
“My will [love] is my weight”
means simply that I will gravitate
(to use Newtonian terms) toward
what I love
THAT IS HIS GOD
An Augustinian monk, eleven hundred years
later, said, “Whatever man loves, that is his
god. For he carrie...
PERSPECTIVE OF LOVE
Everything in Augustine’s theology
is seen from the perspective of love
– either God’s love, or our lo...
GOD’S LOVE
God created us that He may have
us to love
Christ died on the cross that we
may be with him through all
eternit...
THE “LESS”
We love the things of this world (or
ourselves) above God, which shifts
our focus from God to what is less
than...
CHANGE OF GRAVITY
Christ died on the cross that we
may love Him again – and
therefore we gravitate toward Him
And now these three remain:
faith, hope and love. But the
greatest of these is love. (1Cor
13:13)
EVEN LOVE
It’s important to notice how even
something as wonderful as love is,
it can be perverted
EVIL
PERVERTED
“Perverted” means, literally,
“twisted” or “bent,” and carries the
idea that something that was good
has now bec...
QUESTION OF EVIL
One of the classic posers is, “If
God created everything, did He
create evil? If He didn’t create
evil, t...
EVIL DOES NOT EXIST
Augustine said that while evil is
real, it doesn’t exist
Again: evil is real, but it doesn’t
exist
EVIL IS PERVERSION OF GOOD
Evil is a perversion or negation of the
good (which does exist since it flows from
the ontology...
REAL? NOTHING?
The break is real, the tear
is real, etc. but at the same
time they are nothing
MORAL EVIL
When we turn (pervert) our love from
God, we are engaging in “moral evil”
When we shape our will closer to the ...
BECOMING LESS
As the will turns further and
further from God, we become less
and less than what we are meant to
be
MODERN LITERATURE
All of C.S. Lewis’ stories wonderfully picture this idea. In “Peralandria,” the second book of
“The Spac...
TRUTH
KNOWING TRUTH
Augustine was adamant that Truth could
be known with certainty, but only through
the light of God’s love and...
OTHERS ECHOING HIM
“I believe in Christianity as I believe that the Sun has
risen, not only because I see it, but because,...
REASONABLE FAITH
A final remark to be made on
Augustine’s legacy on Christian
epistemology is that true Godly
faith is alw...
NEVER OPPOSED TO REASON

That’s not to say that what is
believed must “make sense,” but it
does mean that it must never be...
IMPIOUS PIETY
To believe a contradiction, no
matter how “piously,” is to be
impious
CAN NOT BE TRUSTED
If you believe that God is not “limited” by
logic, or that what He reveals through
general revelation (...
USE WITH CARE
People with sinful and faulty
understandings misuse logic just as they
misuse the Bible, but that simply mea...
POWER FOR GOOD OR EVIL

The more powerful the tool for
Good (e.g., Biblical interpretation
or science), the worse the dama...
04 Saint Augustine
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04 Saint Augustine

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Overview of some of Saint Augustine's primary teachings.

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  • Carthage had a major empire around the same time as early Rome, and it was the Carthaginian threat (the Punic Wars) that largely created the Roman Empire. General Hannibal (of elephant fame) was from Carthage.
    The map is of the Carthaginian Empire in the 3rd century BC
  • Manichaeism was one of the major Iranian Gnostic religions, and at its height was one of the most widespread religions in the world, stretching throughout the Roman Empire (including Britain) to China. Manichaeism is distinguished by its elaborate cosmology describing the struggle between a good, spiritual world of light, and an evil, material world of darkness.
  • A major problem they addressed was “God created everything that exists. Evil exists. Therefore, God created evil.” Any Christian has to affirm the first part. And since clearly evil exists, this creates a problem. The Manichaeans “solved” this by denying that God is the only one that created things. Later, Augustine would actually challenge the assertion that evil “exists”...
  • His “concubine” , according to Augustine, was the one that had the strength to separate when he couldn’t bring himself to. Unnamed in history, legend has her going home to Carthage and joining a monastery.
    Adeodatus, his son, stayed with his father and lived with him and Monica just outside of Milan. Seeing the wonderful intelligence of his son, Augustine felt a sort of awe: "The grandeur of his mind filled me with a kind of terror." He died at the age of 16.
  • Ambrose, along with Augustine, is one of the original four “Doctors of the Western Church” for their preeminence in shaping doctrine and the Church (along with Gregory the Great and Jerome).
    Besides his association with Augustine, Ambrose is most famous for fighting the Arian heresy.
  • 04 Saint Augustine

    1. 1. SAINT AUGUSTINE The Theologian of Grace
    2. 2. QUESTIONS Who was Augustine and what made him “tick”? What doctrines did he help clarify for the Church? What are Sacraments and how do they work?
    3. 3. HIS INFLUENCE Saint Augustine of Hippo (A.D. 354-430) is by far the most quoted person on the doctrines of the Church outside of the writers of the Bible Some of the things that he is most remembered for in formulating for the Church are: a more complete understanding of the Trinity the way God governs His people The “ontology” of God and the soul the efficacy of the Sacraments how we know God predestination the nature of love and (especially) loving God the nature of divine Grace the role of secular government and the Christian’s place in it Defining “the inner self” “Just War” etc.
    4. 4. He was born on a small farm in Thagaste (in modern-day Algeria)
    5. 5. BIBLE BELT Christianity had long since become established in that region of Roman Africa His mother was a staunch Catholic His father was a pagan (who was Saved sixteen years before his son)
    6. 6. In modern-American terms, he was born in Hicksville in the middle of the Bible Belt
    7. 7. STEALING PEARS At one point, he and his friends, in addition to a lot of other “normal” teenage pranks, went onto his neighbor’s property and stole pears from the neighbor’s tree The adult Augustine, when remembering this in The Confessions, seems more torn up about this than many of his other sins (like heresy and fornication)
    8. 8. A MAJOR SIN? Why, do you suppose, would he see stealing some pears to throw to the pigs as being so bad?
    9. 9. SEARCHING FOR TRUTH The fall into heresy was because he was searching for the truth, but going about it in the wrong way
    10. 10. BASIC NEEDS/DESIRES The fornication and the like were attempts to satisfy basic needs/desires, though in the wrong way
    11. 11. THE THRILL OF SIN Stealing the pears was sin for sin’s own sake He was not hungry, he had a pear tree of his own, etc. The thrill was in knowing that he was sinning for no other reason than to be sinning
    12. 12. BIG EMPIRE DREAMS Growing up, he was by far the smartest person around, and he knew it Ambitious and arrogant, he went into the study of rhetoric Rhetoric was a prerequisite for virtually any position of power in the Roman Empire
    13. 13. His studies take him to the major metropolitan city of Carthage
    14. 14. For historical context, the Council of Constantinople (381 AD) met while he was in Carthage and finally finished the Nicene Creed
    15. 15. Manichaeanism was gnostic religion out of Persia that at its height “conquered” from Britain to China, and was Christianity’s chief rival when the Roman gods fell until the rise of Islam
    16. 16. Being both highly mystical and rational, they had answers for many of the questions about God that nobody else really had good responses for, such as a holy God creating evil
    17. 17. While in Carthage, Augustine became a Manichaean, finally finding answers to the questions that no one else he’d met could provide
    18. 18. LEARNING TO LOVE TRUTH While in Carthage he lead a rather hedonistic life, but he reads a great deal by Cicero, the famous Roman rhetoritician, which brought him to study philosophy As he wrote later in the Confessions, Augustine says that the study of philosophy is what created that burning passion to know Truth
    19. 19. Growing up he had indulged in many “youthful indiscretions,” but now he started to settle down He lived with his girlfriend and was faithful to her, and she soon bore him a son
    20. 20. GETTING ENGAGED When his mother, Monica, joins him much later, she makes arrangements for Augustine to become engaged to a wealthy Christian girl The girl was underage for marriage, but Augustine had to send away his “concubine” – whom he had loved and been faithful to for over 12 years – which broke his heart (read Confessions 6.15) While waiting for his fiancé to be “of age” (thirteen), he could not stand being alone any more and took another lover for a while. He never reestablished his relationship with his fiancé.
    21. 21. After over a decade in Carthage, he moved to Milan as professor of rhetoric at the imperial court there
    22. 22. BOOKS OF THE PLATONISTS Augustine read “books of the Platonists” and finally got the answers to some of the questions that had been plaguing him This was good because it gave him many of the intellectual tools that he was able to use in defending the Christian Faith and made him the single most influential of the Church Fathers The negative consequence was that Plotinus had a very allegorical way of reading the Bible, which Augustine also adopted, paving the way for over a thousand years of absolutely nonsensical interpretations of the Word
    23. 23. MEETING AMBROSE He went to listen to Bishop Ambrose speak because Ambrose was one of the best living orators, and Augustine wanted to learn his techniques While listening to Ambrose, Augustine heard an expression of Christian faith that wasn’t just for simpletons, but of a Christianity that answered the questions he had been asking all his life
    24. 24. AMBROSE OPENS THE BIBLE From the influence of Ambrose he saw that what he recognized as Truth was also what the Christian Church taught This caused him to take another look at the Bible
    25. 25. As he read the Bible and became increasingly convinced of its truths, he recognized an old and bitter conflict in his will: “as a youth … II had prayed to you for chastity “as a youth … had prayed to you for chastity and said, ‘‘Give me chastity and continence, and said, Give me chastity and continence, but not yet.’’ For II was afraid that you would but not yet. For was afraid that you would answer my prayer at once and cure me of the answer my prayer at once and cure me of the disease of lust, which II wanted satisfied, not disease of lust, which wanted satisfied, not quelled.” (Confessions 8.7) quelled.” (Confessions 8.7)
    26. 26. It was very much the same with his conversion: even though he willed that he could turn himself over to God and become a Christian, he also willed that he wouldn’t Without the grace of God, his sinful nature would always have won Augustine later makes it clear, particularly in his writings against the Palagians, that even that part of his will that wanted to become Christian was entirely the gracious gift of God, not something inherent in himself
    27. 27. As he wrote later, the inner struggle was forcing him to the brink of madness, with his will tearing his mind and soul apart
    28. 28. While in a garden he heard a child’s voice repeatedly saying, “Take up and read.”
    29. 29. He rushed and grabbed a Bible from his friend and read the first passage he came across: Let us pass our time honorably, as by the light of day, not in reveling and drunkenness, not in lust and wantonness, not in quarrels and rivalries. Rather, arm yourselves with the Lord Jesus Christ; spend no more thought on nature or nature’s appetites. (Romans 13:13-14)
    30. 30. That did it – that was when God had “flipped the switch” and Augustine finally became a Christian He was baptized, along with his brilliant son and close friends, by Ambrose the following Easter
    31. 31. LOCAL BOY DONE GOOD After his mother dies, he returned to Thagaste to found a monastic community Monasticism was a new movement, and Augustine’s monastery became one of the principle developers of the movement in the Western Church He is received very much as a “local boy done good,” and becomes tremendously popular with the Christian community
    32. 32. A few years later, while visiting Hippo, a priest begins talking in his sermon about how desperately the Church needs people like Augustine, and Augustine is grabbed by the parishioners and ordained – very much against his will – as a priest Augustine wanted to live his life as a scholar; not having to spend his time worrying about all the “trivialities” involved in running a parish and trying to teach “simple” people the deep things of God
    33. 33. After only four years as a priest, he distinguished himself so much as a man of God that he was made the Bishop of Hippo
    34. 34. Fifteen years after his appointment as Bishop, Rome falls for the first time in her thousand year history
    35. 35. This sparked an enormous political and cultural crisis
    36. 36. The pagans blamed the Empire’s conversion to Christianity, saying that it was the gods’ punishment on Rome for leaving her roots
    37. 37. This prompted Augustine to write “The City of God”, his most famous book alongside “The Confessions”
    38. 38. He spelled-out the differences between the City of God and the City of Man
    39. 39. In 430 A.D., as the Vandals are at the gates of Hippo, Augustine died
    40. 40. FREE WILL
    41. 41. “Free will” means that we are able to make own our choices It is what makes us moral beings
    42. 42. WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?? Does that mean that a pagan can choose to live a righteous life, pleasing to God, and therefore go to Heaven? Does it mean that a Christian can choose to live a wholly unrighteous life?
    43. 43. SOVEREIGN? ELECT PUPPETS? When the Bible talks about God’s “elect,” is He reacting to the choice we make to believe in Him? Or does He make it happen?
    44. 44. SOVEREIGN! PUPPETS? Does He control every aspect of our lives, manipulating us like puppets? If God makes the choice for us, doesn’t that override our freedom and therefore makes our choices – be they good or evil – out of our control? Then He’s cruel to condemn people that He essentially ordains to Hell
    45. 45. FREE! SOVEREIGN? Does He leave us to our own devices, “hoping” that we come back to Him (or stay with Him once we’re His children)? If He leaves the choice up to us, does it strip God of His power over His creation, making Him reliant upon us to shape our lives: the choices of Man being what controls history?
    46. 46. How we view free will defines not only how we see ourselves, but how we see God
    47. 47. The Heart of the Church Every time we say things like, “I was saved” or “I chose Christ” or even “I have sinned,” we express the cor ecclesiae: the very heart of what we believe, and how we view the grace of God
    48. 48. PELAGIANISM
    49. 49. “Grant what thou commandest, and “Grant what thou commandest, and command what thou dost desire.” command what thou dost desire.” That prayer Augustine published was an example of what really ignited a brilliant and eloquent Celtic monk named Pelagius
    50. 50. He had no qualms with the second part as God has every right to command what He desires; God is Lord, after all Pelagius was, however, greatly distressed by Augustine’s implication that we need God’s help to fulfill His commands
    51. 51. God is completely holy and perfectly just, he argued: God wouldn’t command us to do something that He knows we don’t have the ability to do (e.g., “Be ye holy even as I am holy,” for example) For God to command us to do something that He knows we can’t do is simply cruel, and the Scriptures make it abundantly clear that there’s no way you can attribute cruelty with Jehovah
    52. 52. Pelagius rejected the idea of Original Sin, saying that God’s creation was good and His good creation can’t be anything other than good Our will is wholly free and can choose to give into the temptations of Satan or to rebuke him Adam and Eve failed that test, but we are all born with the same opportunities as them to choose holiness or perversion
    53. 53. Charles Finney, the father of modern evangelism (he was a direct influence on Dwight L. Moody, J. Wilber Chapman, Billy Sunday, and Billy Graham, among many others) was one of the most vocal voices of Pelagius’ teachings in the modern Church
    54. 54. “II object to the doctrine of constitutional sinfulness “ object to the doctrine of constitutional sinfulness [Original Sin], that it makes all sin original and [Original Sin], that it makes all sin original and actual, and not a crime… If the nature is sinful, in actual, and not a crime… If the nature is sinful, in such a sense that action must necessarily be sinful… such a sense that action must necessarily be sinful… then sin in action must be a calamity, and can be no then sin in action must be a calamity, and can be no crime. It is the necessary effect of a sinful nature. This crime. It is the necessary effect of a sinful nature. This cannot be a crime, since the will has nothing to do cannot be a crime, since the will has nothing to do with it.” {Finney, Systematic Theology, lecture 16} with it.” {Finney, Systematic Theology, lecture 16} In short, if we are born sinful then we can’t be accused of committing a crime [sin] against God since we didn’t have any choice in the matter It would be like condemning people for simply living
    55. 55. “The human will is free, therefore men have power “The human will is free, therefore men have power or ability to do all their duty. The moral or ability to do all their duty. The moral government of God everywhere assumes and government of God everywhere assumes and implies the liberty of the human will, and the implies the liberty of the human will, and the natural ability of men to obey God. Every natural ability of men to obey God. Every command, every threatening, every expostulation command, every threatening, every expostulation and denunciation in the Bible implies and assumes and denunciation in the Bible implies and assumes this.” {Finney, Systematic Theology, lecture 20} this.” {Finney, Systematic Theology, lecture 20}
    56. 56. Against these teachings of Pelagius and his followers, Augustine took his famous stand that earned him his title as The Theologian of Grace
    57. 57. …it was by the evil use of his free-will that man destroyed both it …it was by the evil use of his free-will that man destroyed both it and himself. For, as a man who kills himself must, of course, be alive and himself. For, as a man who kills himself must, of course, be alive when he kills himself, but after he has killed himself ceases to live, when he kills himself, but after he has killed himself ceases to live, and cannot restore himself to life; so, when man by his own free-will and cannot restore himself to life; so, when man by his own free-will sinned, then sin being victorious over him, the freedom of his will sinned, then sin being victorious over him, the freedom of his will was lost… was lost… But whence comes this liberty to do right to the man who is in But whence comes this liberty to do right to the man who is in bondage and sold under sin, except he be redeemed by Him who has bondage and sold under sin, except he be redeemed by Him who has said, “He whom the Son has freed is free indeed.” [John 8:36]? said, “He whom the Son has freed is free indeed.” [John 8:36]? And before this redemption is wrought in a man, when he is not yet And before this redemption is wrought in a man, when he is not yet free to do what is right, how can he talk of the freedom of his will free to do what is right, how can he talk of the freedom of his will and his good works, except he be inflated by that foolish pride of and his good works, except he be inflated by that foolish pride of boasting which the apostle restrains when he says, “By grace are ye boasting which the apostle restrains when he says, “By grace are ye saved, through faith” [Eph. 2:8]. {The Enchiridion: On Faith, Hope saved, through faith” [Eph. 2:8]. {The Enchiridion: On Faith, Hope And Love; 1:675} And Love; 1:675}
    58. 58. A Middle Ground? With Pelagius and Augustine defining the polar opposites of the debate, a lot of people came in seeking some compromise The most famous was St. John Cassian, an abbot, who argued for “Semi-Pelagianism” He asserted that the human soul was, indeed, corrupted by the Fall…
    59. 59. Semi-Pelagianism However – contrary to the Augustinian position that we are dead in our sins, wholly against God and His righteousness – we have a lingering piece of “life” in us We can not come to God by ourselves, but when God extends His invitation of regenerating grace, it’s up to us to assent to Him doing so
    60. 60. Some illustrations are that of a man drowning: the lifesaver ring is tossed, but it’s up to that person to grab a hold of the ring Or the person dying of a disease, where the physician pours the medicine into his mouth – all they have to do is swallow – but the person can choose to spit it out God does 99% of the work, but there’s still the 1% that requires a work on our part
    61. 61. Most Popular Definition of “Free Will” A strong emphasis on the need for God’s help in our salvation but still very much keeps Man responsible for choosing good or evil (and therefore worthy of salvation or damnation)
    62. 62. Who is the author of our faith?
    63. 63. Pelagian & Semi-Pelagian Man is ultimately who reaches out and accepts God God then responds to our good decision so that we are among His elect
    64. 64. Augustinian God reaches into our evil hearts that hate Him, and recreates them into hearts that love Him We have no claim on having “made a good decision,” but rest the credit of our faith entirely on His love and grace
    65. 65. And now for something completely different…
    66. 66. (16)And the Lord spake, saying, “First shalt thou take out the Holy Pin. (17)Then, shalt thou count to three; no more, no less. (18)Three shalt be the number thou shalt count, and the number of the counting shall be three. (19)Four shalt thou not count, nor either count thou two, excepting that thou then proceed to three. (20)Five is right out! (22)Once the number three, being the third number, be reached, then lobbest thou thy Holy Hand Grenade of Antioch towards thy foe, who, being naughty in My sight, shall snuff it.”
    67. 67. What makes that scene funny (besides the rabbit) is all the ways that he says the same thing, approaching it from every possible direction; and that it’s VERY typical of how the Scriptures really do speak
    68. 68. While God has chosen to leave some things hidden from us, there are some things that He repeats over and over and over again from numerous angles to make sure the message is communicated as clearly as possible, even to sinful people like us who refuse to listen
    69. 69. At the Council of Carthage in 418, the bishops agreed that the Bible was indeed very clear on the matter and issued several statements against Pelagian teaching
    70. 70. Pope Zosimus (who had earlier endorsed Pelagius) retreated from his earlier position and issued a statement requesting that all bishops refute Pelagianism
    71. 71. At the third ecumenical council in Ephesus in 431 (a year after Augustine’s death) Pelagianism was officially declared a heresy
    72. 72. This did not fully settle the issue between the Augustinians and the Semi-Pelagians, though…
    73. 73. Over eleven hundred years later that controversy would be one of the focal points of the Reformation in debates over “sola gratia” (“Sola” means “alone” and “gratia” means “grace”)
    74. 74. Are we saved principally by grace, as the Roman Catholic Church teaches? Are we saved by grace alone, as the Protestants (and Augustine) assert?
    75. 75. DONTATIST SCHISM
    76. 76. CAVING TO PERSECUTION During the Roman persecution there were those that caved to the pressure and made “compromises” with the government
    77. 77. LEADERS FELL TOO Included in the list of “not entirely faithful” were many of the leaders in the Church
    78. 78. ONLY THE FAITHFUL Because of their zeal for maintaining an “untainted” communion of believers, a group of Christians banded together, called Donatists
    79. 79. They, along with the Catholics, believed in Apostolic Succession – specifically, where new church leaders are ordained by God through current leaders, who in turn were ordained via their predecessors, etc. through to the Apostles (and ultimately Jesus)
    80. 80. UNFAITHFUL INFECTION The problem was that the Catholic Church had been infected with unfaithful leaders, who, the Donatists argued, had rejected their Apostolic calling when they gave in, and therefore were not true leaders of the Church – and therefore also could not ordain successors
    81. 81. CORRUPTED CHAIN Any leader that had been “compromised” three hundred years prior had likely ordained a number of successors, and they had ordained successors, and so on
    82. 82. BROKEN LINKS? But the Apostolic link had been broken with the first leader, so none of the successors had a legitimate ordination
    83. 83. A CANCER IN THE CHURCH? By Augustine’s time, that effectively called most of the Catholic Church illegitimate…
    84. 84. DONATIST ISSUES There were three major issues that the Donatist schism presented the Church with: Purity Unity Baptism
    85. 85. PURITY Is the Church a gathering of the Pure, or something else?
    86. 86. UNITY How does the Church stay one Church?
    87. 87. BAPTISM The Donatists said that Baptism by an illegitimate Catholic was not a real Baptism, and would therefore rebaptize people that came to them
    88. 88. UNBAPTIZED CHRISTIANS? It was Baptism that was the real kicker, because the “working” definition of a Christian held by the Church (East and West) is that you are a Christian if you’ve been baptized into the Christian Church There are exceptions and clarifications, but that is the basic stance of all the “orthodox” churches
    89. 89. LEGITIMATE BAPTISM So if you’re a Christian by your Baptism, and Donatists are the only ones that can properly administer that Sacrament, then only those baptized by Donatists are Christians...
    90. 90. DONATIST DILEMA Everybody agreed in the vitality of a true Baptism, which created a big problem for the Catholics…
    91. 91. DONTATIST BAPTISMS VALID? If they regard the Donatist baptism as valid, then they are essentially validating the legitimacy of the Donatists, which puts a real crimp in trying to say that they should rejoin the Catholic Church
    92. 92. DONATIST BAPTISM INVALID? But if it is invalid, and they rebaptize people coming to the Catholic Church from the Donatists, then they are by their actions agreeing with the Donatist position on Baptism
    93. 93. WHAT IS A VALID BAPTISM? Hopefully, the resolution to the problem is obvious to you, but that’s because we’ve all learned about Baptism as Augustine defined it...
    94. 94. HAVING THE TOOLS Augustine led the fight against the Donatists by providing the philosophical tools needed to clarify the issues, as well as the rationale used for the means used to suppress the Donatists
    95. 95. REASONS FOR SUPRESSION We’ll talk about the way he dealt with the Sacramental issues later, so here we’ll talk about the reasoning he gives for suppression – and how to do it – since they would be used as the basis for doing so from that time forward
    96. 96. ARGUING THE CASE At the Conference of Carthage in 411 A.D., the Donatists and the Catholics debated before an Imperial official Remember, this was after Christianity had become the official religion of the Empire, and the Empire desperately wanted a united Christendom
    97. 97. AUGUSTINE WINS Augustine led the Catholic side and trounced the Donatists quite neatly
    98. 98. CRIMINALS… Donatism was then declared illegal, and Augustine spelled-out how to get rid of the Donatists
    99. 99. ENCOURAGEMENT Augustine knew well that you can’t force someone to become a Christian (a.k.a., a Catholic), but you could “encourage” and “discourage”
    100. 100. MAKING THE CASE With his usual clarity and zeal he laid-out the theological reasons to fine the Donatists and confiscate their property so that they would be “discouraged” from staying with the Donatists and “encouraged” to join the Catholic Church He was never so extreme as to propose torture or the like, which would be used for exactly the same reasons later – notably, during the various Inquisitions
    101. 101. IS INACTION AN ANSWER? On the other side of that spectrum, we can’t not “encourage” or “discourage” because we are clearly called to do so – we do so every time we evangelize or build each other up, and when we exercise church discipline The “tough love” reasons we use for excommunication and the like are the same reasons the Church fined the Donatists
    102. 102. TIME OF GRACE Better to have people see the error of their ways during their time of grace than to die in their sin and – at best – receive a smaller inheritance, or – at worst – go to Hell
    103. 103. POWER OF THE SWORD How hard to you “encourage” someone to follow Christ or “discourage” him from going to Hell – and possibly drag others along? Enough to use the power of the state, along with its “power of the sword”? Where is the line?
    104. 104. MAJOR QUESTIONS This still leaves open major questions about the purity of the Church, the unity of the Church, and the nature of Baptism…
    105. 105. QUESTIONS: PURITY How important is “purity” to the Church? If a lack of purity can be accepted, how much impurity, and what kinds? Sinners? False teachers?
    106. 106. QUESTIONS: UNITY What is the basis for unity in the church? Is there ever a reason for Christians to not be united? If there is, then what is the effect such disunity has on the Christians involved, other Christians, and unbelievers? Can you name modern Christian groups that have separated themselves from the rest of Christendom and the reasons why? Are they right in doing so, and why or why not?
    107. 107. QUESTIONS: BAPTISM What is the nature of Baptism? What gives it power?
    108. 108. WHAT ARE SACRAMENTS? This gets into what any Sacrament is and what it does...
    109. 109. SIGNS & SACRAMENTS
    110. 110. LEARNING FROM SIGNS Signs, to Augustine, teach things and convey information, though they carry no power in themselves to teach Words are the means by which we transfer knowledge, but you have to have knowledge of what those words mean already or those words are useless (as anybody that’s had to fight with different languages or technical jargon knows)
    111. 111. EXAMPLE OF A “SIGN” If you see smoke, it acts as an indicator (sign) of fire, but you have to know that “where there’s smoke there’s fire” before seeing the smoke can let you know there’s fire The sight of smoke or the hearing of words don’t contain information, but they act as the conduit through which information is conveyed
    112. 112. OUTWARD SIGN OF INWARD GIFT The grace that grants faith, and therefore salvation, is an inward gift Sacraments are an outward sign that shows what God has done
    113. 113. NEED FOR INTERPRETATION Symbols, since they themselves are not information, need to be “interpreted” The same symbols can mean dramatically different things to different people
    114. 114. THE INTERPRETER The principle “interpreter” of spiritual things for the Christian is the Holy Spirit, who translates the symbols (words) of Scripture for our heart, and the symbols (rituals) of the Sacraments for our soul
    115. 115. BAPTISM
    116. 116. DIFFERENT UNDERSTANDINGS While every major Christian denomination agrees completely with Baptism being an outward sign that marks you as a Child of God, they have very different understandings of it
    117. 117. DIFFERENT UNDERSTANDINGS OF BAPTISM How do Catholics and Lutherans understand Baptism? Calvinists (e.g. Presbyterians)? Baptists?
    118. 118. CATHOLIC & LUTHERAN The sign is an indication of the grace that God is working in the person, bringing them to faith at that moment (though the person can then reject that grace) This view is known formally as “baptismal regeneration”
    119. 119. CALVINIST: CIRCUMCISION Calvinists view it more as a New Testament form of circumcision, whereby God is marking the person as His own and part of the Christian community
    120. 120. CALVINIST: PRESERVATION The difference between it and baptismal regeneration is subtle, but best understood in light of the Calvinist doctrine of Preservation of the Saints (Once God has made you His own, He will ensure that you never fall completely away from Him)
    121. 121. CALVINIST: SPECIAL BLESSING God is probably infusing His grace into the person, but He may not be Not every Jewish boy that was circumcised was automatically saved At the very least He is granting the person His special protection and blessings Every Jew was under the covenantal blessings that God gave to Abraham
    122. 122. BAPTIST Baptism is a sign akin to a diploma, saying that you have confessed Jesus as your Savior and acting as an outward “sealing” of that declaration It is very much like the role that Confirmation serves in other denominations
    123. 123. REBAPTIZE? In light of the different understandings of the symbolism involved in Baptism, how does that explain why Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists and the like don’t rebaptize, but Baptists do?
    124. 124. REBAPTIZE? BAPTISTS For Baptists, since it acts as a sign that you gave a proper confession, if you were not baptized for having given the proper confession you need to receive a “proper” baptism for your proper confession
    125. 125. REBAPTIZE? AUGUSTINIANS For those following in the Augustinian tradition, Baptism is an indelible mark on the soul placed there by God
    126. 126. Baptism caries with it power that is dependent upon what God has done for the person, not what the person has said or done In other words: The power comes from God, not us
    127. 127. LORD’S SUPPER
    128. 128. “THIS IS MY BLOOD…” In light of this definition of signs and what we know about the major sacramental division in the Church, how does this explain the differences in understandings of the Lord’s Supper?
    129. 129. CATHOLIC & LUTHERAN Christ is physically there and conveys the forgiveness of sins through the administration of the body and blood It’s not a magical incantation or anything, but a medium through which God graciously promises to increase faith
    130. 130. CALVINIST: SYMBOLICLY Christ’s body and blood are there symbolically (not physically) and the blessings of the sacrament are conveyed through that medium
    131. 131. CALVINIST: SYMBOLS Of course, saying that Christ’s body and blood are “merely” there symbolically doesn’t diminish it in any way; most everything important we do – confirmation, weddings, naturalization, etc. – is symbolism The Bible itself is, of course, “merely” a collection of symbols Symbols carry enormous power…
    132. 132. BAPTIST: MEMORIAL The Lord’s Supper acts as a symbol along the lines of a memorial
    133. 133. BAPTIST: IN REMEMBERENCE OF ME Focus is less on “This is my body” and more on “Do this in remembrance of me”
    134. 134. BAPTIST: REMEMBERENCES Similar to how we celebrate Christmas and Easter and other church “remembrances,” the Lord’s Supper serves the same purpose It’s an extremely important symbol of what Christ has done for us and is therefore should be practiced with the honor that is due such a memorial
    135. 135. LOVE
    136. 136. OUR HEARTS “You have made us for yourself, and our hearts “You have made us for yourself, and our hearts are restless, until they can find rest in you.” – are restless, until they can find rest in you.” – Confessions Confessions Everything, to Augustine, revolved around love Especially the love of God
    137. 137. GROW IN LOVE For Augustine, the goal of all of our interpretations should be to grow in our love for God (which then extends to our neighbor)
    138. 138. SIGNS OF LOVE All of the symbols that God gives us show His love for us (directly or indirectly), and when we interpret them we must do so in that light so that we love Him more
    139. 139. MY WILL IS MY WEIGHT Probably the best way to summarize how Augustine approached everything is his statement, “my will is my weight.” (Confessions 13.9)
    140. 140. GRAVITY “My will [love] is my weight” means simply that I will gravitate (to use Newtonian terms) toward what I love
    141. 141. THAT IS HIS GOD An Augustinian monk, eleven hundred years later, said, “Whatever man loves, that is his god. For he carries it in his heart; he goes about with it night and day; he sleeps and wakes with it, be it what it may – wealth or self, pleasure or renown.”
    142. 142. PERSPECTIVE OF LOVE Everything in Augustine’s theology is seen from the perspective of love – either God’s love, or our love
    143. 143. GOD’S LOVE God created us that He may have us to love Christ died on the cross that we may be with him through all eternity
    144. 144. THE “LESS” We love the things of this world (or ourselves) above God, which shifts our focus from God to what is less than God – and so we gravitate toward (and get) the “less”
    145. 145. CHANGE OF GRAVITY Christ died on the cross that we may love Him again – and therefore we gravitate toward Him
    146. 146. And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love. (1Cor 13:13)
    147. 147. EVEN LOVE It’s important to notice how even something as wonderful as love is, it can be perverted
    148. 148. EVIL
    149. 149. PERVERTED “Perverted” means, literally, “twisted” or “bent,” and carries the idea that something that was good has now become “not good”
    150. 150. QUESTION OF EVIL One of the classic posers is, “If God created everything, did He create evil? If He didn’t create evil, then where did evil come from?”
    151. 151. EVIL DOES NOT EXIST Augustine said that while evil is real, it doesn’t exist Again: evil is real, but it doesn’t exist
    152. 152. EVIL IS PERVERSION OF GOOD Evil is a perversion or negation of the good (which does exist since it flows from the ontology of God) A broken stick, a gnarled limb, cancer, and a torn shirt are all examples in the physical world of “ontological evil”
    153. 153. REAL? NOTHING? The break is real, the tear is real, etc. but at the same time they are nothing
    154. 154. MORAL EVIL When we turn (pervert) our love from God, we are engaging in “moral evil” When we shape our will closer to the will of God because of our love for him (as we are sanctified) the evil in our will is lessened as it becomes less perverse
    155. 155. BECOMING LESS As the will turns further and further from God, we become less and less than what we are meant to be
    156. 156. MODERN LITERATURE All of C.S. Lewis’ stories wonderfully picture this idea. In “Peralandria,” the second book of “The Space Trilogy,” one of the main characters gradually becomes the Unman as he tries to lead The Woman away from God. Or, to choose a more popular work, think of the wasting away of Edward in “The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe”; or the glee of Wormwood in “The Screwtape Letters” as he describes the “unmaking” (literally) of the people they tempt away for The Enemy (God). J.R.R. Tolkien’s books (like “The Lord of the Rings” saga) are packed with this imagery, and it’s hard to forget the images of Gollum degenerating throughout the series; or the warping that Melkor did to the world in “The Silmarillion,” creating goblins and other monsters by corrupting the good elves and other good creatures. Melkor (Lucifer) does not have the power to create out of nothing like Ilúvator (Jehovah), but only to shape, which he does in order to make the world in his image instead of Ilúvator’s. If Ilúvator is good, then the only “identity” that he – and that which he shapes – can have to be different than Ilúvator is to be “not good.”
    157. 157. TRUTH
    158. 158. KNOWING TRUTH Augustine was adamant that Truth could be known with certainty, but only through the light of God’s love and grace When we talk about “eyes of faith,” we’re often talking metaphorically, but Augustine wasn’t quite so symbolic about it
    159. 159. OTHERS ECHOING HIM “I believe in Christianity as I believe that the Sun has risen, not only because I see it, but because, by it, I see everything else.” - C.S. Lewis “Human things must be known to be loved: but Divine things must be loved to be known.” - Blaise Pascal “[The purpose of science is to] think God’s thoughts after Him.” - Johannes Kepler
    160. 160. REASONABLE FAITH A final remark to be made on Augustine’s legacy on Christian epistemology is that true Godly faith is always a reasonable faith
    161. 161. NEVER OPPOSED TO REASON That’s not to say that what is believed must “make sense,” but it does mean that it must never be opposed to reason
    162. 162. IMPIOUS PIETY To believe a contradiction, no matter how “piously,” is to be impious
    163. 163. CAN NOT BE TRUSTED If you believe that God is not “limited” by logic, or that what He reveals through general revelation (nature/science) and what He reveals through special revelation (Scripture) can contradict each other, then you are saying that God, quite simply, can not be trusted
    164. 164. USE WITH CARE People with sinful and faulty understandings misuse logic just as they misuse the Bible, but that simply means that we have to be extremely careful how we use the things that God has given us to know Him
    165. 165. POWER FOR GOOD OR EVIL The more powerful the tool for Good (e.g., Biblical interpretation or science), the worse the damage when its use is perverted
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