You can print music with              LilyPond!               John David Duncan          joh.duncan@oracle.com
GNU LilyPond Software for engraving musichttp://www.lilypond.orgBinaries for Linux, Mac, Windows
AgendaSimple Things Are Simple  GETTING STARTED. 15 MIN.The LilyPond design  COMPARED TO SOME OTHER SOFTWARE. 10 MIN.Diffic...
Simple Things Are Simple        Getting Started with LilyPond
You create a text fileWHAT YOU TYPE                WHAT YOU GETinto a text file   compiled    as a PDF                      ...
... containing music expressions.   WHAT YOU TYPE              WHAT YOU GETBegin a            pitchmusic expression      {...
The backslash begins commands      *  WHAT YOU TYPE       WHAT YOU GETcommand    argument{ clef bass c }                  ...
An Extended Music Expression  WHAT YOU TYPE      WHAT YOU GET{ clef bass c d }
Nested Music Expressions     WHAT YOU TYPE       WHAT YOU GET{    clef bass     c { d }}
Pitches can be modified with accents     WHAT YOU TYPE       WHAT YOU GET{    clef bass    c->}
... and other articulation marks.     WHAT YOU TYPE         WHAT YOU GET{    clef bass    c-. d-- e->}
You can type flats and sharps               in Dutch...    WHAT YOU TYPE       WHAT YOU GET{    clef bass    ees fis g}
or you can change the language.    WHAT YOU TYPE        WHAT YOU GETlanguage english{    clef bass    ef fs g}
Octaves:  is up and , is down  WHAT YOU TYPE       WHAT YOU GET{clef bass  c, c cclef treble  c c c}
Simultaneous music expessions    are enclosed in << ...  ... >>  WHAT YOU TYPE          WHAT YOU GET{clef bass  <<   { a b...
Chords in one voice can use < >.  WHAT YOU TYPE        WHAT YOU GET{clef bass<d f> <g b> <c c>}
Set the meter with time    WHAT YOU TYPE          WHAT YOU GET{                       3    time 3/4    g d d              ...
Bar lines: | and bar    WHAT YOU TYPE              WHAT YOU GET{    time 3/4    g d d |    g d d bar "||"}                ...
These are not complete scores,but LilyPond has been providing an implicit document structure.
The previous example, expandedbook {  score {    new Staff {      new Voice {          time 3/4 g d d | g   d d        }  ...
Rhythm: notes with durations    WHAT YOU TYPE           WHAT YOU GET{    time 3/4    g4 a4 b4        |                    ...
Durations are “sticky” until changed.  WHAT YOU TYPE         WHAT YOU GETlanguage english{  time 3/4  g4 a b |  c8 d e fs ...
Relative Pitch Mode       IT CAN SAVE TYPING SOME OCTAVE MARKERS.  WHAT YOU TYPE                  WHAT YOU GETlanguage eng...
Beams [ ] and Slurs ( )  WHAT YOU TYPE           WHAT YOU GETrelative c’{  time 3/4                      3  d8 [ ( f f ]  ...
We’re ready for a jig       BUT BECAUSE WE’RE PROGRAMMERS,  WE ARE GOING TO ASSIGN IT TO SOME VARIABLES.jig = { time 6/8	 ...
A SectionsecA = relative c {	 e8 g-. g-. c g-. g-. |	 a g a       c g f     |	 e g-. g-.   c e d     |	 c a a       a g f ...
ans Rambles                      B Section Irish                         Traditional  secB     =   relative c {  	 e8     ...
Explicit repeatsjig = { time 6/8	 	 	    secA secA	 	      secB secB      }
6             Volta Repeats8               ITALIAN FOR “TIMES”    jig = { time 6/8    	 	 	    repeat volta 2 secA    	 	 ...
Volta Repeat with 1st & 2nd endings jig = { time 6/8 	 	 	 repeat volta 2 secA           alternative           {          ...
A section: 1st & 2nd endings    aEndingOne = relative c                 { c a a a-. g [ ( f)] }          The Connaughtmans...
Add a Header and Staffheader {	 title = "The Connaughtmans Rambles "	 composer = "Traditional Irish"}score {   new Staff {...
The final product          The Connaughtmans Rambles                                     Traditional Irish          6      ...
Printed for Shape Note Singersscore {   new Staff {     southernHarmonyHeads     jig   }   layout { }      The Connaughtma...
... or Medieval Monksscore {   new VaticanaStaff    { transpose c c { jig         } }The Connaughtmans Rambles layout { }}...
The LilyPond DesignCompared to Finale, Sibelius, MusixTeX, ABC
Sibelius$600 for Mac or WindowsCan integrate with other Avid products:  DigiDesign Pro Tools  M-Audio hardware  Scorch rea...
Sibelius / Finale UI Style               THIS IS A USER INTERFACEGraphical desktopapplications in astyle similar toMicroso...
Design Features1.The ly language is the User Interface*                               * Like SQL
The database UI       THIS IS A USER INTERFACESELECT * FROM usersWHERE last_name like ‘Duncan’;
The LilyPond UITHIS IS A USER INTERFACE       { g }
Lilypond vs. MusicXML (1)               THIS IS AN OPEN FILE FORMAT<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?><...
Lilypond vs. MusicXML (2)        <time>          <beats>4</beats>          <beat-type>4</beat-type>        </time>        ...
Graphical Front End Apps    e.g. Frescobaldi
Graphical Front End Apps     e.g. FrescobaldiMain weakness: LilyPond is designedto render whole scores (slowly), butnot to...
Design Features1.The language is the User Interface2.Musical content is distinct from layout  and rendering
Musical Content is Distinct from        Layout and Rendering{    tempo 4=96 clef bass     c32->[ ( df c df]    b8.->   )  ...
Musical Content is Distinct from        Layout and Rendering{    tempo 4=96 clef bass     c32->[ ( df c df]    b8.->   )  ...
Musical Content is Distinct from        Layout and Rendering{    tempo 4=96 clef bass     c32->[ ( df c df]   b8.->     ) ...
Musical Content is Distinct from        Layout and Rendering{    tempo 4=96 clef bass     c32->[ ( df c df]    b8.->   )  ...
Musical Content is Distinct from        Layout and Rendering{     tempo 4=96 clef bass      c32->[ ( df c df]     b8.->   ...
Musical Content is Distinct from              Layout and Renderingf MusiXTEX      describe layout (albeit economically).  ...
Design Features1.The language is the User Interface.2.Musical content is distinct from layout  and rendering.3. The develo...
Difficult Things Are Possible       Sonata India, Louis Calabro (1990)
Difficult Things Are PossibleAny glyph can be replaced by customPostScript codeAny parameter used in layout can bereplaced ...
The Composer
Original Handwritten Score   and Printed cello part
Quarter Tones for Cello
Double Stops & Harmonics
Unusual Notation
The pianist also plays drums 3                                   = 80                                  pp% Measure 20     ...
Rhythms are split between left      and right hand piano parts                                                       33   ...
Rhythms are split between left 3          3           3     3          3 and right hand piano parts                       ...
Original Printed Cello Part
Original Printed Cello Part                          for DOS (1987)                          or Mac (1989)“Deluxe Music Co...
Wikipedia on DMCS:
Dependency AnalysisDMCS edition:   Original hardware or emulators and copies of   the software used to produce the edition...
Conclusionson music, source code, object code, and engineering
Some Technological History of MusicModern Notation                     Recording                              Computers170...
Composer / Publisher ErasComposer’s handwritten manuscriptor publisher’s commercial engraving                        Compo...
“Score Archaeology”                       (a subset)                  Apple II, Amiga, MacDMCS                   1.0 (Mac)...
EngineeringAn engineer designs something by meansof producing a document which otherscan use to create the thing.
Source CodeSouce code is a document that can be  stored,  transmitted,  and used to produce a particular  software artifact.
Object Codeis a sequence of computer instructionsfor a particular machineand is not human-readable.
CompositionA composer writes music by means ofproducing a score which others can useto perform the music.
Musical ScoresA musical score is a document that can be  stored,  transmitted,  and used to produce a particular  musical ...
The full cycleSource   Software Artifact /   Performance Code          Score{ g }
The abridged cycleSource     Software Artifact /   Computer              X Code            Score         “Performance”{ g }
The abridged cycleSource     Software Artifact /   Computer              X Code            Score         “Performance”{ g }
This is source code!% Measure 33. TODO: Ties in LHpiano clef treble	 << { df2. }  { af32 ( g) af8.~ af2 } >>	 times 2/3 { ...
UltimatelyWhoever creates digital today mediashould strive to produce source codeor standard vendor-neutral filesbut not ju...
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You Can Print Music with LilyPond

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An introduction to GNU LilyPond and discussion of Open Source and music engraving.

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  • Play &amp;#x201C;Sonata India&amp;#x201D; recording as people enter\n\n
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  • Opening brackets are placed after the first note. Beams, slurs, and phrases do not follow the usual rules of nesting. \n
  • Still introducing concepts, but also making some music....\n
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  • The first ending of the A section leads you back to the beginning; the second ending leads you into the B section ...\n
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  • Sibelius is probably the &amp;#x201C;category leader&amp;#x201D;.\n
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  • Use the best German music engraving from the 1950s as a standard (Barenreiter Bach Cello Suites) and try to match it with the default algorithms.\n
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  • Everyone should agree that these two traits together should make almost anything possible. \n
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  • Along with an idiosyncratic notation for them.\n
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  • Let&amp;#x2019;s go another 20 years into the future and try to work with the LilyPond score.\nMany components are required to build LilyPond: specific fonts, and specific versions of FontConfig, FreeType, Ghostscript, Guile, Pango, Python, Perl, Flex, Bison, GetText, Make, MetaFont, and TexInfo. \nBut ultimately they all depend on gcc. Looking back, if I had something from 20 years ago that ultimately only depended on gcc, I would be in good shape.\n\n\n
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  • Zooming in on 1980 - 2010. A real Babel.\n
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  • stored on a file server.\ntransmitted over the internet.\n
  • stored on a file server.\ntransmitted over the internet.\n
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  • stored in a music library.\ntransmitted in the mail.\n
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  • You Can Print Music with LilyPond

    1. 1. You can print music with LilyPond! John David Duncan joh.duncan@oracle.com
    2. 2. GNU LilyPond Software for engraving musichttp://www.lilypond.orgBinaries for Linux, Mac, Windows
    3. 3. AgendaSimple Things Are Simple GETTING STARTED. 15 MIN.The LilyPond design COMPARED TO SOME OTHER SOFTWARE. 10 MIN.Difficult Things Are Possible SONATA INDIA (LOUIS CALABRO, 1990). 10 MIN.Conclusions on music, source code, objectcode, and principles of engineering A LITTLE PHILOSOPHY. 5 MIN.
    4. 4. Simple Things Are Simple Getting Started with LilyPond
    5. 5. You create a text fileWHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GETinto a text file compiled as a PDF by LilyPond { g }
    6. 6. ... containing music expressions. WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GETBegin a pitchmusic expression { g } End expression
    7. 7. The backslash begins commands * WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GETcommand argument{ clef bass c } * like TEX
    8. 8. An Extended Music Expression WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GET{ clef bass c d }
    9. 9. Nested Music Expressions WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GET{ clef bass c { d }}
    10. 10. Pitches can be modified with accents WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GET{ clef bass c->}
    11. 11. ... and other articulation marks. WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GET{ clef bass c-. d-- e->}
    12. 12. You can type flats and sharps in Dutch... WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GET{ clef bass ees fis g}
    13. 13. or you can change the language. WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GETlanguage english{ clef bass ef fs g}
    14. 14. Octaves: is up and , is down WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GET{clef bass c, c cclef treble c c c}
    15. 15. Simultaneous music expessions are enclosed in << ... ... >> WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GET{clef bass << { a b c } { d g c } >>}
    16. 16. Chords in one voice can use < >. WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GET{clef bass<d f> <g b> <c c>}
    17. 17. Set the meter with time WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GET{ 3 time 3/4 g d d 4 g d d}
    18. 18. Bar lines: | and bar WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GET{ time 3/4 g d d | g d d bar "||"} 3 4
    19. 19. These are not complete scores,but LilyPond has been providing an implicit document structure.
    20. 20. The previous example, expandedbook { score { new Staff { new Voice { time 3/4 g d d | g d d } } layout { } }}
    21. 21. Rhythm: notes with durations WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GET{ time 3/4 g4 a4 b4 | 3 c8 b8 a2 | 4 b2 b4 | c2. |}
    22. 22. Durations are “sticky” until changed. WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GETlanguage english{ time 3/4 g4 a b | c8 d e fs g a | g2. | g |} 3 4
    23. 23. Relative Pitch Mode IT CAN SAVE TYPING SOME OCTAVE MARKERS. WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GETlanguage englishrelative c{ time 3/4 g4 a b | c8 d e fs g a | g2. | g |} 3 4
    24. 24. Beams [ ] and Slurs ( ) WHAT YOU TYPE WHAT YOU GETrelative c’{ time 3/4 3 d8 [ ( f f ] 4 f [ e f ] ) g4 e4 c4}
    25. 25. We’re ready for a jig BUT BECAUSE WE’RE PROGRAMMERS, WE ARE GOING TO ASSIGN IT TO SOME VARIABLES.jig = { time 6/8 secA secA secB secB }
    26. 26. A SectionsecA = relative c { e8 g-. g-. c g-. g-. | a g a c g f | e g-. g-. c e d | c a a a g f | e g-. g-. c g-. g-. | a g a c d e | f e d e4trill d8 | c a a a-. g [Connaughtmans Rambles The ( f)] |} 6 8
    27. 27. ans Rambles B Section Irish Traditional secB = relative c { e8 a a e g g | e d e c d f | e a a e g g | e d c d4 f8 | e8 a a e g g | e d e c d f | f e d e4trill d8 | c a a a4. } 6 8
    28. 28. Explicit repeatsjig = { time 6/8 secA secA secB secB }
    29. 29. 6 Volta Repeats8 ITALIAN FOR “TIMES” jig = { time 6/8 repeat volta 2 secA repeat volta 2 secB 6 } 8
    30. 30. Volta Repeat with 1st & 2nd endings jig = { time 6/8 repeat volta 2 secA alternative { { aEndingOne } { aEndingTwo } } repeat volta 2 secB }
    31. 31. A section: 1st & 2nd endings aEndingOne = relative c { c a a a-. g [ ( f)] } The Connaughtmans Rambles aEndingTwo = relative c6 { c a a a4 f8 }8 1. 2.
    32. 32. Add a Header and Staffheader { title = "The Connaughtmans Rambles " composer = "Traditional Irish"}score { new Staff { jig } layout { }}
    33. 33. The final product The Connaughtmans Rambles Traditional Irish 6 85 1. 2.913
    34. 34. Printed for Shape Note Singersscore { new Staff { southernHarmonyHeads jig } layout { } The Connaughtmans Rambles} Traditio 6 8 1.
    35. 35. ... or Medieval Monksscore { new VaticanaStaff { transpose c c { jig } }The Connaughtmans Rambles layout { }} Traditional Irish 1. 2.
    36. 36. The LilyPond DesignCompared to Finale, Sibelius, MusixTeX, ABC
    37. 37. Sibelius$600 for Mac or WindowsCan integrate with other Avid products: DigiDesign Pro Tools M-Audio hardware Scorch reader app for iPad PhotoScore (Musical OCR) AudioScore (Automatic Transcription)
    38. 38. Sibelius / Finale UI Style THIS IS A USER INTERFACEGraphical desktopapplications in astyle similar toMicrosoft Word andAdobe Photoshop,which also allow theuse of a MIDIcontroller to enternotes.
    39. 39. Design Features1.The ly language is the User Interface* * Like SQL
    40. 40. The database UI THIS IS A USER INTERFACESELECT * FROM usersWHERE last_name like ‘Duncan’;
    41. 41. The LilyPond UITHIS IS A USER INTERFACE { g }
    42. 42. Lilypond vs. MusicXML (1) THIS IS AN OPEN FILE FORMAT<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?><!DOCTYPE score-partwise PUBLIC "-//Recordare//DTD MusicXML 3.0 Partwise//EN" "http://www.musicxml.org/dtds/partwise.dtd"><score-partwise version="3.0"> <part-list> <score-part id="P1"> <part-name>Music</part-name> </score-part> </part-list> <part id="P1"> <measure number="1"> <attributes> <divisions>1</divisions> <key> <fifths>0</fifths> </key>
    43. 43. Lilypond vs. MusicXML (2) <time> <beats>4</beats> <beat-type>4</beat-type> </time> <clef> <sign>G</sign> <line>2</line> </clef> </attributes> <note> <pitch> <step>G</step> <octave>4</octave> </pitch> <duration>1</duration> <type>quarter</type> </note> </measure> </part></score-partwise>
    44. 44. Graphical Front End Apps e.g. Frescobaldi
    45. 45. Graphical Front End Apps e.g. FrescobaldiMain weakness: LilyPond is designedto render whole scores (slowly), butnot to allow editing and quickrendering of just the portion of thescore in the active window.
    46. 46. Design Features1.The language is the User Interface2.Musical content is distinct from layout and rendering
    47. 47. Musical Content is Distinct from Layout and Rendering{ tempo 4=96 clef bass c32->[ ( df c df] b8.-> ) } Engravers Performers = 96
    48. 48. Musical Content is Distinct from Layout and Rendering{ tempo 4=96 clef bass c32->[ ( df c df] b8.-> ) } Engravers Performers = 96
    49. 49. Musical Content is Distinct from Layout and Rendering{ tempo 4=96 clef bass c32->[ ( df c df] b8.-> ) } Rendered by a Ignored Clef_engraver = 96
    50. 50. Musical Content is Distinct from Layout and Rendering{ tempo 4=96 clef bass c32->[ ( df c df] b8.-> ) }Metronome_mark_engraver Tempo_performer = 96
    51. 51. Musical Content is Distinct from Layout and Rendering{ tempo 4=96 clef bass c32->[ ( df c df] b8.-> ) } NoteEvent Suppressed accidental Note_performer = 96
    52. 52. Musical Content is Distinct from Layout and Renderingf MusiXTEX describe layout (albeit economically). input file ABCEX file a MusiXTEX file? music in a very simple describes a special kind of TEX input file. What makes it special is that it language. input musixtex before any reference to MusiXTEX macros. Af- t musixadd or input musixmad if you want to have respectivelyments or simultaneous beams, ties, or slurs. If you want to have LilyPondments, you can assign them directly by including one or more of these describes music in a simple but ents, setmaxcxxviiibeams, setmaxcclvibeams, setmaxgroups, ls, setmaxoctlines. powerful language & engrave ite, after that, if you wished to, you could write a whole non-musicalmands provided that you did not use & as a tab character like in plain beautifully. ode has been changed).
    53. 53. Design Features1.The language is the User Interface.2.Musical content is distinct from layout and rendering.3. The developers are irrationally obsessed with producing the most beautiful output possible.
    54. 54. Difficult Things Are Possible Sonata India, Louis Calabro (1990)
    55. 55. Difficult Things Are PossibleAny glyph can be replaced by customPostScript codeAny parameter used in layout can bereplaced by the output of a customfunction written in Scheme
    56. 56. The Composer
    57. 57. Original Handwritten Score and Printed cello part
    58. 58. Quarter Tones for Cello
    59. 59. Double Stops & Harmonics
    60. 60. Unusual Notation
    61. 61. The pianist also plays drums 3 = 80 pp% Measure 20 Tabla or bongos (pitch important)tempo 8=80 bongos drone repeat percent 2 una corda{ acciaccatura{ c16[ c]} c8 [ g16 g]c8[ g8]acciaccatura{ c16[ c]} c8 [ g16 g]c8[ g8] }
    62. 62. Rhythms are split between left and right hand piano parts 33 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 % Measure 33. TODO: Ties in LH piano clef treble = 92 45 Piu Mosso override PhrasingSlur #height-limit = #15 4 times 2/3 { lh c32 3[ ( df g } times 2/3 { rh c df g ] } 3 p
    63. 63. Rhythms are split between left 3 3 3 3 3 and right hand piano parts 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 lh <af, df f>16 rh <g c e> q lh <af, df f> rh <g c e> q lh <af, df f> rh <gp c e> bongos c8[ g16 g] c8[ g] piano |Crescendo s2 repeat tremolo 8 { <c, g, c>16} |
    64. 64. Original Printed Cello Part
    65. 65. Original Printed Cello Part for DOS (1987) or Mac (1989)“Deluxe Music Construction Set” for Mac and Amiga (EA, 1986)* a font
    66. 66. Wikipedia on DMCS:
    67. 67. Dependency AnalysisDMCS edition: Original hardware or emulators and copies of the software used to produce the edition or hardware to read the files from media and specifications of all file formats.LilyPond edition: LilyPond Guile, FreeType, Ghostscript, Python, etc ... C and C++ compilers (gcc)
    68. 68. Conclusionson music, source code, object code, and engineering
    69. 69. Some Technological History of MusicModern Notation Recording Computers1700 1800 1900 2000
    70. 70. Composer / Publisher ErasComposer’s handwritten manuscriptor publisher’s commercial engraving Composer’s digital edition1700 1985 2000
    71. 71. “Score Archaeology” (a subset) Apple II, Amiga, MacDMCS 1.0 (Mac) 1.5 (Mac/Win)ConcertWareIgor Engraver 1.0 2.0 3.0 2005 2007Finale Acorn Windows & MacSibelius 1.0 2.0LilyPond 1.0 1.1 2.0 3.0MusicXML 1980 1990 2000 2010
    72. 72. EngineeringAn engineer designs something by meansof producing a document which otherscan use to create the thing.
    73. 73. Source CodeSouce code is a document that can be stored, transmitted, and used to produce a particular software artifact.
    74. 74. Object Codeis a sequence of computer instructionsfor a particular machineand is not human-readable.
    75. 75. CompositionA composer writes music by means ofproducing a score which others can useto perform the music.
    76. 76. Musical ScoresA musical score is a document that can be stored, transmitted, and used to produce a particular musical artifact.
    77. 77. The full cycleSource Software Artifact / Performance Code Score{ g }
    78. 78. The abridged cycleSource Software Artifact / Computer X Code Score “Performance”{ g }
    79. 79. The abridged cycleSource Software Artifact / Computer X Code Score “Performance”{ g }
    80. 80. This is source code!% Measure 33. TODO: Ties in LHpiano clef treble << { df2. } { af32 ( g) af8.~ af2 } >> times 2/3 { lh c32 [ ( df g } times 2/3 { rh c df g ] } times 2/3 { rh af~ g~ df~ ] } times 2/3 { rh c~ lh g df ) } |s1 |<< { stemDown tieDown c,4 c,4~ c,4 } { stemUptieUp c8 [ g,16 g,] c,8 [ g, ]~ g,4 } >> clef treble s4 |s1 |
    81. 81. UltimatelyWhoever creates digital today mediashould strive to produce source codeor standard vendor-neutral filesbut not just object code.
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