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India's Indepencence
 

India's Indepencence

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  • To be a citizen of a country means to live by a Constitution. This is a model constitution. It says: “We the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign democratic republic, and to secure to all its citizens: justice, liberty, equality, fraternity…..” It is, like other constitutions, grand, noble, idealistic, and, rightly, a model to follow, not a mirror of what exists. Thus, there is a hierarchy, but it is not a sanctioned hierarchy, and the Constitution is a means to practise equality.
  • Nehru met Gandhi in 1916 at the annual Indian National Congress convention. He participated in the nonviolent civil disobedience campaign and spent time in jail along with Gandhi. At independence, Nehru became the nation’s first prime minister and was continually reelected until his death in 1964. Nehru pushed modernization of the country, and industrialization of its economy.
  • India has had a "mixed economy" in which both private business and government invest in and direct the economy. Today, India has been moving away from state ownership and subsidies to business. India's government has established five-year plans to set economic goals. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s made great headway, but faltered due to most farmers' lack of money to buy hybrid seeds, fertilizers, and equipment. Imports still needed.
  • Indira Gandhi was Nehru’s daughter. She married a man named Gandhi who was no relation to the Mahatma. Indira continued industrialization, begun by her father. In 1975 Gandhi was convicted on two counts of corruption in the 1971 campaign. While appealing the decision, she declared a state of emergency, imprisoned her political opponents, and assumed emergency powers. Governing by decree, she imposed total press censorship and implemented a policy of large-scale sterilization as a form of birth control. When long-postponed national elections were held in 1977, Gandhi and her party were soundly defeated. Although very popular at the polls, she faced a great challenge in dealing with nationalist movements among minority groups, especially the Sikhs in Punjab state. The Sikhs sought independence of Punjab, and when they used terrorism, Indira struck back. The Golden Temple -- an extremely holy Sikh shrine at Amritsar was being used by the terrorists as a weapons storehouse and a sanctuary. Indira ordered a military raid on the temple in which hundreds of Sikhs were brutally killed. In the process, the temple was badly damaged. In retaliation, just a few months later on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguards.
  • Indira Gandhi was Nehru’s daughter. She married a man named Gandhi who was no relation to the Mahatma. Indira continued industrialization, begun by her father. In 1975 Gandhi was convicted on two counts of corruption in the 1971 campaign. While appealing the decision, she declared a state of emergency, imprisoned her political opponents, and assumed emergency powers. Governing by decree, she imposed total press censorship and implemented a policy of large-scale sterilization as a form of birth control. When long-postponed national elections were held in 1977, Gandhi and her party were soundly defeated. Although very popular at the polls, she faced a great challenge in dealing with nationalist movements among minority groups, especially the Sikhs in Punjab state. The Sikhs sought independence of Punjab, and when they used terrorism, Indira struck back. The Golden Temple -- an extremely holy Sikh shrine at Amritsar was being used by the terrorists as a weapons storehouse and a sanctuary. Indira ordered a military raid on the temple in which hundreds of Sikhs were brutally killed. In the process, the temple was badly damaged. In retaliation, just a few months later on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguards.
  • Indira Gandhi was Nehru’s daughter. She married a man named Gandhi who was no relation to the Mahatma. Indira continued industrialization, begun by her father. In 1975 Gandhi was convicted on two counts of corruption in the 1971 campaign. While appealing the decision, she declared a state of emergency, imprisoned her political opponents, and assumed emergency powers. Governing by decree, she imposed total press censorship and implemented a policy of large-scale sterilization as a form of birth control. When long-postponed national elections were held in 1977, Gandhi and her party were soundly defeated. Although very popular at the polls, she faced a great challenge in dealing with nationalist movements among minority groups, especially the Sikhs in Punjab state. The Sikhs sought independence of Punjab, and when they used terrorism, Indira struck back. The Golden Temple -- an extremely holy Sikh shrine at Amritsar was being used by the terrorists as a weapons storehouse and a sanctuary. Indira ordered a military raid on the temple in which hundreds of Sikhs were brutally killed. In the process, the temple was badly damaged. In retaliation, just a few months later on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguards.
  • . General elections in November 1989 brought the defeat of Rajiv Gandhi. Officials in his government were accused of taking kickbacks from the Bofors Company of Sweden in a purchase of guns for the army. Vishwanath Pratap Singh, leader of the Janata Dal party, was sworn in as prime minister on Dec. 2, 1989. In March 1990 India withdrew the last of its 50,000 troops from Sri Lanka. The peacekeeping force failed in its three-year effort to reconcile the Tamils with the majority Sinhalese. Campaigning to return to office, Gandhi was killed by a bomb blast on May 21, 1991.
  • The population of India is just over 1 billion people. It is believed that India’s population will surpass that of China by 2020. No success with family planning, birth control/abortion. Necessity of large families in agrarian subsistence lifestyle. India's economy is uneven at best: many Indians lead a subsistence lifestyle, while a sizeable middle class and a small upper class live in the cities. The situation in Kashmir is quite dangerous. Ongoing hostilities continue, and both sides continue a low-level crossfire across the border of this divided region. Three wars have been fought over Kashmir: 1948, 1965, and 1971. The 1972 partition did not settle the issue. Because both sides, India and Pakistan, have nuclear weapons, some fear that the potential for large-scale war could lead to the use of these nuclear weapons. In the summer of 2002, India and Pakistan came within a hair’s breadth of war.
  • Khan stressed modernization. His following in West Pakistan held liberal views of Islamic law, leading to dissent within W. Pakistan, and especially in East Pakistan. After Khan left office in 1969, East Pakistan refused to pay taxes to West Pakistan. West Pakistan sent in troops, sparking civil war. Thousands killed, millions escaped to India. India entered the war, helped Bangladesh declare its independence in 1972.
  • The population of India is just over 1 billion people. It is believed that India’s population will surpass that of China by 2020. No success with family planning, birth control/abortion. Necessity of large families in agrarian subsistence lifestyle. India's economy is uneven at best: many Indians lead a subsistence lifestyle, while a sizeable middle class and a small upper class live in the cities. The situation in Kashmir is quite dangerous. Ongoing hostilities continue, and both sides continue a low-level crossfire across the border of this divided region. Three wars have been fought over Kashmir: 1948, 1965, and 1971. The 1972 partition did not settle the issue. Because both sides, India and Pakistan, have nuclear weapons, some fear that the potential for large-scale war could lead to the use of these nuclear weapons. In the summer of 2002, India and Pakistan came within a hair’s breadth of war.

India's Indepencence India's Indepencence Presentation Transcript

  • India's Independence
  • Indian National Congress Founded in 1885
  • Gandhi with the London Vegetarian Society, 1890
  • Gandhi as a Lawyer in South Africa
  • Amritsar Massacre, 1919 379 dead; over 1200 wounded!
  • Salt March 1930 Making Salt
  • Last Viceroy of India Lord Louis & Lady Edwina Montbatten
  • Partition!
  •  
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  • Border problems
  • Jawarlal Nehru
    • Ally of Gandhi.
    • 1 st Prime Minister of India, 1947-1964.
    • Advocated Industrialization.
    • Promoted “Green Revolution.”
    • Nonaligned Movement.
  • Non-Alignment
    • private and public ownership.
    • Foreign aid & foreign investment are crucial.
    • Urban areas have high-tech companies.
    • 75% of the population are farmers living in small villages.
    • India's "Green Revolution" allowed farmers to triple their crop by using modern science and technology. Goal of self-sufficiency.
    India’s Economy
    • Nehru’s daughter.
    • Prime Minister of India, 1966-1984.
    • Continues Nehru’s policies.
    • Faced corruption charges & internal rebellion.
    • Assassinated in 1984.
    Indira Gandhi
  • Persecution of the Sikhs The Sikh religion originated in 15th century in the Punjab region of India. (Sikhs goal is the union of one’s soul with God. A Sikh disciplines his thoughts and actions so that the five obstacles — lust, anger, greed, attachment and ego — are dispelled and his soul is united with God. Sikhs believe that the cycle of reincarnation is escaped by this union.)
  • A Sikh Diaspora: Below: Sikh new year in Canada
  • Mrs. Gandhi assassinated! 1984
    • Indira’s son.
    • Prime Minister of India, 1984-1989.
    • Some reform of economy and government.
    • Assassinated in 1991.
    Rajiv Gandhi
    • Italian-born Sonia Maino married Rajiv Gandhi in 1968.
    • She moved into the house of her mother-in-law, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
    A foreigner joins the family
    • 1983  Indian citizen.
    • 1984  first lady when her husband, Rajiv Gandhi, succeeded his assassinated mother as Prime Minister.
    Mrs. Sonia Maino Gandhi
    • 1991  Tragedy struck the Gandhi family again when Rajiv was killed by a suicide bomber.
    • Sonia Gandhi remained Roman Catholic, but follows Hindu & Indian traditions.
    • With her children, she scattered Rajiv's ashes in the Ganges.
    • After Rajiv's death Sonia shied away from the spotlight. In 1998, she agreed to start her own career as a “Gandhi” again and became an important political leader.
    • Sonia's son Rahul and daughter Priyanka have also become politically active.
  •  
    • 2004  Prime Minister.
    • He stood next to Sonia Gandhi, who stunned the country when she declined the office of Prime Minister.
    • He was the first Sikh to be Prime Minister.
    Manmohan Singh
    • Overpopulation  1 billion & climbing.
    • Economic development.
    • Hindu-Muslim tensions.
    • Gender issues  dowry killings.
    • Caste bias  discrimination against untouchables continues.
    • The Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons.
    • Political assassinations.
    Major problems in India today
  • Is the dream gone?
  • 1971 India-Pakistan War
  • Indira Gandhi with her troops
  • Indian soldiers near the Pakistan border
  • 1998 India and Pakistan test nuclear weapons
  • 2002 Military Statistics
  •  
  •  
  • The India-Pakistan Arms Race Heats Up in the Late 1990s
  • 2002 Nuclear Statistics
  • Pakistani Activists Burn an Indian Flag to Protest India’s 1998 Nuclear Tests
  • Hot Air Balloon Protesting India & Pakistan’s nuclear testing - 1998
  • India Displays Nuclear Missiles During “Republic Day,” - 2002
  •  
  • New Friends? Musharraf and India's new Prime Minister Manmohan Singh speak by telephone frequently affirming a strong desire for peace and resolution of their disputes, including Kashmir, on which the two countries have fought two of their three wars.
  • Partners in the “War on Terror?”
  •  
  •  
    • Led briefly by Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
    • Prime Minister Ayub Khan.
    • Dangerous combination
      • Was not prepared to rule in 1948.
      • Strong Islamic fundamentalism.
      • Impoverished.
    • Pakistan divides in 1972
      • W. Pakistan = Pakistan
      • E. Pakistan = Bangladesh
    pakistan
    • First Woman Prime Minister, 1988
      • Ousted in 1990, 1993 on corruption charges.
    • Nawaz Sharif
      • Ousted three times.
      • Struggle between modernizers and fundamentalists.
    Benazir Bhutto
      • Coup d’etat .
      • Secular government against Islamic fundamentalists.
      • U.S. ally in the “War on Terror.”
    Gen. Pervex Musharaff
    • Economic development.
    • Political instability/military dictatorship.
    • Hindu-Muslim tensions.
    • Gender issues  honor killings.
    • Terrorism.
    • The Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons.
    Major problems & Issues in Pakistan today
  • India-Pakistan Border Disputes