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Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
Hirschpresentation
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Hirschpresentation

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  • 1. Dana Bartocci, Sandra Cifelli, Jason Dagato, Janice Benacchio
  • 2. What is Cultural Literacy? Cultural literacy is the ability to understand and appreciate the similarities and differences in the customs, values, and beliefs of one’s own culture the cultures of others. ( North Central Regional Educational Laboratory , 2000)
  • 3. Who is Eric Donald Hirsch? <ul><li>Author of many acclaimed books including Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know and The Schools We Need and Why We Don’t Have Them. </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of the Core Knowledge Foundation which is an independent, non-profit, non-partisan organization founded in 1986 . </li></ul><ul><li>Retired professor at the University of Virginia. </li></ul>(Core Knowledge Foundation, 2008)
  • 4. Hirsch’s Two Part Curriculum <ul><li>Extensive: </li></ul><ul><li>Covering the shared information </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive: </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring individual texts or specific areas of knowledge </li></ul>(CEA Forum, 2001)
  • 5. Problems in Literacy <ul><li>According to Hirsch, we must not only understand what words are being said but the context as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Hirsch feels America has not succeeded in providing the proper level of literacy to it’s people. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many concerns about the level of literacy Americans acquire throughout life. </li></ul>
  • 6. Hirsch’s View on Cultural Literature/Background Knowledge <ul><li>According to Hirsch, the “great hidden problem” in education is the lack of cultural literature and background knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural literature/background knowledge is a passing down of information from generation to generation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is “stored knowledge” that helps people to understand context and communicate with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Children know less than they used to know when it comes to cultural literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>One reason: lack of intergenerational information at home and in school. </li></ul>
  • 7. NJCCCS and Cultural Literacy <ul><li>The decline of literacy and decline of shared knowledge are closely related. </li></ul><ul><li>Education has rarely discussed the need for a shared body of information. </li></ul><ul><li>We have permitted </li></ul><ul><li>school policies that </li></ul><ul><li>have shrunk the body </li></ul><ul><li>of information that </li></ul><ul><li>Americans share and </li></ul><ul><li>these policies have </li></ul><ul><li>caused our cultural </li></ul><ul><li>literacy to decline. </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>NJCCCS have a rigid standard for teaching based primarily based on academics. </li></ul><ul><li>NJCCS would benefit the cultural literacy of students by including a standard that would specifically focus on a shared, traditional literate culture. </li></ul>NJCCCS and Cultural Literacy Cont’d
  • 9. <ul><li>DRILL and KILL </li></ul><ul><li>Hirsch feels that many educators believe that drilling and practicing kills the excitement of the kids. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of capitals, important dates, continents, and historical figures has gone down as a result. </li></ul>Hirsch’s overall view on state standards for Social Studies:
  • 10. Merging Social Studies <ul><li>History is merged with civics, sociology, psychology, and economics to form Social Studies. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, there is less mastery of the basic facts, especially in history. </li></ul>
  • 11. Background Knowledge for Social Studies <ul><li>Hirsch believes that the curriculum up to the 8 th grade should be written in such a way that students should learn to enjoy learning. </li></ul><ul><li>These years should also provide a sound base for students as they arrive at the high school level, as many students have limited background knowledge, especially in history, when they reach the high school level. </li></ul>
  • 12. Hirsch’s overall view on state standards for Language Arts/Literacy: <ul><li>“ Language Arts standards remain vague, and language arts textbooks are delivering a fragmented curriculum.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The level of literacy exhibited in a task depends on the relevant background information the person possesses.” </li></ul>
  • 13. Problems in most Language Arts state standards according to Hirsch: <ul><li>Too vague </li></ul><ul><li>Standards not explicit about literary texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Literary texts focus on fiction and poetry not general knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Makers of reading tests have no clue what is being taught by each school or teacher because standards are so vague . </li></ul><ul><li>Offer no concrete guidance to teachers, test makers, teacher-training institutions or textbook makers. </li></ul><ul><li>Textbook makers try to cover as many standards as possible and resort to “excerpts” of literature that are often disconnected and trivial. </li></ul>
  • 14. NJCCCS for Language Arts: What would Hirsch agree with? <ul><li>Students begin identifying the various print formats, including newspapers, magazines, books and reference resources beginning in fourth grade. </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding and Word Recognition begins in Preschool and builds upon previous knowledge up and through eighth grade. (Skills needed for reading and in turn literacy.) </li></ul><ul><li>As early as Kindergarten, students will relate personal experiences to story characters’ experiences, language, customs and cultures with assistance of teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>By first grade students are expected to use prior knowledge to make sense of text. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing underlying themes across cultures in various texts. </li></ul>
  • 15. NJCCCS for Language Arts Cont’d <ul><li>Asking how, why and what-if questions in interpreting nonfiction texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiating between fact, opinion, bias, and propaganda in newspapers, periodicals and electronic texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze how works of a given period reflect historical and social events and conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding author’s opinions and how they address culture, ethnicity, gender, and historical periods. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that our literary heritage is marked by distinct literary movements and is part of a global literary tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate familiarity with everyday texts such as job and college applications, W-2 forms and contracts. </li></ul>
  • 16. Difficulty in Assessing the NJCCCS for Language Arts <ul><li>Difficult to examine standards in respect to a pragmatic traditionalist philosophy because they are so vague with much left up to the interpretation of individual districts and teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>No specific textbooks or literary works are listed so you cannot determine if and when background knowledge needs to be taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus seems to be on the skills needed for reading and comprehension…. Not necessarily mature literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>No explanations how schools or teachers are expected to meet these standards. </li></ul>
  • 17. What changes would Hirsch make in our state standards? <ul><li>Basal readers and literary series that are meaningful and incorporate other subject areas increasing general knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement curriculum-based reading tests founded on specific content standards. </li></ul><ul><li>All grade level standards need to be more specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards that cross over into other content areas. (To broaden background and general knowledge.) </li></ul><ul><li>Early grades should teach texts with cultural content rather than developmental texts that develop abstract skills. </li></ul>
  • 18. Hirsch’s overall view on state standards for Math: <ul><li>State and district math standards and tests have improved. </li></ul><ul><li>There are still improvements that need to be made but they are much more specific and focused then they used to be. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements have been seen on standardized test scores in math because teachers have very clear guidelines to follow and specific material that needs to be covered. </li></ul>
  • 19. Math standards are much more specific then Language Arts, Social Studies and Science. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>4 th Grade: Commonly used fractions (denominators of 2,3,4,5,6,8,10,12 and 16) as part of a whole, as a subset of a set, and as a location on a number line. </li></ul><ul><li>8 th Grade : Use and explain procedures for performing calculations involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation with integers and all number types named above with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pencil-and-paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6 th Grade : Identify, describe, compare and classify polygons and circles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangles by angles and sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadrilateral including squares, rectangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, rhombi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygons by number of sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equilateral, equiangular, regular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All points equidistant from a given point in a circle </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. “ No culture can live, if it attempts to be exclusive.” - Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
  • 21. References <ul><li>Hirsch, Ed (1985). Cultural Literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Hirsch, Ed (1985). The Theory Behind the Dictionary: Cultural Literacy and Education </li></ul><ul><li>North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (2000). Retrieved on March 3, 2009 from http://www.engines4ed.org/hyperbook/nodes/educat or- outline.html#NODE-91. </li></ul><ul><li>The Core Knowledge Foundation (2008). Retrieved on March 3, 2009 from http://coreknowledge.org/CK/index.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>Wessling , Joseph H. (2001). Cultural literacy and the analogical imagination. The CEA Forum , 31.2. </li></ul>

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