Lecture 12: The Rise of Islam
Muhammad + Mecca <ul><li>Arabian Peninsula: nomadic + tribal </li></ul><ul><li>Worship : Kaaba </li></ul><ul><li>Early upb...
Journey to Medina (622) <ul><li>Enemies in Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Hegira   </li></ul><ul><li>New Islamic community </li><...
Islamic Theology <ul><li>Muhammad as prophet +  rasul Allah   </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of God </li></ul><ul><li>Christians...
The Qur'an  <ul><li>Mecca: Poetic Verse </li></ul><ul><li>Medina: Legalistic  </li></ul><ul><li>Recording revelations </li...
Succession Crisis: Sunnis and Shiites <ul><li>Death of Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Successor: Abu Bakr </li></ul><ul><li>Su...
The Umayyad Dynasty (661 – 750) <ul><li>Model of Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Mu'awiyya – hereditary succession </li></ul><u...
Muslim Conquests <ul><li>Jihad </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks on Byzantium + Persia </li></ul><ul><li>Umayyad conquests </li></...
The Abassid Dynasty (750-945) <ul><li>City of Baghdad </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Arabs: Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization...
Islamic Golden Age <ul><li>Value of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Translations </li></ul><ul><li>Papermaking </li></ul><ul><...
Christian Reconquest of Spain <ul><li>Splendor of Granada </li></ul><ul><li>End of Umayyad Caliphate </li></ul><ul><li>108...
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Lecture12riseofislamedited

  1. 1. Lecture 12: The Rise of Islam
  2. 2. Muhammad + Mecca <ul><li>Arabian Peninsula: nomadic + tribal </li></ul><ul><li>Worship : Kaaba </li></ul><ul><li>Early upbringing </li></ul><ul><li>Social inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Revelations: Qu’ran </li></ul>
  3. 3. Journey to Medina (622) <ul><li>Enemies in Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Hegira </li></ul><ul><li>New Islamic community </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibitions + legal system </li></ul><ul><li>Attack + triumph </li></ul><ul><li>Secular vs. religious </li></ul>
  4. 4. Islamic Theology <ul><li>Muhammad as prophet + rasul Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of God </li></ul><ul><li>Christians and Jews </li></ul><ul><li>5 Pillars of Faith: </li></ul><ul><li>Profession of faith </li></ul><ul><li>Prayers </li></ul><ul><li>Charity </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Qur'an <ul><li>Mecca: Poetic Verse </li></ul><ul><li>Medina: Legalistic </li></ul><ul><li>Recording revelations </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic language </li></ul><ul><li>The Hadith – secondary text </li></ul>
  6. 6. Succession Crisis: Sunnis and Shiites <ul><li>Death of Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Successor: Abu Bakr </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis vs. Shiites </li></ul><ul><li>Ali vs. Umayyads </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Umayyad Dynasty (661 – 750) <ul><li>Model of Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Mu'awiyya – hereditary succession </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine influence </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison towns, new cities </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce + Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of non-Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>“ People of the book”: Dhimmi </li></ul>
  8. 8. Muslim Conquests <ul><li>Jihad </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks on Byzantium + Persia </li></ul><ul><li>Umayyad conquests </li></ul><ul><li>House of Islam + House of War </li></ul><ul><li>Razzia </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Abassid Dynasty (750-945) <ul><li>City of Baghdad </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Arabs: Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Trade + industry </li></ul>
  10. 10. Islamic Golden Age <ul><li>Value of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Translations </li></ul><ul><li>Papermaking </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries + institutions of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy: Al-Kindi </li></ul><ul><li>Literature: Arabian Nights </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics + Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture: Mosques </li></ul><ul><li>Art: Calligraphy </li></ul>
  11. 11. Christian Reconquest of Spain <ul><li>Splendor of Granada </li></ul><ul><li>End of Umayyad Caliphate </li></ul><ul><li>1085: Capture of Toledo </li></ul><ul><li>The Almoravids </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom of Granada </li></ul><ul><li>1492: Christian conquest complete </li></ul>
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