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  • Welcome to the APA Style Basics Workshop. Here is the agenda for the workshop today:Introduction to APA StyleFirst Page FormattingIn-Text CitationsFormatting Sources for Works CitedDiscussion of PlagiarismNoodletools
  • APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. Purpose:-Consistent system for referencing sources through in-text citations and References page-Provides avenue to allow for audience investigation of sources and their credibility-Avoids plagiarism
  • So, we’ll start with the first step – formatting your Title Page. Take a hard look at the image on the right. Images are also provided in your APA manual.-The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name, and the institutional affiliation, all centered. -Include the page header flush left with the page number flush right at the top of the page. -Note that on the title page, your page header/running head should look like this: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER
  • First, let’s start off with in-text citations.-When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. -This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998).-If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. -The purpose is to give credit to your source: so, you MUST make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number (if no page, paragraph number, or Title of the Section) in your in-text reference. -All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
  • Short QuotationWhen directly quoting from a source, you need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). If more than one page, list all pages (pp.). NOTE: Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.Example - According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p.199); what implications does this have for teachers?If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.Example - She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
  • Long QuotationsPlace direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.Refer to your APA Manual for additiona information in regards to long quotations.
  • Summary & ParaphraseIf you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.) See examples on this slide.We will discuss more about how to effectively paraphrase during our discussion on avoiding plagiarism later in this workshop.Examples:According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
  • Putting together your references list is very important.-Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper, including all sources used for the paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.-Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay Label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
  • How to format the References list.This is called hanging indentation. This can be done in the Paragraph Tab in MS Word2. give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name. After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work.Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. For more information, see page 193 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, sixth edition.
  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles.When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. NOTE: Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
  • The Basic Format for booksLast name, First Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. (Edition) [if other than the 1st]. City of Publication: Publisher.      One AuthorBrader, T. (2006). Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Two AuthorsElder, L. & Paul, R. (2006). The miniature guide to the art of asking essential questions. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.Three AuthorsMiller, T. E., Bender, B. E., & Schuh, J. H. (2005). Promoting reasonable expectations: Aligning student and institutional views of the college experience. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • This is the basic format for an online database article:Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. Retrieved from URL of database home page.Specific Example (from the Academic Search Premier database)Denhart, H.  (2008). Deconstructing barriers: Perceptions of students labeled with learning disabilities in higher education. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 483-497.  Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.
  • Here is an example of the format for a simple web page – for example, if you are citing www.apa.org, or a .edu, or .gov, or a .com website for your sources.Author:  Sometimes the person or group responsible for the web page is hard to determine, but it’s important that you figure it out.  Check the top and bottom of the web page.  Then check the top and bottom of the home page.  Then look for a link like “About.”  A library staff person would be happy to help you discover who the author is.See the specific example presented here on this slide for a speech and language milestone chart.Now that we have a clear understanding of APA, we do suggest you use your own APA handbook to doublecheck your citations, both in-text and on the references page, to ensure your format is correct. Let’s now talk a little about Plagiarism and how to avoid it.
  • So, what is plagiarism? Plagiarismis using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information. To avoid plagiarizing, you must give credit whenever you use:-another person’s idea, opinion, or theory-any facts, statistics, graphs, or drawings-information that is not common knowledge-quotations or paraphrases of another person’s spoken or written wordsIt is okay to double check with a professor, tutor or librarian? on a question of whether you cited something appropriately. Simply bring your cited facts and the cited resource with you.
  • Here are some strategies on preventing plagiarism in your own work:-know the difference between common knowledge and facts that are not common knowledge.Common knowledge - facts that can be found in many places and are likely to be known by most people.Example: President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. This is generally known information. You do not need to document this fact.
  • What is NOT common knowledge? Specific facts unknown, other’s ideas, interpretations, research findings, statistics, etc.You must document facts that are not generally known and ideas that interpret facts.Example: According to the American Family Leave Coalition’s book (2005), Family Issues and Congress, former President Bush’s relationship with Congress hindered family leave legislation (p. 6).The idea that Bush’s relationship with Congress hindered family leave legislation is not a fact but an interpretation; thus, you need to cite your source.
  • Other Terms you need to know:Quotation - using someone’s words. When you quote, place the passage you are using in quotation marks, and document the source according to a standard documentation style.The following example uses the APA style:Example: According to Peter S. Pritchard in USA Today (2005), “Public schools need reform but they're irreplaceable in teaching the entire nation's young” (p. 14).
  • Terms you need to know:Paraphrase - using someone’s ideas, but putting them in your own words. This is probably the skill you will use most when incorporating sources into your writing. Although you use your own words to paraphrase, you must still acknowledge the source of the information.Let’s take a look at how to paraphrase…
  • -Remember, while paraphrasing, if you only changed around a few words and phrases, or simply changed the order of the original’s sentences, that is still considered plagiarism. -successful paraphrasingby students include the following:-the student uses his or her own words – Here’s a suggestion: to put something in your own words – do not look at the original source while trying to type or write a summary of the findings, facts or information you would like to use in your paper. Then, you will not rely on the original wording of the source – double-check it against the source, remember to include your in-text citation.-the student maintains the original message of the information -the student puts quotation marks around any unique phrases and sentences taken from a source-the student lets the reader know the source of the original information (cite!, Cite!, References Page!)
  • Put quotation marks around everything that comes directly from the text—especially when taking notes.When paraphrasing, read over what you want to paraphrase carefully. Cover up or close the text so you can't see any of it to be tempted to use it as a guide. Write out a summary of the passage in your own words without peeking.Check your paraphrase against the original text to be sure you have not accidentally used the same phrases or words, and that the information is accurate.

Apa style workshop Apa style workshop Presentation Transcript

  • APA STYLEWORKSHOP“THE BASICS”Presented by the SSTC and Library
  • Outline For Workshop1. Introduction to APA Style2. First Page Formatting3. In-Text Citations4. Formatting Sources for your Reference Page5. Discussion of Plagiarism6. How to use NoodleBib!
  • Introduction to APA Style APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. Purposes:  Consistent system for referencing sources through in-text citations and References page  Provides avenue to allow for audience investigation of sources and their credibility  Avoids plagiarism
  • Title Page The title page should contain the title of the paper, the authors name, and the institutional affiliation, all centered. Page header/running head should look
  • In-Text Citations When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation.  Example: This means that the authors last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998). The purpose is to give credit to your source: so, you MUST make reference to the author and year of publication, include the page number if possible (if no page, paragraph number, or Title of the Section) in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must
  • Quotations and In-Text CitationsShort Quotation When directly quoting from a source, you need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). If more than one page, list all pages (pp.). Example - According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the authors last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Example - She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as
  • Quotations and In-Text CitationsLong Quotations Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free- standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Refer to APA Manual for additional specifics. Example : Joness (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
  • Quotations and In-Text CitationsSummary & Paraphrase  If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.) Examples: According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
  • The Reference List Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper, including all sources used for the paper. Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay  Label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title).  All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
  • How to Format the References List All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. Referred to as a Hanging Indent Authors names are inverted (last name first) Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. If you have more than one article by the same author, single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of
  • How to Format the ReferencesList, cont’d. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
  • Basic Format for BooksLast name, First Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. (Edition)[if other than the 1st]. City of Publication: Publisher. One Author Brader, T. (2006). Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Two Authors Elder, L. & Paul, R. (2006). The miniature guide to the art of asking essential questions. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Three Authors Miller, T. E., Bender, B. E., & Schuh, J. H. (2005). Promoting reasonable expectations: Aligning student and institutional views of the college experience. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Basic Format for an Online DatabaseArticle Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. Retrieved from URL of database home page. Specific Example (from the Academic Search Premier database) Denhart, H. (2008). Deconstructing barriers: Perceptions of students labeled with learning disabilities in higher education. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 483- 497. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.
  • Basic Format for a Web Page Author, Institution, Company, or Organization Responsible for the Website (if available). (Year, Month Day website was last updated). Title or description of page. Retrieved Month Day, Year you visited the website, from: URL (address of website) Author: Sometimes the person or group responsible for the web page is hard to determine. A library staff person would be happy to help you discover who the author is. Specific Example: LD Online. (2006). Speech and language milestone chart. Retrieved April 11, 2006, from: http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/speech- language/lda_milestones.html.
  • Plagiarism: What is it and how do Iavoid it? Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information. To avoid plagiarizing, you must give credit whenever you use:  another person’s idea, opinion, or theory  any facts, statistics, graphs, or drawings  information that is not common knowledge  quotations or paraphrases of another person’s spoken or written words
  • Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismTerms you need to know: Common knowledge - facts that can be found in many places and are likely to be known by most people. Example: President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. This is generally known information. You do not need to document this fact.
  • Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismWhat is NOT common knowledge? Specificfacts unknown, other’sideas, interpretations, researchfindings, statistics, quotes, etc. You must document facts that are not generally known and ideas that interpret facts. Example: According to the American Family Leave Coalition’s book (2005), Family Issues and Congress, former President Bush’s relationship with Congress hindered family leave legislation (p. 6).
  • Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismTerms you need to know: Quotation - using someone’s words. When you quote, place the passage you are using in quotation marks, and document the source according to a standard documentation style. The following example uses the APA style: Example: According to Peter S. Pritchard in USA Today (2005), “Public schools need reform but theyre irreplaceable in teaching the entire nations young” (p. 14).
  • Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismTerms you need to know: Paraphrase - using someone’s ideas, but putting them in your own words. Let’s take a look at how to paraphrase…
  • How do I paraphrase? Remember, while paraphrasing, if you changed around a few words and phrases, or simply changed the order of the original’s sentences, that is still considered plagiarism. Successful paraphrasing by students include the following:  the student uses his or her own words  the student maintains the original message of the information  the student puts quotation marks around any unique phrases  the student lets the reader know the source of the original information
  • Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarism Put quotation marks around everything that comes directly from the text—especially when taking notes. When paraphrasing, read over what you want to paraphrase carefully. Cover up or close the text so you cant see any of it to be tempted to use it as a guide. Write out a summary of the passage in your own words without peeking. Check your paraphrase against the original text to be sure you have not accidentally used the same phrases or words, and that the information is accurate.
  • NoodleBib NoodleBib by NoodleTools is an online citation generator provided by HGTC Library that will help you create perfectly formatted APA style citations. Beware: You must have some understanding of how citations work to get a correct citation out of NoodleBib. Note: To use NoodleBib from off-campus, you will need HGTCs school username and password:  Username: hgtclib  Password: hgtc09
  • NoodleBib Access Instructions Go to www.hgtc.edu/library Click on the Citations tab Click on NoodleBib Full Version Make note of the username and password if off- campus Click on Current Users: Sign In If you are a new user, click on “Create a free Personal ID”  Returning users, enter your Personal ID and Password Click on Bibliography in the upper part of the screen Follow the on screen prompts  Choose APA Style, then select Bibliography once again
  • NoodleBib Help Assistance using NoodleBib is available through a variety of avenues:  Click on the Help link shown on all NoodleBib screens at any time.  View HGTC Library’s NoodleBib tutorial, available at http://libguides.hgtc.edu/librarytutorials  Pick up the NoodleBib Instructions guide available at any HGTC campus library.  Contact any HGTC campus library for assistance.
  • Thank you! Credits:  APA Manual  APA Citation Style Guide. Landmark College Library, updated for the 6th edition (© 2010). http://www.landmark.edu/m/uploads/APA-Citation- Guide-6th-ed.pdf.  Horry Georgetown Technical College Library  Student Success and Technology Center