THE HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION I Lecture 1 HIST 101 Professor Wright January 26 th , 2011
THE FERTILE CRESCENT  THE BIRTH OF CIVILIZATION IN THE NEAR EAST
Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent, 10,000 – 2000 B.C.E.  <ul><li>The Neolithic Era, </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 BCE–3000B...
Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>9000-6000 BCE: permanent settlements + domestication of plants/animals.  </li></ul><ul><li...
Possible Causes Of The Agrarian Transformation <ul><li>Shift in climate : retreat of the glaciers (12,000 BCE). Changed di...
Results of Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>Shift in relationship of man to nature: active, not passive </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Disadvantages of Rise of Agriculture <ul><li>Specialization: possible disaster during famine </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerabili...
Social Consequences and Transformations <ul><li>Eg. 1: Jericho (West Bank of Jordan River) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth : </li...
<ul><li>Jericho: Social Hierarchies </li></ul><ul><li>Building projects needed organization with a directing, managing fun...
Eg. 2 Abu Hureyra <ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>Excavated 1972 + 1973  </li></ul><ul><li>Modern day N. Syria </li></...
Abu Hureyra: Agricultural Discoveries  <ul><li>Evidence of agricultural cultivation : Genetic make-up in rye grains = evid...
Birth of Civilization: Sumer <ul><li>6000 B.C.E, farming + herding standardized </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform culture = Sumeri...
<ul><li>2500 BCE, 12 City-states </li></ul><ul><li>Each city-state: economically interdependent, geographically independen...
<ul><li>Political Organization and Economy </li></ul><ul><li>3000 - 2900 BCE: specialized craft industries emerge. Economi...
<ul><li>Sumer: Religious Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic + Anthropomorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Subservience + sacrifi...
<ul><li>Gods: created laws of Sumerian society </li></ul><ul><li>Each city-state: particular god  </li></ul><ul><li>Ziggur...
Cultural Achievements <ul><li>1. Cuneiform (&quot;wedge-shaped&quot;) system of writing.  </li></ul><ul><li>Pressed symbol...
<ul><li>What did they record?  </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities of produce + livestock, taxes, accounts, contracts  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Other Cultural Achievements </li></ul><ul><li>1. Inventions: the plow + the sailboat </li></ul><ul><li>2. Innovati...
<ul><li>Political Developments </li></ul><ul><li>3360 B.C. to 2400 B.C – Sumerian Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence...
<ul><li>1. 1st conscripted army to mobilize laborers for irrigation + flood-control works </li></ul><ul><li>2. Akkadian Ki...
<ul><li>2200 – 2000 B.C.E </li></ul><ul><li>Civil unrest: fall of Akkadian Kingdom  </li></ul><ul><li>Cities of Sumer: reu...
<ul><li>Amorite Invasions </li></ul><ul><li>2000 B.C. attacks of Amorites + Elamites destroyed Ur </li></ul><ul><li>Politi...
Lecture 1: What do you need to know? <ul><li>1. Agricultural Revolution: Meaning, Causes, and Results </li></ul><ul><li>2....
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  1. 1. THE HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION I Lecture 1 HIST 101 Professor Wright January 26 th , 2011
  2. 2. THE FERTILE CRESCENT THE BIRTH OF CIVILIZATION IN THE NEAR EAST
  3. 3. Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent, 10,000 – 2000 B.C.E. <ul><li>The Neolithic Era, </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 BCE–3000BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Preceded by Paleolithic Era: hunting + gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Farming techniques evolve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation + the plow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestication of plants + animals </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>9000-6000 BCE: permanent settlements + domestication of plants/animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Two major discoveries: </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication of plants: collecting wild grain for food, transplanting/growing in new areas </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication of animals to serve human needs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Possible Causes Of The Agrarian Transformation <ul><li>Shift in climate : retreat of the glaciers (12,000 BCE). Changed distribution + growth of crops </li></ul><ul><li>Shift to sedentary farming : due to population growth. Hunters move into new territories </li></ul>
  6. 6. Results of Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>Shift in relationship of man to nature: active, not passive </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in food supply. Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Infant mortality decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Populations expand </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent settlements of greater size + complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence + growth of trade </li></ul><ul><li>More coordination + organization needed. </li></ul><ul><li>*4000-3000 BCE: first cities appear* </li></ul>
  7. 7. Disadvantages of Rise of Agriculture <ul><li>Specialization: possible disaster during famine </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to disease, population crashes </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to variations in climate </li></ul><ul><li>More labor intensive work </li></ul>
  8. 8. Social Consequences and Transformations <ul><li>Eg. 1: Jericho (West Bank of Jordan River) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth : </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded to nearly ten acres, 2000-3000 residents </li></ul><ul><li>Grew into a fortified town with ditches, stone walls, and towers </li></ul><ul><li>Trade : </li></ul><ul><li>Long-distance commercial exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Developments: Religious structure to regulate social behaviors, i.e. Human skulls: ancestor worship </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Jericho: Social Hierarchies </li></ul><ul><li>Building projects needed organization with a directing, managing function </li></ul><ul><li>Egalitarianism of hunter-gatherer societies diminished, class divisions emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Specializations in economy = inequalities of wealth + status </li></ul><ul><li>Food production easier = less farming, increase in other professions </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. craftsmen, laborers, merchants, officials </li></ul>
  10. 10. Eg. 2 Abu Hureyra <ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>Excavated 1972 + 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Modern day N. Syria </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletons found, 10,000-7000 yrs old </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabitants cultivated domesticated seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Significance : </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of transition from foraging to farming </li></ul><ul><li>Bones reveal details of daily life + social activities of community </li></ul>
  11. 11. Abu Hureyra: Agricultural Discoveries <ul><li>Evidence of agricultural cultivation : Genetic make-up in rye grains = evidence of selective planting. </li></ul><ul><li>Period of climate change affected wild plant supply. To ensure supply of food plants, cultivation developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of vigorous food preparation in deformities of bone structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Saddle querns uncovered: tools used to grind the grains </li></ul>
  12. 12. Birth of Civilization: Sumer <ul><li>6000 B.C.E, farming + herding standardized </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform culture = Sumerian civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Tigris + Euphrates Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>3000-2000 BCE: Sumerians inhabit </li></ul><ul><li>Over 10,000 square miles </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>2500 BCE, 12 City-states </li></ul><ul><li>Each city-state: economically interdependent, geographically independent + isolated </li></ul><ul><li>Alluvial plain: more fertile than north </li></ul><ul><li>Little rainfall, need for irrigation ditches. Community cooperation, rich yield of crops, population growth </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Political Organization and Economy </li></ul><ul><li>3000 - 2900 BCE: specialized craft industries emerge. Economic interdependence of towns </li></ul><ul><li>Each city-state ruled by a king, who controlled: </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of buildings and temples </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberation of justice </li></ul><ul><li>Formation and amendment of trade and defense policies </li></ul><ul><li>Economic resources </li></ul><ul><li>Election to hereditary </li></ul><ul><li>Elite: priests, aristocrats, civil administrators, wealthy merchants lived near temples in luxury; the rest in small mud-brick houses </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Sumer: Religious Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic + Anthropomorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Subservience + sacrifice to Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Divination + art of the occult </li></ul><ul><li>Mythiopic religion – Enuma Elish </li></ul><ul><li>Central deities: </li></ul><ul><li>An, god of the sky </li></ul><ul><li>Enlil , god of wind. Controlled fertility of soil + storms </li></ul><ul><li>Enki , god of the earth, rivers, wells, + canals. Waters of creativity - inventions + crafts </li></ul><ul><li>Ninhursaga , goddess of soil, mountains, + vegetation. Later mother goddess, manifested power by giving birth to kings. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Gods: created laws of Sumerian society </li></ul><ul><li>Each city-state: particular god </li></ul><ul><li>Ziggurat: Monumental temple to worship + house a city’s god </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cultural Achievements <ul><li>1. Cuneiform (&quot;wedge-shaped&quot;) system of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressed symbols into clay tablets with sharp objects </li></ul><ul><li>Uruk, 3200 B.C.E: earliest known example </li></ul><ul><li>Record keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Image: Sample Sumerian characters circa 3200 BCE </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>What did they record? </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities of produce + livestock, taxes, accounts, contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Literature, i.e. Epic of Gilgamesh </li></ul><ul><li>Why did they record? </li></ul><ul><li>Growing increase in trade (helped reduce disputes + keep peace) </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Other Cultural Achievements </li></ul><ul><li>1. Inventions: the plow + the sailboat </li></ul><ul><li>2. Innovations in Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>3. Divided circle into 360 degrees + developed counting system based on sixty </li></ul><ul><li>4. Potter’s wheel, wagon, + chariot: for transportation + warfare </li></ul><ul><li>5. Architecture, i.e. Ziggurats + city walls </li></ul><ul><li>6. Mastery of engineering (irrigation systems) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Astrology + movements of planets, stars, moon </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Political Developments </li></ul><ul><li>3360 B.C. to 2400 B.C – Sumerian Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of kings, primarily military leaders, but used idea of Kingship. Power away from temple priests. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of warring Sumerian city-states, fought for increased territory + power </li></ul><ul><li>2400 B.C. to 2200 B.C – Akkadian Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Sumer conquered 2340 BCE by Sargon I, king of city of Akkad. </li></ul><ul><li>Unified empire, end hostilities among city-states. How? </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>1. 1st conscripted army to mobilize laborers for irrigation + flood-control works </li></ul><ul><li>2. Akkadian Kings: symbols of unity + semi-divine figures </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge: Raising Revenue for public buildings, irrigation projects, temples, army </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>Kings leased out farmlands </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered people to pay regular tribute </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy taxes on imported raw materials </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>2200 – 2000 B.C.E </li></ul><ul><li>Civil unrest: fall of Akkadian Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Cities of Sumer: reunited by Ur-Nammu </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of Sumerian + Akkadian cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Most important innovation: Ur-Nammu + collection of laws </li></ul><ul><li>*Note: This is a central tradition in Western Civilizations that follow* </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Amorite Invasions </li></ul><ul><li>2000 B.C. attacks of Amorites + Elamites destroyed Ur </li></ul><ul><li>Political fragmentation: unity + economy destabilized </li></ul><ul><li>Two new kingdoms, Babylonia + Assyria </li></ul><ul><li>1762 B.C.E –Mesopotamia under rule of King Hammurabi of Babylon </li></ul>
  24. 24. Lecture 1: What do you need to know? <ul><li>1. Agricultural Revolution: Meaning, Causes, and Results </li></ul><ul><li>2. Social Consequences of Agriculture. Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Jericho </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Hureyra </li></ul><ul><li>3. Birth of Civilization: Sumer </li></ul><ul><li>Political Structure and Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cultural Achievements </li></ul><ul><li>5. Civil Unrest – Akkadian and Ammorite Invasions </li></ul>
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