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Lecture 6: The Classical Age of Greece  (479 – 336 BCE)
The Athenian Empire <ul><li>479 BCE: Persia defeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Power of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Delian League (4...
The Age of Pericles (461 – 429 BCE) <ul><li>Height of Athenian democracy  </li></ul><ul><li>Ephialtes: attack on Areopagus...
Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 BCE) <ul><li>Sparta + Athens: growing tension  </li></ul><ul><li>445: 30 yrs Peace </li></ul>...
Religion in Greece <ul><li>Characteristics of the Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Olympus: 12 gods </li></ul><ul><li>Each cit...
Education in Classical Greece <ul><li>Upper classes </li></ul><ul><li>No public school </li></ul><ul><li>Instructed in  Mo...
Plato, on the teacher-pupil relationship:
Gender Roles: Overview <ul><li>Patriarchal society </li></ul><ul><li>Oikos (“families” or “households”) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Greek women: Daily Life <ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Early, arranged </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring: primary motive </l...
Female Workers <ul><li>1. Vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Lower class </li></ul><ul><li>Weaving/agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>2....
Slavery <ul><li>Central to aristocratic freedom and leisure </li></ul><ul><li>No rights </li></ul><ul><li>Growth after 600...
Athenian Drama <ul><li>Origin: Festival of Dionysus </li></ul><ul><li>Central to spiritual/intellectual life </li></ul><ul...
Greek Playwrights <ul><li>1.  Aeschylus   (525-456 BCE)   </li></ul><ul><li>Oresteia  (trilogy) </li></ul><ul><li>Justice ...
Aeschylus,  Agamemnon <ul><li>“ Zeus: whatever he may be, if this name pleases him in invocation, </li></ul><ul><li>thus I...
Sophocles,  Antigone <ul><li>“ Many the wonders but nothing walks stranger than man. This thing crosses the sea in the win...
Euripides,  Medea : <ul><li>“ We women are the most unfortunate creatures. First, with an excess of wealth it is required ...
Historical Accounts <ul><li>1. Herodotus (Ionia) </li></ul><ul><li>Investigations:  Persian Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Causes ...
Historical Accounts (continued) <ul><li>2. Thucydides (Athens) </li></ul><ul><li>History of the Peloponnesian War </li></u...
Thucydides, on his methodology: <ul><li>“ One will not go wrong if he believes that the facts were such as I have related ...
Scientific Developments:  The Ionian Philosophers <ul><li>Birth in Ionia (600 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern scientific inq...
Greek Philosophy: The Sophists <ul><li>Sophia : Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Widely criticized: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Rhetoric ...
Greek Philosophy:  Socrates and Plato <ul><li>Socrates (via Plato) </li></ul><ul><li>Defining virtues </li></ul><ul><li>El...
Greek Philosophy: Aristotle <ul><li>Rejection of abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Form + matter </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical know...
Art in Classical Greece <ul><li>1. Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on naturalism </li></ul><ul><li>The Severe Style <...
Lecture 6:  What do you need to know? <ul><li>Delian League: Purpose + effects </li></ul><ul><li>Reign of Pericles: charac...
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  1. 1. Lecture 6: The Classical Age of Greece (479 – 336 BCE)
  2. 2. The Athenian Empire <ul><li>479 BCE: Persia defeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Power of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Delian League (478 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Naval attacks on Persia; Ionian cities liberated </li></ul><ul><li>Control + exploitation of Greek cities </li></ul><ul><li>Treasury moves from Delos to Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Shift in purpose </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Age of Pericles (461 – 429 BCE) <ul><li>Height of Athenian democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Ephialtes: attack on Areopagus </li></ul><ul><li>Series of reforms: power of Ekklesia (Assembly) </li></ul><ul><li>Athenian Citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Building projects: Parthenon </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 BCE) <ul><li>Sparta + Athens: growing tension </li></ul><ul><li>445: 30 yrs Peace </li></ul><ul><li>431: War between Sparta and Athens (with allies) </li></ul><ul><li>421: Peace of Nicias (truce) </li></ul><ul><li>Alcibiades: Invasion of Sicily, disastrous </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta: Lysander, navy power </li></ul><ul><li>Athens defeated: oligarchy (“30 tyrants”) </li></ul><ul><li>Spartan hegemony </li></ul>
  5. 5. Religion in Greece <ul><li>Characteristics of the Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Olympus: 12 gods </li></ul><ul><li>Each city: patron god </li></ul><ul><li>Festivals + ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>Greek temples: offerings + sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Omens + oracles </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Oracle at Delphi </li></ul>
  6. 6. Education in Classical Greece <ul><li>Upper classes </li></ul><ul><li>No public school </li></ul><ul><li>Instructed in Mousike </li></ul><ul><li>Padiotribe (physical-trainer) </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatiste (writing-master) </li></ul><ul><li>Kithariste (lyre instructor) </li></ul><ul><li>Informality </li></ul><ul><li>Homosexuality </li></ul>
  7. 7. Plato, on the teacher-pupil relationship:
  8. 8. Gender Roles: Overview <ul><li>Patriarchal society </li></ul><ul><li>Oikos (“families” or “households”) </li></ul><ul><li>Women: home. Men: outside </li></ul><ul><li>Gender division </li></ul><ul><li>Women: no political rights </li></ul><ul><li>“ For the woman it is more honorable to remain indoors than to be outside; for the man it is more disgraceful to remain indoors than to attend to business outside…” </li></ul><ul><li>Xenophon, Oeconomicus 7.18; translated by Sarah B. Pomeroy </li></ul>
  9. 9. Greek women: Daily Life <ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Early, arranged </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring: primary motive </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>2. Daily duties </li></ul><ul><li>Supervised slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Raised children </li></ul><ul><li>Textile work </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ideal wife </li></ul><ul><li>“ Have you ever wondered why it was that I married you and why your parents gave you to me? Your parents were looking for a suitable son-in-law and I was looking for a suitable wife. I chose you and they, from among a number of possibilities, chose me” (Xenophon, Oeconomicus 7.11) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Female Workers <ul><li>1. Vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Lower class </li></ul><ul><li>Weaving/agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>2. Priestess </li></ul><ul><li>Temples of Goddesses </li></ul><ul><li>High prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Medium to Gods – oracles </li></ul><ul><li>3. Prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Hetairai – elite courtesans; intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>“… .women prophesy the will of Loxias in the oracles of Phoibos…as for the sacred rituals…all these would not be holy if performed by men but prosper in women’s hands. In this way women have a rightful share in the service of the Gods….” </li></ul><ul><li>Euripides (context lost), from Neils, Worshipping Athena , p 78 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Slavery <ul><li>Central to aristocratic freedom and leisure </li></ul><ul><li>No rights </li></ul><ul><li>Growth after 600 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of population </li></ul><ul><li>Duties: </li></ul><ul><li>Public vs. private </li></ul><ul><li>Escapable </li></ul>
  12. 12. Athenian Drama <ul><li>Origin: Festival of Dionysus </li></ul><ul><li>Central to spiritual/intellectual life </li></ul><ul><li>Greek plays: tragedy + comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Passion vs. reason, divine vs. human law, individual + polis </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary commentaries </li></ul>
  13. 13. Greek Playwrights <ul><li>1. Aeschylus (525-456 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Oresteia (trilogy) </li></ul><ul><li>Justice of Gods, human fallibility </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sophocles (496-406 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Antigone + Oedipus the King </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd actor, character development </li></ul><ul><li>3. Euripides (484-406 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Realism </li></ul><ul><li>4. Aristophanes (450-388 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Satires on Athenian society </li></ul>
  14. 14. Aeschylus, Agamemnon <ul><li>“ Zeus: whatever he may be, if this name pleases him in invocation, </li></ul><ul><li>thus I call upon him. I have pondered everything </li></ul><ul><li>yet I cannot find a way, </li></ul><ul><li>only Zeus, to cast this dead weight of ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>finally from out of my brain... </li></ul><ul><li>Zeus, who guided men to think, who has laid it down that wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>comes alone through suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Still there drips in sleep against the heart </li></ul><ul><li>grief of memory; against our pleasure we are temperate. </li></ul><ul><li>From the gods who sit in grandeur grace comes somehow violent” </li></ul><ul><li>(Agamemnon 160-66, 176-183; Lattimore 1959) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sophocles, Antigone <ul><li>“ Many the wonders but nothing walks stranger than man. This thing crosses the sea in the winter's storm, making his path through the roaring waves. And she, the greatest of the gods, the earth-- ageless she is and unwearied--he wears her away as the ploughs go up and down from year to year and his mules turn up the soil... Language, and thought like the wind and the feelings that make the town, he has taught himself, and shelter against the cold, refuge from the rain. He can always help himself. He faces no future helpless. There's only death That he cannot find an escape from. He has contrived refuges from illnesses once beyond all cure.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Sophocles, Antigone 11.332-368, translated by Elizabeth Wyckoff </li></ul>
  16. 16. Euripides, Medea : <ul><li>“ We women are the most unfortunate creatures. First, with an excess of wealth it is required for us to buy a husband, and take for our bodies a master; for not to take one is even worse. And now the question is serious whether we take a good or bad one; for there is no easy escape for a women, nor can she say no to her marriage” ( Medea 231-238; Warner 1959) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Historical Accounts <ul><li>1. Herodotus (Ionia) </li></ul><ul><li>Investigations: Persian Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of human events </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Gods: no causal role </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in foreign cultures </li></ul>
  18. 18. Historical Accounts (continued) <ul><li>2. Thucydides (Athens) </li></ul><ul><li>History of the Peloponnesian War </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to detail - research </li></ul><ul><li>Human responsibility: cause + effect </li></ul><ul><li>Standard for western historical analysis </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thucydides, on his methodology: <ul><li>“ One will not go wrong if he believes that the facts were such as I have related them, based on evidence, and not as they are sung by the poets- who embellish and exaggerate them-or as they are strung together by popular historians with a view to making them not more truthful but more attractive to their audiences….as to the events of the war…[I] have consistently described what I myself saw or have been able to learn from others after going over each event in as much detail as possible…my narrative…lacks an element of fiction…” </li></ul><ul><li>The Peloponnesian War 1.22; translated by Walter Blanco </li></ul>
  20. 20. Scientific Developments: The Ionian Philosophers <ul><li>Birth in Ionia (600 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern scientific inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Natural world: predictable </li></ul><ul><li>1. Thales of Miletus: </li></ul><ul><li>Water: origin of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Solar eclipse </li></ul><ul><li>2. Anaximander </li></ul><ul><li>Rational + symmetrical </li></ul><ul><li>Opposites </li></ul><ul><li>3. Anaximenes: </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Air </li></ul>
  21. 21. Greek Philosophy: The Sophists <ul><li>Sophia : Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Widely criticized: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Rhetoric </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fees </li></ul><ul><li>3. Teachings </li></ul><ul><li>Relativism - Protagoras </li></ul><ul><li>Nomos ( “law” or “custom”) vs. phusis (“nature”) - Antiphon </li></ul>
  22. 22. Greek Philosophy: Socrates and Plato <ul><li>Socrates (via Plato) </li></ul><ul><li>Defining virtues </li></ul><ul><li>Elenchus (“Cross-examination”) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Virtue is knowledge&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Execution: The Apology </li></ul><ul><li>Plato </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of relativity </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of forms: Allegory of the Cave </li></ul>
  23. 23. Greek Philosophy: Aristotle <ul><li>Rejection of abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Form + matter </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>The Lyceum </li></ul>
  24. 24. Art in Classical Greece <ul><li>1. Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on naturalism </li></ul><ul><li>The Severe Style </li></ul><ul><li>Contrapposto (“counterpoise”) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Pottery </li></ul><ul><li>Black vs. red figure </li></ul><ul><li>3. Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Doric vs. Ionic </li></ul><ul><li>Parthenon </li></ul>
  25. 25. Lecture 6: What do you need to know? <ul><li>Delian League: Purpose + effects </li></ul><ul><li>Reign of Pericles: characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Peloponnesian War: causes? Central figures/powers? Results? </li></ul><ul><li>Greek religion: general characteristics, kinds of rituals + significance </li></ul><ul><li>Women + Slaves: roles? Daily life? </li></ul><ul><li>Athenian drama: major figures, general characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Historian Herodotus + Thucydides: why are they important? Central difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Philosophy: </li></ul><ul><li>Who were the Sophists? Why were they controversial? </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates/Plato + Aristotle – central methods? Differences? </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic developments of Classical Period </li></ul>
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