Industrial Workers Grade: «grade» Subject: History Date: «date»
Industrial Workers The Big Idea Changes in the workplace led to a rise in labor unions and workers’ strikes. Main Ideas• The desire to maximize profits and become more efficient led to poor working conditions. • Workers began to organize and demand improvements in working conditions and pay.• Labor strikes often turned violent and failed to accomplish their goals.
Main Idea 1: The desire to maximize profits and become more efficient led to poor working conditions.• Several factors led to a decline in the quality of working conditions in the late 1800s.• Machines and unskilled workers replaced skilled craftspeople.• These lowpaid workers could easily be replaced. They brought costs down and caused production to rise.• Frederick W. Taylor, an efficiency expert, published The Principles of Scientific Management in 1909.• Encouraged managers to view workers as interchangeable parts• Injuries increased, and conditions worsened.• Workers looked for ways to bring about change.
1 Frederick Taylor publish a book called The Principles of Scientific Management. This book viewed workers as interchangeable parts which resulted in workers: A having more injuries B having better working conditions C getting more time off D getting paid more
Poor Working Conditions• Small, crowded rooms• Specialization made workers tired, bored, and more likely to be injured.• Managers paid less attention to working conditions.• Stuffy air• Unsafe workplaces• Long hours• Low wages• No job security
2 Select all of the following poor working conditions that many factory workers had to deal with. A low wages B great pay C stuffy air D still kept jobs if hurt at work E long hours F small, crowded rooms
Main Idea 2: Workers began to organize and demand improvements in working conditions and pay. Knights of Labor American Federation of Labor • First national labor union, • Organized individual national founded in 1870s unions, such as mineworkers’ • Pushed for eighthour and steelworkers’ unionsworkday, equal pay for equal • Limited membership to skilled work, and end to child labor workers • Included both skilled and • Used collective bargaining, in unskilled workers which all workers acted • Terence V. Powderly collectively, or together, to became leader in 1879 and negotiate with management ended secrecy of organization.
3 This is workers acting together, or collectively, to negotiate with management for better pay and better working conditions. A collective bargaining B negotiations C helping D union help
Main Idea 3: Labor strikes often turned violent and failed to accomplish their goals.Haymarket Riot Homestead Pullman Strike • Erupted Strike • Began with workers who between • Strike occurred made Pullman train cars protesters and at Carnegie Steel • Spread to workers who police in Chicago Company in worked on trains pulling • Resulted in Homestead, sleeping carsdecline of Knights Pennsylvania. • Federal troops stopped of Labor • Resulting fight strike. left workers and Pinkerton guards dead.