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  1. 1. “… in the winter of 1813 & ’14, during my first College vacations, I attended a mathematical school kept in Boston by the Rev. Francis Xavier Brosius… On entering his room, we were struck at the appearance of an ample Black Board suspended on the wall, with lumps of chalk on a ledge below, and cloths hanging at either side. I had never heard of such a thing before. There it was – forty-two years ago – that I first saw what now I trust is considered indispensable in every school – the Black Board – and there that I first witnessed the process of analytical and inductive teaching.” (Samual J. May, [abolitionist] 1855).
  2. 2. How People Learn Making Technology Work
  3. 3. Development of teaching <ul><li>Mid 1400’s: utilization of limited resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Organized around courses. </li></ul><ul><li>The present situation. </li></ul><ul><li>The modern university is constrained by this long-established educational structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity vs abundance. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Technology in the Classroom <ul><li>Replacement of educational forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentally new, highly personalized education ever simpler to develop and deliver. </li></ul><ul><li>Reality: Some technology will replace some aspects of traditional pedagogy but not all. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Blackboard as a Technology <ul><li>It allows information to be displayed in a persistent manner. </li></ul><ul><li>It gives the audience a consistent view of far more information than can be held in short-term memory. </li></ul><ul><li>It becomes a mediating artifact that maintains a shared view between the instructor and student by providing context for lecture and discussion. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fast Forward to Electronic Slides <ul><li>Allows advanced preparation of material. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves organization of the presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives means of showing rich content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex tables, formulas, programs, diagrams, A/V </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Afford instantaneous display. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids inaccuracy and time of copying to a different media. </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of preparation, sharing, and modification. </li></ul>
  7. 7. E-learning falsehoods <ul><li>If we build it, they will come. </li></ul><ul><li>The kids will take to e-learning like ducks to water. </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning will force a change in how we teach. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Academic Apprentice to Expert: Using Simulations <ul><li>A combination approach of theory in class and practice in labs (learn by doing) has been a staple of almost every discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>There are serious short-comings. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations may be a alternative. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not provide a substitute for developing intuition. </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition is what we wish to develop in the classroom </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Body-kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Logico-mathematical </li></ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalist </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial </li></ul>
  10. 10. Different Strokes for Different Folks: CMS utilization is dependent on content and learning style
  11. 11. <ul><li>Unused elements </li></ul><ul><li>Unsuccessful implementation of discussion boards in lower level courses </li></ul><ul><li>Student navigation issues (what's new) </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors ill-equipped to use a CMS </li></ul><ul><li>Long download times and file incompatibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial nature of resources provided </li></ul><ul><li>Students like frequent quizzes to determine their progress </li></ul><ul><li>Other liked tools: Announcements, Calendar, Assignments, and Group facility </li></ul>
  12. 12. Differential application of a CMS in eLearning <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>instructor drives learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>instructor provides framework for learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>instructor facilitates autonomous learning </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. How CMS helps in Transmission instructor drives learning <ul><li>Communicate instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement of basic knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Simple repetitive tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid feedback on progress </li></ul><ul><li>Access to multi-sensory media-rich interactive resources. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Typical problems posed by the transmissive learner instructor provides framework <ul><li>Low levels of motivation, concentration, organization and self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Some social and behavioural problems. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Transmissive tools <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><li>Filtered web links </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Online Tests </li></ul>
  16. 16. How CMS helps in Transaction instructor provides framework <ul><li>Scaffolding and structure for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Links between key concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies and applications of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback to stimulus material </li></ul>
  17. 17. Typical problems posed by the transactive learner <ul><li>Low levels of engagement, focus and responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of unconscious incompetence </li></ul>
  18. 18. Transactive tools <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><li>Filter Web links </li></ul><ul><li>Task release </li></ul><ul><li>Attached documents </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Units </li></ul><ul><li>Online Tests and Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Structured Discussion Boards </li></ul>
  19. 19. How CMS helps in Transformation instructor facilitates learning <ul><li>Environment for collaboration and mutual support </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering of dialogue, debate, reflection and transfer of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Resources to support creativity and the analysis of authentic problems </li></ul>
  20. 20. Typical problems posed by the transformative learner <ul><li>Complex life-work balances </li></ul><ul><li>difficulties in physically accessing College </li></ul><ul><li>Highly disparate base of knowledge and experience </li></ul>
  21. 21. Transformative tools <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><li>Filtered Web links </li></ul><ul><li>Attached documents </li></ul><ul><li>Attached presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Group tools </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion Board (structured and unstructured) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Dropbox </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Classroom </li></ul>
  22. 22. Other influencing issues <ul><li>Subject-specific content </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching styles </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of CMS use for delivery </li></ul>
  23. 23. The diverse nature of curricular content and differing learner needs must be reflected in a variety of approaches. The effectiveness of a Blackboard course bore less of a relationship to the amount of content contained within it but more to the type of content and to how this was integrated with traditional classroom-based teaching and learning activities. One size does not fit all. Typically utilized as part of a blended approach, styles of e-learning need to correlate with the methods adopted in face to face (classroom) environment. Conclusions:
  24. 24. The end result <ul><li>We strive to improve learning in the classroom and we embrace new instructional delivery systems, but… </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to kindle curiosity, enthusiasm, and the desire for knowledge. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Assessment <ul><li>What to do </li></ul>