Lecture13 empiresandborderlandsedited

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Lecture13 empiresandborderlandsedited

  1. 1. Empires and Borderlands of the Early Middle Ages
  2. 2. Germanic Kingdoms of Western Europe <ul><li>General characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxon England </li></ul><ul><li>Visigothic Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Lombard Italy </li></ul><ul><li>The Kingdom of the Franks </li></ul>
  3. 3. Anglo-Saxon England <ul><li>Celts </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Britain </li></ul><ul><li>400: Angles + Saxons invade </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Romanization </li></ul><ul><li>3 Kingdoms </li></ul>
  4. 4. Visigothic Spain (409-711) <ul><li>5 th –6 th c: Power in southern France </li></ul><ul><li>587: Conversion of King Reccared </li></ul><ul><li>Visigothic Code (654) </li></ul><ul><li>711: Muslims conquer Spain </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lombard Italy (568-774) <ul><li>Alboin + Invasion of Italy (568) </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine loss of power </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Theodelinda: Orthodox Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation = Frankish conquest (774) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Kingdom of the Franks <ul><li>Merovingian dynasty (476–750) </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of Clovis </li></ul><ul><li>Salic Law (508-511) </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Clovis = civil wars </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of “Mayors of the Palace” </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of urban life </li></ul>
  7. 7. Growth of the Papacy <ul><li>Decline of Byzantine Power </li></ul><ul><li>Frankish-Papal alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Revival: Gregory the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries + Missionaries </li></ul>
  8. 8. Converting the Anglo-Saxons <ul><li>Anglo-Saxon paganism </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory the Great: Missions from Rome </li></ul><ul><li>St Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy: gentle persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Bede </li></ul>
  9. 9. Converting the Irish <ul><li>Celtic religion </li></ul><ul><li>Palladius: convert + reform </li></ul><ul><li>St. Patrick + 5 th C Missions </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of monasteries </li></ul>
  10. 10. Monastery: Center of Learning <ul><li>St. Benedict </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in power </li></ul><ul><li>Library + Scriptorium </li></ul><ul><li>Illuminated manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of education </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Carolingian Empire <ul><li>Pepin the Short </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne: classical to medieval </li></ul><ul><li>3 classes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Peasants (workers) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nobles (fighters) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Clergy (educated + powerful) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reign of Charlemagne <ul><li>Policy of expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of Christianization </li></ul><ul><li>Coronation of Charlemagne </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions of Frankish Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce + trade </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Carolingian Renaissance <ul><li>Revival of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Alcuin of York </li></ul><ul><li>Carolingian miniscule </li></ul><ul><li>Unification of the church </li></ul><ul><li>Einhard </li></ul>
  14. 14. Division of Western Europe <ul><li>Death of Charlemagne = fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Dynastic rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Civil wars: Treat of Verdun (843) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of local powers </li></ul><ul><li>East Francia: Otto I + the Saxons </li></ul><ul><li>West Francia: Capetian dynasty </li></ul>
  15. 15. Invasions of Europe 7 th -11 th C <ul><li>Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings </li></ul><ul><li>Magyars </li></ul><ul><li>Conversions = end of invasion </li></ul>
  16. 16. Rise of Feudalism <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty + service </li></ul><ul><li>Lords and Vassals </li></ul><ul><li>Land grants: fief </li></ul><ul><li>Obligations of vassal: Fealty </li></ul><ul><li>Obligations of Lord </li></ul><ul><li>Oath of loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Warrior culture </li></ul><ul><li>Feudal law </li></ul>

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