The Creative ClassroomNurturing and Supporting Innovative Thought Wednesday, July 25th, 2012 Jeff Danielian firstname.lastname@example.org
Possible Titles and IdeasEminence, Prominence, and DiligenceChance, Circumstance, and IncidenceConsideration, Expectation, andEvaluationMotivation, Dedication, Frustration,and Introspection
From the pages of: “Dreams begin at home or in the classroom.” “Educators can only guide students in the right direction, offering suggestions and ideas along the way. The rest is up to them.” “Education, much like life, is an ever changing process. Failure, as a variable, always comes into play.” “The monotony of daily classes is lost when students are allowed to discover who they are as individuals.”
“Never give children achance of imagining thatanything exists inisolation. Make it plainfrom the very beginningthat all living isrelationship. Show themrelationships in thewoods, in the fields, in theponds and streams, in thevillage and in the countryaround it. Rub it in..” - Aldous Huxley
“The journey isdifficult, immense. Wewill travel as far as wecan, but we cannot inone lifetime see all thatwe would like to see orto learn all that wehunger to know.” - Loren Eiseley
“ Take something simple and connect it ” to many things.
Chalk: It’s Ancient Uses Drawings that date to prehistoric times have been discovered by archaeologists. The earliest chalk writings/drawings are usually found in caves. As time went by artists from various countries used chalk to make drawings and sketches. For the convenience of these artists, a major innovation was introduced – chalks shaped into sticks.
Chalk: The ScienceOver the course of 100 million years, Protozoans suchas foraminifera, with shells made of calcite extracted from therich sea-water, lived on the marine debris that showered downfrom the upper layers of the ocean.As they died a deep layer gradually built up and eventually,through the weight of overlying sediments, became consolidatedinto rock. Later, during the formation of mountain ranges, theseformer sea-floor deposits were raised above sea level.Chalk is composed mostly of calcium carbonate with minoramounts of silt and clay.
Chalk: Other UsesChalk is used to make quicklime and slaked lime, mainly used as lime mortar in buildings. Sidewalk chalk is used to draw on sidewalks, streets, and driveways, mostly by children, but also by adult artists. In agriculture chalk is used for raising pH in soils with high acidity. In field sports, including grass tennis courts, powdered chalk was used to mark the boundary lines of the playing field or court. In gymnastics an rock-climbing, chalk — now usually magnesium carbonate — is applied to the hands to remove perspiration and reduce slipping.
Chalk: Other Uses Tailors chalk is traditionally a hard chalk used to make temporary markings on cloth, mainly by tailors.Toothpaste also commonly contains small amounts of chalk, to serve as a mild abrasive. Polishing chalk is chalk prepared with a carefully controlled grain size, for very fine polishing of metals. Woodworking joints may be fitted by chalking one of the mating surfaces. A trial fit will leave a chalk mark on the high spots of the corresponding surface. Used as Fingerprint powder Taken orally, in small doses, as an antacid.
The Reason formy becomingand educator! And why I still am…
“Every generation has achance to change theworld. Pity the nationthat won’t listen to itsboys and girls. Thesweetest melody is theone we haven’t heard.” -I’ll Go Crazy If I Don’t Go Crazy Tonight from: No Line on The Horizon 2009
Csikszentmihaly’s three-part theory of creativity• the individual• field• the domain These are the most important components of the realization of creativity.• FLOW
Gardner• studied the creative eminence of influential persons of recent times.• states that components must be present to permanently alter the domain “in a way that is initially considered novel but that ultimately becomes accepted in a particular cultural setting.”
Wallas• presented a four-part creative process including preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification.• Creative individual follows a pattern in which success is finally determined by the acceptance and verification by an audience.
Factors Contributing to Creativity Amabile: Maslow : Intrinsic motivation Self-actualization concept• the love, satisfaction, • the creative individual and challenge of a continues to develop by particular event which recognizing his own directs talent. potential, and the motivation comes from inner strength and confidence.
Art Costa Habits of Mind Persisting Thinking about your thinking Communicating with clarity (metacognition) and precision Taking risks Managing impulsivity Striving for accuracy and Gathering data through all precision senses Finding humor Listening with understanding Questioning and problem and empathy posing Creating, imagining, Thinking interdependently innovating Applying past knowledge to Thinking flexibly new situations Responding with wonderment Remaining open to and awe continuous learning
Three Ring Conception Over Houndstooth Pattern
“Jane Raph –An inspiringTeacher in my mastersdegree program atRutgers University askedme to read a pre-publication manuscriptof this book. By the timeI finished I was hookedon the subject ofcreativity and wanted tostudy it more thananything else I wasdoing. This led to alifelong interest increativity and relatedcognitive processes.” JSR
Creativity enters the Equation: An Influential Teacherand A Little Bit of LuckPrompt: Picture of a Man On An Airplane The High IQ Subject Mr. Smith is on his way home from a successful business trip. He is very happy and he is thinking about his wonderful family and how glad he will be to see them again. He can picture it, about an hour from now, his plane landing at the airport and Mrs. Smith and their three children all there welcoming him home again.Getzels, J. W., & Jackson, P. W. (1962). Creativity and Intelligence: Explorations With Gifted Students. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Prompt: Picture of a Man On An Airplane The High Creative Subject This man is flying back from Reno where he has just won a divorce from his wife, He couldnt’t stand to live with her anymore, he told the judge, because she wore so much cold cream on her face at night that her head would skid across the pillow and hit him in the head. He is now contemplating a new skid-proof cream.
Positive Characteristics of Creativity• aware of their own • attracted to complexity creativeness and novelty• original • artistic• independent • open-minded• willing to take risks • need for privacy, alone• energetic time• curious • perceptive• keen sense of humor
Negative Characteristics of Creativity• questioning rules and • absentmindedness authority • indifference to common• stubbornness conventions• low interest in details • tendency to be• forgetfulness emotional• carelessness and disorganization with unimportant matters
Creative ThinkingFluency – the production of a great number of ideasFlexibility – producing a variety of categories of ideas.Originality – production of ideas that are unique or unusual.Elaboration – production of ideas that display detail or enrichment..
Creative Problem Solving The CPS technique encourages students to answer, consider alternatives, and create solutions to problems by formulating an action plan.•Start with convergent questioning to find issues. Wouldn’t it be nice if … or Wouldn’t it be awful if …•Gather information:Consider the problem at a deeper level.•Isolate one problem:Isolate one problem or issue that needs to be addressed.•Find solutions to the one underlying problem:Brainstorm possible solutions to this one problem, and be sure to considersolving the problem from many different perspectives•Create a dynamic action plan:Develop an action plan that will tell who will take charge of the idea, howlong it will take the idea to be put into place, where the work will be done,and what materials will be necessary throughout the planning andimplementation of the plan.
Creative DramaticsThe act of creative dramatics is perhaps the most activeand performance driven of all the creativity thinkingtools. It not only allows the students to use theirimagination and bodies, but it makes the studentsactive, an important part of middle level education.The students, becoming comfortable with their voicesand bodies, begin to develop an appreciation for thedramatic arts and their use in the areas of publicspeaking, leadership, presentation, and creativity, andnot just the stage.
“SCAMPER” In 1977, Bob Eberle rearranged some common divergent thinking questions into the acronym “SCAMPER” to help students create new ideas by systematically modifying something already existing.Letter Representing Sample Questions S Substitute What similarities exist? What could be substituted for ________? C Combine Might something be combined or brought together to solve the new challenge? A Adapt What changes or adjustment can be made to help us now? M Modify/Magnify/Minify What could happen if you could change the situation to match these conditions? P Put to other uses In what other ways might parts be used? E Eliminate/Elaborate What could be removed or enhanced? R Reverse/Rearrange What effects would come from changing the sequence?
ScamperingRead a story. What elements of SCAMPER could beused to affect the plot and outcome of the story?Design an invention. Sky’s the limit.Use a current social or political problem as a way todiscuss how SCAMPER could be applied for a solution.Take an object: a pencil, a brick, a paperclip. How canyou apply the elements of SCAMPER to come up with anew and creative use of the object?
Morphological MatrixStudents list the attribute of two or more related topics in order to create a new product, story, etc.
Classroom Implications Many Routes and Considerations Strategies: Scamper, CPS, and Morph Matrix1. Sketches and possible images of your product, wrapped and unwrapped. Appeals to the Artists and Photographers!2. A written description of your product, with a special emphasis on descriptive words. Appeals to the Writers!3. Complete advertising plan, including marketing information and print and/or media ad example. Appeals to the Artist, the “Business Person” and the voice talent and possible Videographers!4. Consumer trial data or comments based about the areas listed in #’s 1-3. Appeals to the Scientists and Public Speakers (My follow-up would include a presentation to me in class)
•Asking what if or just • Refining, developing, andsuppose questions strengthening possibilities.• Predicting, speculating, • Setting priorities, sorting,and forecasting and then arranging, and categorizingtesting out ideas. ideas.• Combining or changing • Examining ideas using aparts to make new constructive approachpossibilities. • Focusing on how to• Thinking about strengthen or build up ideasmetaphors or analogies by analyzing possibilities in balanced and forward thinking ways.• Going beyond what isgiven by acquiring andusing vast amounts of • Showing initiative andinformation. taking ownership in• Gathering, organizing, problem solving.and analyzing data from • Persisting when thingsmany sources and are not yet working.domains. • Reflecting on their• Asking many, varied, goals and progress.and unusual questions. • Marching to a• Learning from different drummer.mistakes.
Observation It is Crucial to observe students as they engage in a creative activity. Through observations, strengths and weaknesses in the student’s processes will come to light. Use the strategies you have already gained to assess.
Utilizing Assessments Along the Way • Calendars • Planning Sheets • Reality Checks • Note Sheets • Research Portfolios • Scattered Due dates • Rough Draft Submissions • Faculty Sign-ups More responsibility on the student!
Rubrics offer students a glimpse into how they will beassessed and allow for a range of comments concerningeffort, creativity, skill acquisition, and demonstration ofability. Students are able to see areas of strength whilefocusing on areas needing improvement. • the Criteria, or skill areas to be evaluated; • the Descriptors of these criteria, longer statements about each criterion; and • the Levels of Performance, that illustrate the highest and lowest levels of understanding. •Comments, Comments, Comments, and Copy
No Excellent, Good, Fair, and Poor for levels ofperformance. Try to relate them to the subject or discipline.For example, an assignment relating to writing a newspaperarticle would have a top level of National Publication and alow level of School Newspaper.An art project might carry the levels National Museum, StateMuseum, Local Gallery, and School Wall. Students should never think of themselves as failures, but should look for skills to improve. Using these levels lets them know how positive it is to have their work published in a school newspaper or displayed on a fridge or school wall.
TEACHING FOR CREATIVITY: TWO DOZEN TIPSBy Robert Sternberg and Wendy M. Williams
Reward Creative Ideas and Products Identify and Surmount Obstacles Imagine Other Viewpoints How to Define and Redefine Problems Tolerate Ambiguity Teach Self-Responsibility Allow Time for Creative Thinking Cross-Fertilize Ideas Promote Self-RegulationProselytize for Creativity Build Self-Efficacy Delay Gratification Encourage Sensible Risks Encourage Idea Generation Instruct and Assess CreativelyRecognize Person-Environmental Fit http://www.cdl.org/resource-library/articles/teaching_creativity.phpAdapted From: TEACHING FOR CREATIVITY: TWO DOZEN TIPS By Robert Sternberg and Wendy M. Williams
Model Creativity In order to be a model of creativity, you will need to think and teach creatively yourself. Think carefully about your values, goals, and ideas, feelings, and assumptions about creativity and exhibit them in your classroom.Adapted From: TEACHING FOR CREATIVITY: TWO DOZEN TIPS By Robert Sternberg and Wendy M. Williams
Utilize questioning daily in the classroom. It is more important for students to learn what questions to ask-and how to ask them-than to learn the answers. Assess and evaluate their questions by discouraging the idea that the role of the teacher is to ask questions. Instill the belief that you are not there as a fact generator. Stress the ability to use facts, and instruct your students learn how to formulate good questions as well as how to answer good questions. Question AssumptionsAdapted From: TEACHING FOR CREATIVITY: TWO DOZEN TIPS By Robert Sternberg and Wendy M. Williams
If and when students make mistakes, ask them to analyze and discuss them either with you, their parents, or a classmates. Allow Mistakes Remind them that quite often, mistakes contain the germ of good ideas. If you want to make a difference, explore mistakes with your students.Adapted From: TEACHING FOR CREATIVITY: TWO DOZEN TIPS By Robert Sternberg and Wendy M. Williams
Encourage Creative Collaboration Play to Strengths Encouraging creative By identifying performance during group specific talent, you work is essential . can create opportunities for Giving your students the students to use chance to work them. collaboratively models real world situations. Flexibility in assignments is key!Adapted From: TEACHING FOR CREATIVITY: TWO DOZEN TIPS By Robert Sternberg and Wendy M. Williams
Seek Stimulating Environments Re-Arrange Desks, Go Outside, down the hall or venture out to a nearby There is nothing museum or other location. more rewarding than watching an A change of environment is excited students. sometimes all that is needed. Offer variety in your content area Role Play or Simulation as well as in your activities are also provide a product choice great outlet.Adapted From: TEACHING FOR CREATIVITY: TWO DOZEN TIPS By Robert Sternberg and Wendy M. Williams
E. PaulTorrance http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tDGLuwOhzjk
Through time and space,We Exist.With all substance,We Create.Forming ideas from others’,We Think.And in learning to live,We Love. -JD
ADAM :(looking through the handbook) Adam draws a doorknob. He tries to turn it. TheI found something this morning. (reads) "In door, perhaps to his surprise, fails to open.case of emergency, draw door." ADAM :Wait.BARBARA :Draw door? I dont know why we He looks at book, then writes on the door:keep looking in that stupid book. KNOCK AND ENTER.Adam takes a piece of chalk and draws a little Adam knocks on the door, and turns the knob.door on the exposed brick of the chimney. Nothing.BARBARA :(continuing) You dont actually Adam goes back to the book. ADAMthink this is going to work? (continuing) Aha! Knock three times. ANOTHER ANGLE He knocks three times. Turns knob. The chalked door swings magnificently open.
American Creativity Association http://www.amcreativityassoc.org/index1.htm Center for Creative Learning http://www.creativelearning.com/ Creating Minds http://creatingminds.org/tools/tools.htm Mycotedhttp://www.mycoted.com/Category:Creativity_Techniques Mind Toolshttp://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_CT.htm NAGC’s Creativity Network http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=1419 Torrance Center at the University of Georgia http://www.coe.uga.edu/torrance/