Angella Anderson, M.A., L.P.C.
NMSU Behavioral Health & Wellness Specialist
NMSU Counseling Center
 ADA is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination.
 Allows those with disabilities to enjoy employment

opportuni...
 Employers are not required to provide

accommodations unless an employee requests them.
 Example: if you´re a veteran w...
 Businesses must make "reasonable modifications" in

their policies, practices, or procedures when necessary
so that peop...
 A psychiatric disorder that can occur following the

experience or witnessing of a life-threatening events.
 People wit...
 Memories of trauma “come back”
 May feel fear/horror in present as experienced during

traumatic experience
 Nightmare...
 Avoid people/situations that trigger memories of

traumatic event
 May avoid talking/thinking about event

 Example: m...
 Numb:
 Difficult to express feelings
 Difficulty w/ memory

 Hyper-aroused:
 Feel “jittery”

 Easily startled
 Sud...
 PTSD is marked by clear biological changes as well as

psychological symptoms.
 PTSD is complicated in that some may de...
 Many Americans have experienced a traumatic event….
 About 60% of men & 50% of women experience at

least one traumatic...
 Fear or anxiety
 Sadness or depression
 Guilt and shame
 Anger & irritability
 Behavior changes
 *Most people with ...
 A distinguishing factor for PTSD is

that people begin to organize their
lives around the
trauma, consciously or
unconsc...
 “Despite the human capacity to survive and adapt,

traumatic experiences can alter people’s psychological,
biological, a...
 How intense/long trauma was
 How close you were to the event
 How strong your reaction was
 Higher risk groups:
 Fem...
 If you continue to experience these symptoms for more

than 3 months, seek help….
 YOU CAN FEEL BETTER
 Psychotherapy
 Usually involves meeting therapist once a week for 3-6

months
 Learn skills to better understand how e...
 www.ptsd.va.gov/public/ (National Center for PTSD)

 http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-

stress-diso...
 Comments?
 Feedback?
 Concerns?
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ASD PTSD Presentation NMSU Alamogordo

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Angella Anderson's presentation on PTSD. Presented at NMSU Alamogordo during Disabilities Awareness Week.

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  • Impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities such as walking, speaking, lifting, hearing, seeing, reading, eating, sleeping, concentrating, or working. Major life activities also include the operation of major bodily functions such as brain, immune system, respiratory, neurological, digestive, and circulatory functions. Businesses and State and local government agencies must take reasonable steps to make it possible for people with disabilities to be their employees or customers.
  • Examples of reasonable accommodations:-Flexible scheduling at a retail store or restaurant, so a sales clerk or cashier with PTSD can attend counseling sessions or an employee with a spinal cord injury who has a lengthy personal care routine in the mornings can start his or her workday later. -Allowing more frequent work breaks or providing backup coverage when an employee who has PTSD needs to take a break.
  • PTSD example:-Modifying a no-pets policy to allow someone with PTSD to bring in a service animal that has been trained to calm the person when he or she has an anxiety attack.
  • Life threatening events: natural disaster (i.e., Hurricane Katrina), military combat, terrorist incidents (i.e., Boston), serious accidents, physical/sexual assault in adult/childhood3 kinds of symptoms: -1st: such as becoming upset when confronted with a traumatic reminder or thinking about the trauma when you are trying to do something else.-2nd: avoidance3rd: hypervigilance
  • Flashback: feeling like you’re going through the experience againSometimes there is a “trigger” – sound or sight or smell that causes you to relive the event
  • -Some people may keep very busy or avoid seeking help-This keeps them from having to think or talk about the event, perpetuating this “cycle” of symptoms
  • -Numb: may find it hard to experience emotions; may not have positive feelings toward other people (may lead to avoiding relationships, leading to feelings of isolation), may not be interested in activities you used to enjoy-Hyper-aroused: may always be on the alert and on the lookout for danger, may want to have your back to a wall in a restaurant/classroom, a loud noise can startle you easily
  • PTSD is an ANXIETY DISORDER-Biological changes: increased heart rate, blood pressure (stress response is heightened); psychological (hypervigilance, difficulty focusing)Additional disorders: depression, substance abuse, problems of memory and cognition, and other problems of physical and mental health.
  • -Not everyone is affected……..“One in Ten” rule is a good rule of thumb in assessing reactions to large scale events 1.5% of the general population suffering from PTSD at any one time
  • Fear/anxiety: in moments of danger our bodies prepare to fight our enemy, flee the situation, or freeze in the hope that the danger will move past us. But those feelings of alertness may stay even after the danger has passed, so someone w/ PTSD may: feel tense/afraid, be agitated/jumpy, feel on “alert”Sadness/depression: sadness after trauma may come from a sense of loss(of a loved one, of trust in the world, faith, or a previous way of life). May: have crying spells, lose interest in things you used to enjoy, want to be alone all the time, feel tired/numbGuilt/shame: may feel guilty that you did not do more to prevent the trauma. May feel ashamed b/c during trauma you acted in ways that you would not otherwise have done. May: feel responsible for what happened, feel guilty b/c others were injured/killed and you survived (survivor guilt)Anger/irritability: anger may result from feeling you have been unfairly treated. Anger can make you feel irritated & cause you to be easily “set off” (short fuse). You may: lash out at your partner, have less patience with your children, over react to small misunderstandings.Behavior changes: you may act in unhealthy ways: drink, use drugs, drive aggressively, neglect your health, avoid certain people/situations
  • ASD PTSD Presentation NMSU Alamogordo

    1. 1. Angella Anderson, M.A., L.P.C. NMSU Behavioral Health & Wellness Specialist NMSU Counseling Center
    2. 2.  ADA is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination.  Allows those with disabilities to enjoy employment opportunities, to purchase goods and services, and to participate in State and local government programs and services.  The ADA covers people with a physical or mental impairment.
    3. 3.  Employers are not required to provide accommodations unless an employee requests them.  Example: if you´re a veteran with a hidden disability like PTSD, you can decide whether to reveal the disability and request accommodations.  If you don´t need accommodations, you don´t have to disclose the disability.  Employers with fifteen or more employees must comply with these provisions.
    4. 4.  Businesses must make "reasonable modifications" in their policies, practices, or procedures when necessary so that people with disabilities can be their customers.  Businesses are not, however, required to make any changes that would fundamentally alter or change the nature of the business or its services.
    5. 5.  A psychiatric disorder that can occur following the experience or witnessing of a life-threatening events.  People with PTSD experience 3 different kinds of symptoms.  1st: involves reliving the trauma in some way.  2nd: involves either staying away from places or people that remind you of the trauma, isolating from other people, or feeling numb.  3rd: includes things such as feeling on guard, irritable, or startling easily.
    6. 6.  Memories of trauma “come back”  May feel fear/horror in present as experienced during traumatic experience  Nightmares  Flashbacks
    7. 7.  Avoid people/situations that trigger memories of traumatic event  May avoid talking/thinking about event  Example: may avoid crowds, driving (if you were in a car accident or if your military convoy was bombed)  Avoidance takes energy!
    8. 8.  Numb:  Difficult to express feelings  Difficulty w/ memory  Hyper-aroused:  Feel “jittery”  Easily startled  Suddenly become angry/irritated
    9. 9.  PTSD is marked by clear biological changes as well as psychological symptoms.  PTSD is complicated in that some may develop additional disorders.  The disorder is also associated with impairment of the person’s ability to function in social or family life, including occupational instability, marital problems and divorces, family discord, and difficulties in parenting.
    10. 10.  Many Americans have experienced a traumatic event….  About 60% of men & 50% of women experience at least one traumatic event  Of those who do, about 8% of men & 20% of women will develop PTSD  1.5% of population experiencing PTSD at any one time
    11. 11.  Fear or anxiety  Sadness or depression  Guilt and shame  Anger & irritability  Behavior changes  *Most people with have some of these reactions at first, but they will get better at some time.  *If symptoms last longer that 3 mos., cause you distress, or disrupt life, you should SEEK HELP!
    12. 12.  A distinguishing factor for PTSD is that people begin to organize their lives around the trauma, consciously or unconsciously.
    13. 13.  “Despite the human capacity to survive and adapt, traumatic experiences can alter people’s psychological, biological, and social equilibrium to such a degree that the memory of one particular event comes to taint all other experiences, spoiling appreciation of the present. The tyranny of the past interferes with the ability to pay attention to both new and familiar situations.”
    14. 14.  How intense/long trauma was  How close you were to the event  How strong your reaction was  Higher risk groups:  Female or minority  Little education  Had earlier trauma (multiple traumas)  Other mental health problems  Little support  Recent stressful life changes
    15. 15.  If you continue to experience these symptoms for more than 3 months, seek help….  YOU CAN FEEL BETTER
    16. 16.  Psychotherapy  Usually involves meeting therapist once a week for 3-6 months  Learn skills to better understand how experience changed thoughts/feelings  Meditation/mindfulness  Medication
    17. 17.  www.ptsd.va.gov/public/ (National Center for PTSD)  http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic- stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml (National Institute of Mental Health)  http://www.nami.org/template.cfm?section=ptsd (National Alliance on Mental Illness)  “Mind-Body Workbook for PTSD” by Stanley Block & Carolyn B. Block  “Trauma & Recovery” by Judith Herman
    18. 18.  Comments?  Feedback?  Concerns?

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