The italian renaissance


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The italian renaissance

  1. 1. The Italian Renaissance (1400-1550) <ul><li>“ ...everything that surrounds us is our own work, the work of man: all dwellings, all castles, all cities, all the edifices throughout the whole world, which are so numerous and of such quality that they resemble the works of angels rather than men.  Ours are the paintings, the sculptures; ours are the trades sciences and philosophical systems” </li></ul><ul><li>Gianozzo Manetti , </li></ul><ul><li>On the Dignity and Excellence of Man in Four Books (1452) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Why Italy? <ul><li>1. Geographic location </li></ul><ul><li>2. Italian City-States </li></ul><ul><li>Republicanism </li></ul><ul><li>Marsilius of Padua, The Defender of the Peace (1324) – secular law </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth + freedom of expression </li></ul>
  3. 3. Marsilius of Padua, Defender of the Peace (1324) <ul><li>“ Now we declare according to the truth and on the authority of Aristotle that the law-making power or the first and real effective source of law is the people or the body of citizens …neither the Roman bishop, called the pope, nor any other bishop, presbyter, or deacon, ought to have the ruling or judgment or coercive jurisdiction of any priest, prince, community, society or single person of any rank whatsoever …temporal power and greed, and lust of authority and rule is not the spouse of Christ, nor has He wedded such a spirit, but has expressly repudiated it, as has been shown from the divine Scriptures...” </li></ul><ul><li>-Oliver J. Thatcher, The Library of Original Sources, </li></ul><ul><li>Vol. V: The Early Medieval World, pp. 423-430. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Florence + Venice: Wealthy Patrons of the Arts <ul><li>Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Secular Patrons </li></ul><ul><li>Cosimo de’ Medici </li></ul><ul><li>Lorenzo de’ Medici </li></ul><ul><li>Venice </li></ul><ul><li>Greek influence </li></ul><ul><li>Doge Andrea Gritti </li></ul>
  5. 5. Italian Principalities: Ideal Leaders <ul><li>1. Ideal Prince: Federico II, Duke of Urbino </li></ul><ul><li>Military skills </li></ul><ul><li>Supporter of arts </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ideal Princess: Isabella d’Esta of Mantua </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ideal Courtier </li></ul><ul><li>Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier (1428) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Outward beauty is a true sign of inner goodness. This loveliness, indeed, is impressed upon the body in varying degrees as a token by which the soul can be recognized for what it is, just as with trees the beauty of the blossom testifies to the goodness of the fruit…practice in all things a certain sprezzatura, disdain or carelessness, so as to conceal art, and make whatever is done or said appear to be without effort and almost without any thought about it” </li></ul><ul><li>- Excerpts from Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier </li></ul>
  6. 6. Papal Power in 15 th C Italy <ul><li>Pope Julius II: military battle </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Alexander VI: moral corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Leo X: patron of the arts, revival of Rome </li></ul>
  7. 7. New Patterns of Thought <ul><li>Secularism </li></ul><ul><li>Humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Expression in art </li></ul>
  8. 8. Humanism <ul><li>Classical learning </li></ul><ul><li>Petrarch, Father of Humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Influences: </li></ul><ul><li>Cicero: wisdom, eloquence + civic duty </li></ul><ul><li>Augustine: the dignity of humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetoric: principle of inventio </li></ul><ul><li>Philology </li></ul><ul><li>“ Living, I despise what melancholy fate has brought us wretches in these evil years. Long before my birth time smiled and may again, for once there was, and yet will be, more joyful days. But in this middle age time's dregs sweep 'round us, and we bend beneath a heavy load of vice. Genius, virtue, glory now have gone, leaving chance and sloth to rule. Shameful vision this! We must awake or die” </li></ul><ul><li>- Petrarch, Epistolae metricae </li></ul>
  9. 9. Petrarch, The Ascent of Mount Ventoux <ul><li>“… it occurred to me to look into my copy of St. Augustine's Confessions…where I first fixed my eyes it was written: &quot;And men go about to wonder at the heights of the mountains, and the mighty waves of the sea, and the wide sweep of rivers, and the circuit of the ocean, and the revolution of the stars, but themselves they consider not.&quot; I closed the book, angry with myself that I should still be admiring earthly things who might long ago have learned from even the pagan philosophers that nothing is wonderful but the soul, which, when great itself, finds nothing great outside itself. Then, in truth, I was satisfied that I had seen enough of the mountain; I turned my inward eye upon myself… I thought in silence of the lack of good counsel in us mortals, who neglect what is noblest in ourselves, scatter our energies in all directions, and waste ourselves in a vain show, because we look about us for what is to be found only within….” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. Leading Humanists <ul><li>Leon Battista Alberti: “Renaissance Man” </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo Bruni: Civic Humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Lorenzo Valla: Challenges to the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Female humanists </li></ul><ul><li>Isotta Nogarola </li></ul><ul><li>Laura Cereta </li></ul>
  11. 11. Innovations in Science + Technology <ul><li>Copernicus: heliocentric universe </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo Galilei: proving revolutionary claims </li></ul><ul><li>Andreas Vesalius: discoveries in anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of ideas: the printing press </li></ul>
  12. 12. Political Thought of Machiavelli <ul><li>Italian Wars ( 1494–1559) : Rise of States </li></ul><ul><li>The Prince (1505): guide to political power </li></ul><ul><li>Realism over idealism </li></ul><ul><li>Secular vision of state </li></ul><ul><li>Politics divorced from morality </li></ul><ul><li>“… the end justifies the means. A prince must be entitled to do whatever he wants provided it is for he satisfaction of the community as a whole and not for personal gain…” </li></ul><ul><li>Machiavelli, The Prince </li></ul>