APA STYLEWORKSHOP“THE BASICS”Presented by the SSTC and Library
Outline For Workshop1. Introduction to APA Style2. First Page Formatting3. In-Text Citations4. Formatting Sources for your Reference Page5. Discussion of Plagiarism6. How to use NoodleBib!
Introduction to APA Style APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. Purposes: Consistent system for referencing sources through in-text citations and References page Provides avenue to allow for audience investigation of sources and their credibility Avoids plagiarism
Title Page The title page should contain the title of the paper, the authors name, and the institutional affiliation, all centered. Page header/running head should look
In-Text Citations When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. Example: This means that the authors last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998). The purpose is to give credit to your source: so, you MUST make reference to the author and year of publication, include the page number if possible (if no page, paragraph number, or Title of the Section) in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must
Quotations and In-Text CitationsShort Quotation When directly quoting from a source, you need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). If more than one page, list all pages (pp.). Example - According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the authors last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Example - She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as
Quotations and In-Text CitationsLong Quotations Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free- standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Refer to APA Manual for additional specifics. Example : Joness (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
Quotations and In-Text CitationsSummary & Paraphrase If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.) Examples: According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
The Reference List Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper, including all sources used for the paper. Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay Label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
How to Format the References List All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. Referred to as a Hanging Indent Authors names are inverted (last name first) Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. If you have more than one article by the same author, single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of
How to Format the ReferencesList, cont’d. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
Basic Format for BooksLast name, First Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. (Edition)[if other than the 1st]. City of Publication: Publisher. One Author Brader, T. (2006). Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Two Authors Elder, L. & Paul, R. (2006). The miniature guide to the art of asking essential questions. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Three Authors Miller, T. E., Bender, B. E., & Schuh, J. H. (2005). Promoting reasonable expectations: Aligning student and institutional views of the college experience. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Basic Format for an Online DatabaseArticle Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. Retrieved from URL of database home page. Specific Example (from the Academic Search Premier database) Denhart, H. (2008). Deconstructing barriers: Perceptions of students labeled with learning disabilities in higher education. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 483- 497. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.
Basic Format for a Web Page Author, Institution, Company, or Organization Responsible for the Website (if available). (Year, Month Day website was last updated). Title or description of page. Retrieved Month Day, Year you visited the website, from: URL (address of website) Author: Sometimes the person or group responsible for the web page is hard to determine. A library staff person would be happy to help you discover who the author is. Specific Example: LD Online. (2006). Speech and language milestone chart. Retrieved April 11, 2006, from: http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/speech- language/lda_milestones.html.
Plagiarism: What is it and how do Iavoid it? Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information. To avoid plagiarizing, you must give credit whenever you use: another person’s idea, opinion, or theory any facts, statistics, graphs, or drawings information that is not common knowledge quotations or paraphrases of another person’s spoken or written words
Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismTerms you need to know: Common knowledge - facts that can be found in many places and are likely to be known by most people. Example: President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. This is generally known information. You do not need to document this fact.
Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismWhat is NOT common knowledge? Specificfacts unknown, other’sideas, interpretations, researchfindings, statistics, quotes, etc. You must document facts that are not generally known and ideas that interpret facts. Example: According to the American Family Leave Coalition’s book (2005), Family Issues and Congress, former President Bush’s relationship with Congress hindered family leave legislation (p. 6).
Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismTerms you need to know: Quotation - using someone’s words. When you quote, place the passage you are using in quotation marks, and document the source according to a standard documentation style. The following example uses the APA style: Example: According to Peter S. Pritchard in USA Today (2005), “Public schools need reform but theyre irreplaceable in teaching the entire nations young” (p. 14).
Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismTerms you need to know: Paraphrase - using someone’s ideas, but putting them in your own words. Let’s take a look at how to paraphrase…
How do I paraphrase? Remember, while paraphrasing, if you changed around a few words and phrases, or simply changed the order of the original’s sentences, that is still considered plagiarism. Successful paraphrasing by students include the following: the student uses his or her own words the student maintains the original message of the information the student puts quotation marks around any unique phrases the student lets the reader know the source of the original information
Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarism Put quotation marks around everything that comes directly from the text—especially when taking notes. When paraphrasing, read over what you want to paraphrase carefully. Cover up or close the text so you cant see any of it to be tempted to use it as a guide. Write out a summary of the passage in your own words without peeking. Check your paraphrase against the original text to be sure you have not accidentally used the same phrases or words, and that the information is accurate.
NoodleBib NoodleBib by NoodleTools is an online citation generator provided by HGTC Library that will help you create perfectly formatted APA style citations. Beware: You must have some understanding of how citations work to get a correct citation out of NoodleBib. Note: To use NoodleBib from off-campus, you will need HGTCs school username and password: Username: hgtclib Password: hgtc09
NoodleBib Access Instructions Go to www.hgtc.edu/library Click on the Citations tab Click on NoodleBib Full Version Make note of the username and password if off- campus Click on Current Users: Sign In If you are a new user, click on “Create a free Personal ID” Returning users, enter your Personal ID and Password Click on Bibliography in the upper part of the screen Follow the on screen prompts Choose APA Style, then select Bibliography once again
NoodleBib Help Assistance using NoodleBib is available through a variety of avenues: Click on the Help link shown on all NoodleBib screens at any time. View HGTC Library’s NoodleBib tutorial, available at http://libguides.hgtc.edu/librarytutorials Pick up the NoodleBib Instructions guide available at any HGTC campus library. Contact any HGTC campus library for assistance.