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Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited
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Lecture4 minoansmycenaensedited

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  • 1. Lecture 4: Minoans and Mycenaeans: The International Bronze Age
  • 2. International Bronze Age 1500-1100 BCE
    • Overview:
    • International trading networks - Copper + tin
    • Diplomatic + cultural exchange
    • 5 Zones of Power
    • New Kingdom of Egypt
    • Hittite Empire of Anatolia
    • Assyrian and Babylonian Empires
    • Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece
    • Small Kingdoms along coast of Syria-Canaan
  • 3. Hittite Kingdom: Overview
    • 1650 BCE: Hittites in Anatolia
    • Territorial Expansion
    • Monarch: chief priest of all gods (“land of a thousand gods”)
    • Cultural Achievements:
    • Transmission of ancient Mesopotamian ideas to Greeks
    • Awareness of history
  • 4. Kassite Babylon: Overview
    • 1400 BCE: Kassites conquer S. Mesopotamia.
    • Cultural Achievements:
    • Highly centralized administration
    • Monarchy: generous land grants, extensive system of temples, public building, + canals
    • Center of literature + learning
    • 1200’s BCE: Assyria conquers Babylon under Tukulti-Nurta I (1244-1208 BCE)
  • 5. Minoan Crete: Overview
    • 2600 BCE: Emergence of Minoan Civilization
    • Trade with Egypt + Eastern Mediterranean
    • 1700-1400 BCE: Height of Minoan Civilization
    • Sources of knowledge: from art + architecture, not texts
  • 6. Chronology
    • Prepalatial Minoan Crete
    • (2300-1900 BCE)
    • 2. Protopalatial Minoan Crete (1900-1700 BCE)
    • Neopalatial Minoan Crete
    • (1700-1400 BCE)
  • 7. Prepalatial Minoan Crete 2300-1900 BCE
    • Farmsteads + small villages
    • Early urbanization: building complexes of Myrtos + Mochlos
    • Trade networks, 2000 BCE
    • Foreign trade + urbanization = shift from decentralized culture to social + ruling classes
    • Major architectural structure: circular tholos tombs
  • 8. Protopalatial Minoan Crete (1900-1700 BCE)
    • 4 Major palaces: Knossos, Phaistos, Mallia, Zakros
    • New political system: king + bureaucracy
    • Social hierarchy: nobles, peasants, slaves
    • Trade continues
    • Paved road network
    • End of tholos tombs
  • 9. Neopalatial Minoan Crete (1700-1400 BCE)
    • Height of Minoan civilization: Palace-centered, economic prosperity
    • Villas in rural landscape, modeled after large palaces
    • Militaristic lifestyle emerges: weapons in royal tombs. Mycenaean threat?
  • 10. Minoan Palaces
    • General Characteristics
    • Economic activity, political power + religious rituals
    • Rooms of varying sizes + functions: residential quarters, workshops, storerooms
    • Maze of rooms, no apparent design
    • Absence of city walls + fortifications: security?
  • 11.
    • Political Structure and Social Class
    • Elite
    • Royal nobility: luxury
    • King: control over palaces + allocation/use of surrounding land
    • Villas outside palace: lower tier of elite families
    • Free Peasant Class
    • Small, sparsely furnished houses around palaces
    • Accepting as exploited subjects – King as representative of land + people to gods.
    • Large economic gap between elite + non-elite
  • 12.
    • Slaves
    • Mostly war captives: widespread with urbanization
    • Most belonged to palaces
    • Women
    • Occupations mostly unknown. Weavers: employed by palaces as professionals or slaves
    • Minoan iconography: women participating in + attending social events
  • 13. Palace of Knossos
    • 2000 BCE
    • 1899: English archaeologist Arthur Evans.
    • “ Minoan”: mythical king of Crete, Minos (Homer)
  • 14.
    • 3 acres, courtyard center, 100’s of rooms. Housed 25,000 people.
    • Residences for elite, administrative headquarters, shrines for religious worship, warehouses for storing crops
    • Cretan craftsmen: precious jewelry, ceremonial vessels, pottery, tools
    • Colorful paintings of plant/animal life + scenes of human activity (often rituals)
    • 3000-4000 tablets, Linear B script
  • 15. Minoan Religion
    • Principal recipient of worship: a goddess
    • Fertility functions
    • Religious symbols in art: snakes, birds, bulls, stylized bullhorns, axes with double heads
    • Processions, music + dance, gifts + sacrifices
    • Slaughtering of animals on outdoor altars
    • Kings: lacked temple complexes of Near East. Palaces as religious centers.
  • 16. Cultural Achievements
    • 1. Architecture: elaborate palace constructions
    • 2. Trade: great wealth
    • 3. Engineering, in particular water + sanitation.
    • 4. Road network connecting major palaces + towns
    • 5. Art: aesthetic pleasure
    • 6. Leisure and recreation: boxing, backgammon, bull-jumping
    • 7. Ancient writing: Linear A tablets, earliest form of Minoan script. 1900 BCE - economic records in palaces.
  • 17. Decline of Minoan Crete
    • 1400 BCE: Destruction of Minoan Crete
    • 2 theories:
    • Foreign invaders
    • A natural disaster: tidal wave linked to eruption of volcano on Thera
    • 1000 BCE: All Cretan towns and palaces (except Knossos) destroyed
  • 18. Mycenaean Age 1600-1100 BCE
    • Economic power shifts to mainland Greece
    • Grand cities: Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Thebes, Athens
    • Extensive trade across Mediterranean
    • Influence of Minoan Crete:
    • Palace-centered economy
    • Development of Linear B script, related to Linear A script.
  • 19. Mycenaean Culture
    • Linear B Tablets
    • More than 5000 inscriptions found. What do they reveal about Mycenaean culture?
    • Political Structure
    • Wanax (“lord” or “master”), military commander, administrative officials, charioteers, mayors of villages
    • Palace: center of religious organization. King: economic + political control of sanctuaries
    • Farmers: rural areas, decent living conditions
  • 20.
    • Slavery: a central institution. Mostly in palace, some domestic slaves
    • 2. Economy
    • Records of economic matters
    • Reveal occupations: goldsmith, shipwright, mason, baker, cook, woodcutter, messenger, armorers, shepherd, doctor, potter, carpenter, etc.
    • * No literary record of Mycenaean values or beliefs *
  • 21. Shaft Graves and Tombs
    • “ Shaft graves”: bodies lowered into deep rectangular pits cut into soft bedrock
    • Increasing wealth of shaft graves + emergence of tholos tombs: growing power
    • Only most elite could afford tholoi
    • What can these burial sites tell us about Mycenaean culture?
  • 22.
    • 1. Wealth and Power of Kings
    • Drinking vessels, jewelry, etc: luxurious life of rulers
    • Superior nutrition
    • 2. Militaristic society
    • Graves of warriors: armor, weapons, chariots. Prestige of military
    • Kings: commanders-in-chief
    • Well-fortified city walls
    • Art: military themes
    • International piracy
  • 23.
    • Mycenaean Religion
    • Overlap with Minoans (gifts, sacrifices, religious symbols, fertility goddess)
    • Fusion of Aegean fertility religions (Minoan Crete) + Indo-European sky/weather gods
    • Differences:
    • Cretan place of worship: caves + sanctuaries on mountains. Mycenae: No shrines outside city centers
    • Cretan palaces: more shrines + elaborate designs. Mycenae: Megaron complex center for religious ceremony
  • 24. Mycenaean Palaces
    • 1400-1200 BCE
    • Architecture + decoration influenced by Minoans
    • Major differences:
    • On commanding hills fortified by thick walls
    • Megaron: ceremonial center of palaces
  • 25. Decline of Mycenae 1150 BCE
    • Economy destroyed: warfare between Mycenaean Kingdoms
    • Widespread migration: population declines by 75%
    • Cultural prosperity disappears + drought, famine, + invasion rise
  • 26. City of Ugarit
    • City-state of Syria + Canaan
    • Population of 6000-8000 + 25,000 farmers in 150 villages in countryside
    • Fertile plain + rich natural resources
    • Center of international trade
    • 13 th C BCE: Overpowered by Hittite Empire
  • 27. City of Troy
    • Northwestern Anatolian coast
    • Prospered: international bronze age
    • Layers of occupation + construction
    • 950 BCE: Final destruction of Troy
    • Possible cause: enemy raids
    • City of Troy: immortalized in Homer’s Iliad
  • 28. 1100-550 BCE: Rise of Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires
    • Neo-Assyrian Empire: Overview
    • Territorial expansion, reorganization of army, building projects
    • Mobile battering rams, siege towers, cavalry unit
    • King Asshurbanipal (668-627 BCE) built library (around 10,000 texts)
    • Conquering: reputation for cruelty
    • Internal revolts, collapse in 605 BCE
  • 29.
    • Neo-Babylonian Empire: Overview
    • Strong economy: conquests of terror
    • Restored roads/canals + expanded irrigation system
    • Center of international trade
    • Architectural achievements: Ishtar Gate, temple of Marduk
    • Discoveries in astronomy
    • King Nabonidus (555-539 BCE): worshipped moon goddess Sin.
    • Fall of empire, 539 BCE
  • 30. “ Dark Age”: 1100-950 BCE
    • Diplomatic, cultural, + economic networks destroyed
    • Invasions, migrations, collapse of governments
    • Possible Causes:
    • Invasion of “Sea Peoples”
    • Habiru : peasants forced into crime
  • 31. Lecture 4: What do you need to know?
    • Where were the 5 zones of power during International Bronze Age? How is period characterized?
    • Cultural contributions of Hittites, Neo-Babylonian, and Neo-Assyrian Empires
    • General characteristics of Minoan religion and social structure; cultural achievements of Minoans
    • Know the differences between Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations (in palaces, religion) – and what they indicate
    • Possible causes for decline of Minoans and Mycenaeans
    • What is Dark Age? Possible causes?

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