Known as Il Vittoriano, this monument was begun in 1885 and inaugurated in 1925 in honour of Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy, the first king of a unified Italy. The king is depicted here in a gilt bronze equestrian statue, over-sized like the monument itself - the statue is 12 m (39 ft) long. Built in austere white Brescian marble, the &quot;wedding cake&quot; or &quot;typewriter&quot; (two of many insulting nicknames given to this unloved white elephant) will never mellow into the ochre tones of surrounding buildings. It is widely held to be the epitome of self-important, insensitive architecture. Its negative fame is now starting to change: the edifice contains an exhibition area offering important temporary exhibitions. To note that in June 2002, Il Vittoriano has been re-opened to the public, to become one of the most glorious &quot;belvederes&quot; over Rome's unique scenarios. The lavish Victor Emmanuel Monument, Italy's first King. This huge white structure right in the middle of Rome is hated for its associations with fascism, incongruence with the surrounding old architecture, and shameless luxury. It is, nonetheless, spectacular. The Kingdom of Italy needed to celebrate Victor Emmanuel II and the northern part of Capitol Hill was chosen to erect a gigantic monument which was to become the symbol itself of the new State. Palazzetto Venezia was re-erected near the church of S. Marco, the Torlonia sold their Palace (previously known as Palazzo Bolognetti) to allow space for enlarging Piazza Venezia and the medieval buildings on the slopes of the Capitol (including the imposing tower shown in the plate) were pulled down. The chapel mentioned by Vasi (Cappella della Beata Vergine) was in part rebuilt inside Palazzo Venezia.
European Architecture and the Weimar Republic’s Bauhaus
Bauhaus Gropius, Dessau, 1925-26 <ul><li>Walter Gropius (1883-1969). Studied at the Colleges of Technology of Berlin and Munich. Worked under the german architect Peter Behrens from 1907-10. He was influenced by the writings of Frank Lloyd Wright. Founded the Bauhaus (House of Building), one of the most influential architecture and design schools of the 20th century. The rise of National Socialsim and Adolf Hitler drove Gropius out of Germany. He first went to London, but eventually settled in Boston, where he taught at Harvard and MIT </li></ul>
1929 Barcelona Chair, Mies <ul><li>Mies: "The chair is a very difficult object. Everyone who has ever tried to make one knows that. There are endless possibilities and many problems--the chair has to be light, it has to be strong, it has to be comfortable. It is almost easier to build a skyscraper than a good chair." </li></ul>
Chaise lounge, le Corbusier and Charlotte Perriand, 1929