FIRST COURSEEssentialComputerConcepts
XPObjectives• Compare the types of computers• Describe the components of a computer system• Describe input and output peri...
XPObjectives• Explain how Internet access, e-mail, and theWorld Wide Web affect the use of computers• Describe potential s...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 4What Is a Computer?• A computer is an electronic device t...
XPWhat is a computer?• An electronic device that accepts input,processes the data and instructions, producesoutput from th...
XPHow Does A Computer Know What To Do?• It must be given a detailed set of instructionsthat tell it exactly what to do.• T...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 7Types of Computers• Personal computers (PCs)– Desktop com...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 8Types of ComputersPersonal ComputersPDASuper ComputersDes...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 9Computer Systems• Includes computer hardware and software...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 10System Software• System softwaremanages thefundamental o...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 11Application Software• Application software enables you t...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 12Application Software• Presentation software
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 13Application Software– Web site creation and management s...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 14Application Software• Photo editing software• Multimedia...
XPWhat is the user interface?• Controls how youenter data andcommands andhow informationdisplays• Types of userinterfaces ...
XPp. 1.12User InterfaceWhat is a graphical user interface (GUI)?• Uses visual images such as icons Icons representprogram...
XPArchitecture or configuration is the design ofthe computer.As in, what does the computer consist of?Specification is the...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 18Processing Hardware• The motherboard is themain electron...
XPProcessingNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 19Microprocessor, also referred toas processor o...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 20Input and Output• The data or instructions you type into...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 21Input Devices• You use an input device, such as a keyboa...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 22Output Devices• Output devices show youthe results of pr...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 23Data Representation• Binary digits (bits)• A series of e...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 24Storage Measurements Byte = one character Kilobyte = a...
XP• Five basic types of data are represented in thecomputer.– Numeric– Character– Visual– Audio– InstructionalStorageData ...
XPData RepresentationData RepresentationHow do computers represent data? Most computers are digital Recognize only two d...
XP• A digital computer’s circuits are binary.• The circuits can exist in either one of two electricalstates, normally repr...
XP• Consider the math – 1 byte = 1 character, 5characters per word, 400 words per page, 200pages per book.– CD = 700,000,0...
XPStorageRepresenting Symbols and Text• Each letter and symbol in a text documentmust be translated into a binary numberfo...
XP• The ASCII code, or simply ASCII, is used by virtually all othercomputers in the United States and Europe as well. Allp...
XPStorage A new coding system has recently been developed calledUNICODE. Unicode provides a unique number for every char...
XPStorage Digitized picture of a tiger.Representation of Images
XPStorage Black and white pixels are either 0 or 1.0001000000000000000000000000000000000000010101010000000000000010000000...
XPStorage• Gray-Scale:– Each pixel contains a value representing some shadeof gray.– The more shades of gray possible, the...
XPStorage• Representing colors inpictures takes evenmore bits than gray-scale.• The more colors themore bits and thusmore:...
XPStorage– Fact: All types of information are stored in binary form.– Problem: The computer has no way of discerningbetwee...
XPStorageWindows files showing their icons and extensions
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 38Memory• Random access memory (RAM)– Volatile memory– SDR...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 39Memory• Read-only memory (ROM)– BIOS– Nonvolatile memory...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 40Method of Access Sequential access – retrieve data in o...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 41Storage Media• A computer file is a named collection of ...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 42Storage Media• Magnetic media– Hard disk– Tape– Floppy d...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 43Hard Drive Consists of one or more rigid metal platters...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 44Storage Media• Optical storage device– CD– DVD– CD-R– CD...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 45Storage Media• Flash memory– Flash memory cards– USB fla...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 46Data Communications• The transmission of text, numeric, ...
XPComponents of Data CommunicationsThe four essential components of datacommunications are:• Sender• Channel• Receiver• Pr...
XPData CommunicationA sender is the computer that originates themessage.The message is sent over a channel, such as atelep...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 49New Perspectives on Essential ComputerConcepts49Networks...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 50New Perspectives on Essential ComputerConcepts50Networks...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 51TelecommunicationsTelecommunications is communicatingove...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 52Telecommunications
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 53The InternetThe Internet is the world’s largestnetwork.E...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 54A hyperlink is a place on a Webpage allowing you to conn...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 55New Perspectives on Essential ComputerConcepts55The Inte...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 56Networks• A network connects one computer to othercomput...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 57Telecommunications• Telecommunications means communicati...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 58The Internet• The Internet is thelargest network in thew...
XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 59Security Threats on Your Computer• Security refers to th...
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Essential Computer Concepts

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Essential Computer Concepts

  1. 1. FIRST COURSEEssentialComputerConcepts
  2. 2. XPObjectives• Compare the types of computers• Describe the components of a computer system• Describe input and output peripheral devices• Examine data representation and the ASCII andUNICODE codes• Define memory and storage• Examine image representation• Identify the hardware and software that are usedfor data communications and to establish a networkconnection
  3. 3. XPObjectives• Explain how Internet access, e-mail, and theWorld Wide Web affect the use of computers• Describe potential security threats to computersand protection methods• Discuss the types of system software and theirfunctions• Identify popular application software• Describe how data is shared among differenttypes of application software
  4. 4. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 4What Is a Computer?• A computer is an electronic device that acceptsdata and instructions from a user, manipulatesthe data according to the instructions, displaysthe information in some way, and stores theinformation for retrieval later
  5. 5. XPWhat is a computer?• An electronic device that accepts input,processes the data and instructions, producesoutput from the processing that is useful andmeaningful and stores the results for futureuse.New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 5
  6. 6. XPHow Does A Computer Know What To Do?• It must be given a detailed set of instructionsthat tell it exactly what to do.• These instructions are called a computerprogram, or software.New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 6
  7. 7. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 7Types of Computers• Personal computers (PCs)– Desktop computers– Notebook (laptop) computers– Tablet PCs• Handheld computers– PDA (personal digital assistant)– MP3 players– Cell phones• Mainframe computers• Supercomputers
  8. 8. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 8Types of ComputersPersonal ComputersPDASuper ComputersDesktopNotebookTablet PC
  9. 9. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 9Computer Systems• Includes computer hardware and software–Hardware refers to the physical componentsof a computer–Software refers to the intangible componentsof a computer system, particularly theprograms the computer needs to perform aspecific task
  10. 10. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 10System Software• System softwaremanages thefundamental operationsof your computer– Operating system• System resource• Multitasking– Utilities– Programming Languages
  11. 11. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 11Application Software• Application software enables you to performspecific computer tasks, such as documentproduction, spreadsheet calculations, anddatabase management– Document production software
  12. 12. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 12Application Software• Presentation software
  13. 13. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 13Application Software– Web site creation and management software– Spreadsheet software– Database management software
  14. 14. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 14Application Software• Photo editing software• Multimedia authoring software• Accounting software• Information management software
  15. 15. XPWhat is the user interface?• Controls how youenter data andcommands andhow informationdisplays• Types of userinterfaces includecommand line andgraphical.p. 1.12User Interface
  16. 16. XPp. 1.12User InterfaceWhat is a graphical user interface (GUI)?• Uses visual images such as icons Icons representprograms,instructions, orsome otherobjectsiconsiconsp. 1.12 Fig. 1-13
  17. 17. XPArchitecture or configuration is the design ofthe computer.As in, what does the computer consist of?Specification is the technical detail about eachcomponent.As in, how big is the monitor?New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 17
  18. 18. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 18Processing Hardware• The motherboard is themain electroniccomponent of thecomputer• The microprocessor isone of the mostimportant pieces ofprocessing hardware onthe motherboard• Cards are removablecircuit boards
  19. 19. XPProcessingNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 19Microprocessor, also referred toas processor or CPU (CentralProcessing UnitRAM - Random Access Memory Volatile
  20. 20. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 20Input and Output• The data or instructions you type into thecomputer are called input• The result of the computer processing your inputis referred to as output and also referred to asinformation.• Peripheral devices accomplish input and outputfunctions
  21. 21. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 21Input Devices• You use an input device, such as a keyboard or amouse, to input data and issue commands– Keyboard– Pointing device• Controls the pointer• Mouse• Trackball• Touch pad• Pointing stick– Scanner– Touch Screen– Pen Input
  22. 22. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 22Output Devices• Output devices show youthe results of processingdata– Monitor• Flat panel• LCD• CRT– Printer• Laser• Inkjet• Dot matrix
  23. 23. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 23Data Representation• Binary digits (bits)• A series of eight bits is called a byte• ASCII– American Standard Code for Information Interchange
  24. 24. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 24Storage Measurements Byte = one character Kilobyte = approximately 1000 characters Megabyte = approximately one million characters Gigabyte = approximately one billion characters Terabyte = approximately one trillion characters
  25. 25. XP• Five basic types of data are represented in thecomputer.– Numeric– Character– Visual– Audio– InstructionalStorageData RepresentationData Representation
  26. 26. XPData RepresentationData RepresentationHow do computers represent data? Most computers are digital Recognize only two discrete states:on or off1 1 1 1 10 0 0 0 0onoffp. 4.13Storage
  27. 27. XP• A digital computer’s circuits are binary.• The circuits can exist in either one of two electricalstates, normally represented by 0 and 1, that is, OFFor ON.• Each 1 or 0 is called a binary digit or bit and are thebasis for measurement of storage.• Each character (letter, number, etc.) equals onebyte.• These bytes can add up, especially whenrepresenting images (graphics).Storage
  28. 28. XP• Consider the math – 1 byte = 1 character, 5characters per word, 400 words per page, 200pages per book.– CD = 700,000,000 bytes = 1,750 books– DVD = 4,200,000,000 bytes = 10,500 books– Hard Drive (small in lab) = 6,000,000,000 bytes =15,000 books– Hard Drive (newer) = 100,000,000,000 bytes =250,000 booksStorage
  29. 29. XPStorageRepresenting Symbols and Text• Each letter and symbol in a text documentmust be translated into a binary numberfor storage in the computer.• Symbols and Text– Includes characters, punctuation,symbols representing numbers.– Each symbol can be assigned anumeric value• Two standardized sets of codes forsymbols:– ASCII (American Standard Code forInformation Interchange)– EBCDIC (Extended Binary CodedDecimal Interchange Code)• Developed by IBM for use on theirmainframe computers.
  30. 30. XP• The ASCII code, or simply ASCII, is used by virtually all othercomputers in the United States and Europe as well. Allpersonal computers use the ASCII code.Storage 0 - 0110000 1 - 0110001 2 - 0110010 3 - 0110011 4 - 0110100 5 - 0110101 6 - 0110110 7 - 0110111 8 - 0111000 9 - 0111001 : - 0111010 A - 1000001 B - 1000010 C - 1000011 D - 1000100 E - 1000101 F - 1000110 G - 1000111 H - 1001000 I - 1001001 J - 1001010 K - 1001011 a - 1100001 b - 1100010 c - 1100011 d - 1100100 e - 1100101 f - 1100110 g - 1100111 h - 1101000 i - 1101001 j - 1101010 k - 1101011 Ctrl+@(NULL) - 0000000 Ctrl+A - 0000001 Ctrl+B - 0000010 Ctrl+C - 0000011 Ctrl+D - 0000100 Ctrl+E - 0000101 Ctrl+F - 0000110 Ctrl+G(Bell) - 0000111 Space - 0100000 Delete - 1111111A partial listing of the ASCII character set
  31. 31. XPStorage A new coding system has recently been developed calledUNICODE. Unicode provides a unique number for every character, nomatter what the platform, no matter what the program, nomatter what the language. Why UNICODE? No single encoding could contain enough characters: forexample, the European Union alone requires severaldifferent encodings to cover all its languages and whatabout Asian languages with all there characters. Even for a single language like English no single encodingwas adequate for all the letters, punctuation, andtechnical symbols in common use.
  32. 32. XPStorage Digitized picture of a tiger.Representation of Images
  33. 33. XPStorage Black and white pixels are either 0 or 1.000100000000000000000000000000000000000001010101000000000000001000000000000000000000000001010110000000000000100000000000000000000000000011101010100000000001000000000000000000000000001110010000000000001011000000000000000000000001010100010000000000011110000000000000000000000111010010010000000001111101010101110000000000001100010000000000001111011101111111010000000010110000101001000001101111101111110110000000001111000001010000000011111011110101110100000000011100000101001000111010101010110100000000000101110000001010100000011101010101101010100000011111000001011000000101010010000000000000000000111000000000000110010101000000000000000000000011110000000000010110010100000000000000000000101111001001010101010010010101000000000000000101111110000011111101001011011101010110000000101101111001001111010111111111110101101101011111111111011001011111011111111111111111110111111011111110101011011111111111111111111111111111111111111010000111011111111111111111111111111111111111010101001111111111111111111111111111111111111101100001010111111111111111111011111100111101010101111011111111111111111111111011010101110101101010101111111111111111101011011110111101111100000010111111111111010111011010011111101010100000001011111111111101111111110010111101101010000000011111101011111011101110100111111010101000000001111111111111110101111111011111101110110000101111101101010110000101111111111111101011Representation of Images
  34. 34. XPStorage• Gray-Scale:– Each pixel contains a value representing some shadeof gray.– The more shades of gray possible, the morememory will be needed.• 4 shades of gray needs 2 bits per pixel:– 00, 01, 10, 11• 8 shades of gray needs 3 bits per pixel:– 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111• 64 shades of gray needs 6 bits per pixel:– 000000, 000001, … 111110, 111111
  35. 35. XPStorage• Representing colors inpictures takes evenmore bits than gray-scale.• The more colors themore bits and thusmore:Memory is requiredProcessing power is requiredA better graphics card is requiredRepresentation of Images
  36. 36. XPStorage– Fact: All types of information are stored in binary form.– Problem: The computer has no way of discerningbetween types unless a file is marked in somemanner for identification by the operatingsystem.– Files are marked as to type with unique iconsand have an extension that indicates file type.(e.g., .doc, .txt, .html, .xls, .ppt, .wav, .jpg and soforth)
  37. 37. XPStorageWindows files showing their icons and extensions
  38. 38. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 38Memory• Random access memory (RAM)– Volatile memory– SDRAM• Cache memory (RAM cache or CPU cache)• Virtual memory
  39. 39. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 39Memory• Read-only memory (ROM)– BIOS– Nonvolatile memory• Complementary metal oxide semiconductormemory (CMOS)• Semi permanent memory
  40. 40. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 40Method of Access Sequential access – retrieve data in order. Example of media- magnetic tape Direct or random access – go directly to required data. Example of media- magnetic disk, CD-Rom, DVD
  41. 41. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 41Storage Media• A computer file is a named collection of storeddata• An executable file contains the instructions thattell a computer how to perform a specific task• A data file is created by a user
  42. 42. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 42Storage Media• Magnetic media– Hard disk– Tape– Floppy disk
  43. 43. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 43Hard Drive Consists of one or more rigid metal platterscoated with a metal oxide material thatallows data to be magnetically recorded onthe surface of the platters The number of platters permanentlymounted on the spindle of a hard diskvaries.
  44. 44. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 44Storage Media• Optical storage device– CD– DVD– CD-R– CD-RW– CD-ROM
  45. 45. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 45Storage Media• Flash memory– Flash memory cards– USB flash storage device– USB drive (flash drive)
  46. 46. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 46Data Communications• The transmission of text, numeric, voice, or videodata from one computer to another or to aperipheral device is called data communications– Sender and receiver– Channel– Protocol– Device driver (driver)
  47. 47. XPComponents of Data CommunicationsThe four essential components of datacommunications are:• Sender• Channel• Receiver• ProtocolsNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 47
  48. 48. XPData CommunicationA sender is the computer that originates themessage.The message is sent over a channel, such as atelephoneThe receiver is the computer at the message’sdestination.Protocols are the rules that establish the transferof data between sender and receiver.New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 48
  49. 49. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 49New Perspectives on Essential ComputerConcepts49NetworksA network connects one computer toother computers and peripherals.In a local area network (LAN), computersand peripherals are close to eachother.
  50. 50. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 50New Perspectives on Essential ComputerConcepts50NetworksEach computer that is part of the networkmust have a network interface card andnetwork software.Then it becomes a workstation.Any device connected to the network iscalled a node.
  51. 51. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 51TelecommunicationsTelecommunications is communicatingover a telephone. In thetelecommunications process, themodem converts digital signals toanalog signals at the sending site and asecond modem converts them back atthe receiving site.
  52. 52. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 52Telecommunications
  53. 53. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 53The InternetThe Internet is the world’s largestnetwork.E-mail and the World Wide Web are twobenefits of the Internet.
  54. 54. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 54A hyperlink is a place on a Webpage allowing you to connect to aparticular file.http://www.course.com/newperspectivesThe Internet
  55. 55. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 55New Perspectives on Essential ComputerConcepts55The InternetA Web browser isthe communicationssoftware thatallows you tonavigate theWWW.
  56. 56. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 56Networks• A network connects one computer to othercomputers and peripheral devices, enabling youto share data and resources with others• Network interface card (NIC)• LAN• WAN• WLAN• PAN• WiMax
  57. 57. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 57Telecommunications• Telecommunications means communicatingover a comparatively long distance using a phoneline or some other data conduit– Modem• Digital and analog signals– DSL
  58. 58. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 58The Internet• The Internet is thelargest network in theworld, connectingmillions of people– Electronic mail– World Wide Web• Web page• Web site
  59. 59. XPNew Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 59Security Threats on Your Computer• Security refers to the steps acomputer owner takes toprevent unauthorized use ofor damage to the computer– Malware• Viruses– Antivirus software• Spyware• Adware• Firewall• Phishing• Pharming
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