The Roman Republic  509-31 BCE
Roman History: Chronology <ul><li>1. Roman origins:  </li></ul><ul><li>753-509 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>2. Roman Republic:  5...
Roman Origins:  753-509 BCE <ul><li>1000 BCE: Villages, nomadic life </li></ul><ul><li>7 th  C BCE: Urbanization </li></ul...
Nicolas Poussin, “The Abduction of the Sabine Women” 1633-34
The Etruscans <ul><li>Modern Tuscany </li></ul><ul><li>12 city-states: autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Roman Republic:  Political Organization <ul><li>500 BCE: Monarchy abolished </li></ul><ul><li>Republic founded: 3 elem...
The Roman Republic:  Political Organization (continued) <ul><li>“ Mixed” </li></ul><ul><li>Checks + balances </li></ul><ul...
Roman Law <ul><li>Plebian Victories: </li></ul><ul><li>Election of Tribunes (494 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Law of the Twelve ...
Roman Imperialism <ul><li>Conquest of Italy + the Latin League </li></ul><ul><li>Latin War: revolt of allies </li></ul><ul...
Roman Imperialism (continued) <ul><li>Macedonian Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Alliances </li></ul><...
 
Roman Culture: Overview <ul><li>Urban life </li></ul><ul><li>Social status: Patrons + Clients </li></ul><ul><li>Social hie...
Social Structure: Roman Family <ul><li>1. Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>2. Power of the  Paterfamilias   </li></ul><ul><li>3....
Education in the Roman Republic <ul><li>1. Informal settings </li></ul><ul><li>2. Private schooling </li></ul><ul><li>3.  ...
Roman Religion <ul><li>Greco-Roman Gods: cultural synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Conquests = imported Gods </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Arts <ul><li>Hellenistic influence </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Lucre...
Roman Entertainment <ul><li>Ludi : the Games of Rome  </li></ul><ul><li>Circus Maximus </li></ul><ul><li>Wild animals: kil...
Roman Revolution <ul><li>Divisions in wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius Gracchus: land redistribution </li></ul><ul><li>Op...
Roman Revolution (continued) <ul><li>Social Wars: ally demands </li></ul><ul><li>Gaius Marius: reorganizing the army </li>...
Julius Caesar:  The End of the Republic <ul><li>The First Triumvirate:  Pompey, Crassus, Caesar </li></ul><ul><li>Military...
 
Julius Caesar:  The End of the Republic (continued) <ul><li>The Second Triumvirate: </li></ul><ul><li>Antony, Octavian, Le...
What do you need to know? <ul><li>Political elements of the republic: role + purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians vs. pleb...
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Lecture8 theromanrepublic

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Lecture8 theromanrepublic

  1. 1. The Roman Republic 509-31 BCE
  2. 2. Roman History: Chronology <ul><li>1. Roman origins: </li></ul><ul><li>753-509 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>2. Roman Republic: 509-31 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>3. Roman Empire: </li></ul><ul><li>31 BCE-476 AD </li></ul>
  3. 3. Roman Origins: 753-509 BCE <ul><li>1000 BCE: Villages, nomadic life </li></ul><ul><li>7 th C BCE: Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>753 BCE: Legend of Romulus + Remus </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchy: Imperium </li></ul><ul><li>Rape of the Sabine Women </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Events before Rome was born have come down to us in old tales with more of the charm of poetry than of sound historical record, and such traditions I propose neither to affirm nor refute.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>-Livy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nicolas Poussin, “The Abduction of the Sabine Women” 1633-34
  5. 5. The Etruscans <ul><li>Modern Tuscany </li></ul><ul><li>12 city-states: autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>6 th C BCE: Rule over Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks, Etruscans + Romans: cultural influence </li></ul><ul><li>Immorality </li></ul><ul><li>509: Rome rises to power </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sharing wives is an established Etruscan custom. Etruscan women…exercise often, sometimes along with the men...it is not a disgrace for them to be seen naked…the Etruscans raise all the children that are born, without knowing who their fathers are…” </li></ul><ul><li>Theopompus of Chios, Histories, Book 43 </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Roman Republic: Political Organization <ul><li>500 BCE: Monarchy abolished </li></ul><ul><li>Republic founded: 3 elements </li></ul><ul><li>Executive branch, 2 Consuls </li></ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly of Centuries + Tribes </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Roman Republic: Political Organization (continued) <ul><li>“ Mixed” </li></ul><ul><li>Checks + balances </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians vs. plebeians </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle of the Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy: Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>“ . . the elements by which the Roman constitution was controlled were three in number . . . all the aspects of the administration were, taken separately, so fairly and so suitably ordered and regulated through the agency of these three elements that it was impossible even for the Romans themselves to declare with certainty whether the whole system was an aristocracy, a democracy or a monarchy…” </li></ul><ul><li>Polybius, Histories </li></ul>
  8. 8. Roman Law <ul><li>Plebian Victories: </li></ul><ul><li>Election of Tribunes (494 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Law of the Twelve Tables (451 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-marriage (445 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Licinian-Sextian laws (367 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Lex Hortensia </li></ul><ul><li>Cicero, De Oratore , I.44: </li></ul><ul><li>“… I will say what I think: that single little book of the Twelve Tables, if anyone look to the fountains and sources of laws, seems to me, assuredly, to surpass the libraries of all the philosophers, both in weight of authority, and in plenitude of utility…” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Roman Imperialism <ul><li>Conquest of Italy + the Latin League </li></ul><ul><li>Latin War: revolt of allies </li></ul><ul><li>Punic Wars with Carthage </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>1st Punic War (264-241 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Punic War (218-201 BCE): Hannibal defeated </li></ul><ul><li>3rd Punic War (149-146 BCE) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Roman Imperialism (continued) <ul><li>Macedonian Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Conquests: Compromise + Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal + militaristic policies: balance </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences/results? </li></ul><ul><li>Economic divide </li></ul><ul><li>Slave economy </li></ul>
  11. 12. Roman Culture: Overview <ul><li>Urban life </li></ul><ul><li>Social status: Patrons + Clients </li></ul><ul><li>Social hierarchy: </li></ul><ul><li>Senatorial (Elite) </li></ul><ul><li>Equestrian </li></ul><ul><li>Plebians: Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul>
  12. 13. Social Structure: Roman Family <ul><li>1. Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>2. Power of the Paterfamilias </li></ul><ul><li>3. Women </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth: Oppian Law </li></ul><ul><li>4. Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Increase </li></ul><ul><li>Occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Manumission </li></ul>
  13. 14. Education in the Roman Republic <ul><li>1. Informal settings </li></ul><ul><li>2. Private schooling </li></ul><ul><li>3. Grammaticus </li></ul><ul><li>4. Oratory: Rise of rhetoric </li></ul><ul><li>Greek influence </li></ul><ul><li>Political skill </li></ul>
  14. 15. Roman Religion <ul><li>Greco-Roman Gods: cultural synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Conquests = imported Gods </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Cult of Cybele </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Vesta: Vestal Virgins </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance vs. suppression </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. Cult of Dionysus </li></ul>
  15. 16. The Arts <ul><li>Hellenistic influence </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Lucretius + Epicureanism </li></ul><ul><li>Cicero + Stoicism </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Fortuna Virilis, Rome, late 2nd c. B.C. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Roman Entertainment <ul><li>Ludi : the Games of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Circus Maximus </li></ul><ul><li>Wild animals: killing sport </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiatorial contests </li></ul><ul><li>Chariot Races </li></ul>
  17. 18. Roman Revolution <ul><li>Divisions in wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius Gracchus: land redistribution </li></ul><ul><li>Optimates vs. Populares </li></ul><ul><li>Gaius Gracchus </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of extortion </li></ul><ul><li>Price of grain </li></ul>
  18. 19. Roman Revolution (continued) <ul><li>Social Wars: ally demands </li></ul><ul><li>Gaius Marius: reorganizing the army </li></ul><ul><li>Sulla </li></ul><ul><li>81 BCE: Dictator </li></ul><ul><li>Power of tribunes decreased </li></ul>
  19. 20. Julius Caesar: The End of the Republic <ul><li>The First Triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus, Caesar </li></ul><ul><li>Military conquest </li></ul><ul><li>The Senate vs. Caesar: Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar as Dictator </li></ul><ul><li>Assassination + more civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Paul Rubens, 16 th C </li></ul>
  20. 22. Julius Caesar: The End of the Republic (continued) <ul><li>The Second Triumvirate: </li></ul><ul><li>Antony, Octavian, Lepidus </li></ul><ul><li>Consuls + Senate: loss of power </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of power </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Actium (31 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Victory to Octavian: Republic to Empire </li></ul>
  21. 23. What do you need to know? <ul><li>Political elements of the republic: role + purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians vs. plebeians: struggle of the orders, outcomes? </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialistic strategy: compromise + assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Roman social hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Roman religion: what is adopted from Greeks? Tolerance vs. suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy: Lucretius + Cicero </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius + Gaius Gracchus: What did they do? Results? </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar: major accomplishments and outcomes </li></ul>
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