Knowledge Management:

         concepts
       frameworks

  Dr. José Cláudio C. Terra



         Paris, 9 Février 2005
Knowledge Management


        What‟s hot                                   What‟s emerging
• Corporate Universities      ...
KM in Brazil: what we have been working on…



          Knowledge Management

          Innovation Management

        ...
KM in Brazil: what we have been working on…

 Strategic Level                Tactical Level              Operational Le...
KM: what kind of skills have proved very useful…


                   Knowledge & Learning theories


          • Strategi...
The Context for KM




“What Knowledge Management offers us is insight
into aspects of management that we have failed to
u...
Key Assumption


Organizations that are market leaders tend to
excel in product leadership, operational
efficiency, or cus...
Key Assumptions



Knowledge processes do not generate value if
disconnected from business processes and
priorities.




 ...
Operational Definition of KM



“KM means focused attention on and constant
improvement of the key processes, people
issue...
What kind of knowledge has value for organizations?


 Tacit – abstract

 Tacit – know-how

 Competences
              ...
Some ideas about knowledge...

 We know a lot more than we can tell
 Knowledge depends on context

 Knowledge is social...
Objectives of Knowledge Management

 KM: it is necessary to have a double
             perspective !!!

      Organization...
Employee’s perspective


The Needs of the Knowledge Worker?




         Paris, 9 Février 2005   p. 13
Employee’s perspective


       The Needs of the Knowledge Worker?
Balance personal and
professional life
                ...
Employee’s perspective


           The Needs of the Knowledge Worker?
Learn continuously

Have access to information and
...
Knowledge Worker: how do they learn?



               Telling Stories                 Knowing what to
                   ...
Knowledge Management: Key Knowledge Actions

                                                                             ...
Knowledge Management: issues related to k transfers..


                CONTEXT AND TYPE
                 OF KNOWLEDGE



...
Sharing can be a source of personal power


         Institutional
              and                        Intrinsic
    ...
Sharing can be a source of personal power

 Institutional     Personal
                                                   ...
Objectives of Knowledge Management


 KM: it is necessary to have a double
             perspective !!!

      Organizatio...
Objectives of Knowledge Management

                                            Integrate
                      Provide
  ...
Managing Knowledge can be supported by many types of initiatives...


                  New knowledge
                    ...
It is a good idea to start with the top management issues!




                                          Knowledge
       ...
It is a good idea to start with the top management issues!



     Core Competence & Key business processes


            ...
KM needs to be integrated in the management system of
the organizations ...

                      Management System


   ...
...Each process needs to incorporate KM methods and
tools....


              Business Processes

                        ...
...one should, however, start by the business issues...


     what is the business issue?

     what is the scope of th...
Measuring Results in KM initiatives

   Business
                                                        Innovation

     ...
A few reflections on measuring KM


 You only manage what you measure!


 Quantitatives x Qualitatives

 Leaders x Mana...
A few reflections on measuring KM




Not everything that counts can be counted;

Not everything that can be counted, coun...
Approach: Broad KM Assessment



                  KM: 7 Dimensions
 D1 – Strategy & Senior Management

 D2 – Informatio...
The Seven Dimensions


 Why 7 Dimensions- PART I
    KM is not a single project, but a series of initiatives aimed at
  ...
The Seven Dimensions

 Why 7 Dimensions- PART II
    The 7 Dimensions Methodology looks into key aspects that
     organ...
The Seven Dimensions


 Why 7 Dimensions- PART III
   Each typical organizational knowledge management
    goal (e.g. In...
Key Ties between 7 Dimensions & KM


D1- Strategy             Leadership, Alignment & Value of Intangibles

D2- Informatio...
A successful Knowledge Management strategy is based on an effective diagnosis –
one that is holistic and multifaceted...

...
… evaluating important characteristics of organizations based on, and guided
 by, learning and knowledge.



     Knowledg...
 D1 – Senior Management, Vision and Strategy




 This dimension covers:
   Strategic competencies
   Organizational k...
 D2 – Information and Communication Systems




 This dimension covers:
   Communication channels
   Information and c...
 D3 – Organizational Culture




 This dimension covers:
   Organizational mission and core values
   Standards and va...
 D4 – Organizational Procedures and Work Design




 This dimension covers:
   Teams
   Roles and responsibilities
  ...
 D5 – Human Resources Policies and Practices




 This dimension covers:
   Recruiting policies and practices
   Train...
 D6 – Results Measurement




 This dimension covers:
   Measurement sytems and methods
   Customer focus
   Role of ...
 D7 – Environmental and Situational Learning




 This dimension covers:
   Customer relationships
   Supplier and par...
The 7 Dimensions and 100 Management practices© diagnostic model is founded on
established pratices and on a solid theoreti...
The diagnosis helps to establish KM priorities based on internal and external factors



           Step 1.               ...
The diagnosis is part of a structured process of clear and well defined phases
    and can be regularly applied to evaluat...
Tailored
                        Questionnaire




                        Personal Password:
                        Conf...
Online Help




                        Simple
                        responses




Paris, 9 Février 2005     p. 50
Checks for errors
                        in form completion




Paris, 9 Février 2005    p. 51
Popup help
                                and annotation




                                  Click here




Paris, 9 Fé...
Evaluation of the
                        users’ experience
                        of the diagnostic tool




Paris, 9 Fé...
Results can be followed
                        online by a control panel
                        for both TerraForum
    ...
Control Panel:
                        User response




Paris, 9 Février 2005   p. 55
Control Panel:
                        User management




Paris, 9 Février 2005    p. 56
Online results:
                        Charts of responses




Paris, 9 Février 2005      p. 57
Online results:
                                Core statistics




Paris, 9 Février 2005   p. 58
Online results:
                        Cross tab statistics




Paris, 9 Février 2005     p. 59
Online results:
                        Cross tabs by dimension




Paris, 9 Février 2005      p. 60
Export results to
                           a spreadsheet for
                           more sophisticated
             ...
Dr. José Cláudio C. Terra
jcterra@terraforum.com.br
 www.terraforum.com.br
   www.terraforum.ca




  Paris, 9 Février 200...
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Knowledge Management Paris 2005

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Knowledge Management Paris 2005

  1. 1. Knowledge Management: concepts frameworks Dr. José Cláudio C. Terra Paris, 9 Février 2005
  2. 2. Knowledge Management What‟s hot What‟s emerging • Corporate Universities • Knowledge Strategy • E-learning • Taxonomy • Competence Mapping • Innovation Networks • Portals & Content Management • Knowledge markets • Communities of Practice • KM • Yellow Pages • Knowledge Protection • Lessons Learned • Intellectual Capital Measurement • Competitive intelligence • Project Management & KM • Idea Management • Corporate Memory Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 2
  3. 3. KM in Brazil: what we have been working on…  Knowledge Management  Innovation Management  Corporate Portals  Business Intelligence Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 3
  4. 4. KM in Brazil: what we have been working on…  Strategic Level  Tactical Level  Operational Level  Broad KM-readiness Assessment  Change management  Implementation of corporate portal  Model for KM  Organizational Memory Governance for Holding  Implementation of company  Selection of corporate Communities of Practice portal & collaboration  Model for KM technologies  Yellow pages Governance for  Development of Government  KM applied at large engineering projects taxonomies  Model of Governance  Method of KM associated to ISO 9000  Benchmarking of KM projects  Usability  Strategy for knowledge protection  Idea & Innovation  Digital environment for Management collaboration and project  Roadmap for prioritizing management in R&D KM initiatives Consulting for e-learning projects  Competitive Intelligence  Modelling of Knowledge portals market & CoPs Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 4
  5. 5. KM: what kind of skills have proved very useful… Knowledge & Learning theories • Strategists • Information architect • Change Management •Taxonomy experts • Work & Process • IT experts designers Project Management Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 5
  6. 6. The Context for KM “What Knowledge Management offers us is insight into aspects of management that we have failed to understand properly because of our failure to consider the nature and characteristics of knowledge” Professor Robert M. Grant, Georgetown University Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 6
  7. 7. Key Assumption Organizations that are market leaders tend to excel in product leadership, operational efficiency, or customer intimacy. These organizations work hard to fully leverage both internal and external expertise, ideas, and information for strategic and tactical advantage. In other words, KM is integrated, strategic, and pervasive. Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 7
  8. 8. Key Assumptions Knowledge processes do not generate value if disconnected from business processes and priorities. Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 8
  9. 9. Operational Definition of KM “KM means focused attention on and constant improvement of the key processes, people issues and technology involved with the creation, identification, organization, dissemination, protection and usage of strategic knowledge in order to improve the firm’s results and benefit employees’ on-going learning.” Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 9
  10. 10. What kind of knowledge has value for organizations?  Tacit – abstract  Tacit – know-how  Competences They demand very  Metaphors, Values and Stories different approaches  Spoken  Codified (scientific, processes, softwares)  Embodied Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 10
  11. 11. Some ideas about knowledge...  We know a lot more than we can tell  Knowledge depends on context  Knowledge is socially built  Knowledge is cumulative  Knowledge may take a long time to develop and then... Eureka!  Complexity demands multiple types of knowledge  Knowledge is revealed in action or in its products Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 11
  12. 12. Objectives of Knowledge Management KM: it is necessary to have a double perspective !!! Organization’s perspective Employee’s perspective Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 12
  13. 13. Employee’s perspective The Needs of the Knowledge Worker? Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 13
  14. 14. Employee’s perspective The Needs of the Knowledge Worker? Balance personal and professional life Know what and who to trust Balance individual and team work Manage information Access many applications overload throughout the day Publish information and Save time and avoid low- knowledge to specific value activities audiences Work anywhere Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 14
  15. 15. Employee’s perspective The Needs of the Knowledge Worker? Learn continuously Have access to information and knowledge anytime, anywhere Develop one’s own identity Be positively surprised Collaborate with others Be heard and recognized • from same department • from other departments • from other organizations Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 15
  16. 16. Knowledge Worker: how do they learn? Telling Stories Knowing what to Teaching learn Formal Education Reflecting Corporate Training Writing Access to Information Chatting Working – Doing – Wanting to Making Mistakes / Innovating Learn Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 16
  17. 17. Knowledge Management: Key Knowledge Actions Fostering a Connecting Connecting supporting people to people people to content environment Ideas Expertise Information Encouraging creative Directing cross silo Providing an appropriate communities collaborative working architecture Supporting idea sharing Encouraging learning Preventing information and application and insights duplication and filling gaps Facilitating the identification Building external networks Mobilizing customer, market of relationships and competitor intelligence Turning good practice into Providing the time and common practice Developing processes to permission for reflection capture intellectual capital Ensuring that expertise can Valuing diversity and be located fresh eyes on problems and processes Adapted from Knowledge Proposition, TFPL. Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 17
  18. 18. Knowledge Management: issues related to k transfers.. CONTEXT AND TYPE OF KNOWLEDGE Characteristic Characteristics of of individuals environment Processes and Infrastructure Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 18
  19. 19. Sharing can be a source of personal power Institutional and Intrinsic Organizational Rewards Rewards Personal Learning Productivity Personal & & Effectiveness Power Solving Networking Personal & Currency Visibility Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 19
  20. 20. Sharing can be a source of personal power Institutional Personal Networking Learning Intrinsic and Producitivity Personal & & Rewards Organizational & Currency Effectiveness Visibility Solving Rewards NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT VERY VERY VERY VERY VERY VERY IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 20
  21. 21. Objectives of Knowledge Management KM: it is necessary to have a double perspective !!! Organization’s perspective Employee’s perspective Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 21
  22. 22. Objectives of Knowledge Management Integrate Provide Not reinvent External Reduce Relevant the Information & Silos of Information wheel Knowledge Information J.I.T. Protect Map Facilitate Sell Knowledge Intellectual Capital K.M. Individual Competencies Individual Contribution Increase Internal and Integrate Acelerate Collaboration External Divisions and Learning at all Benchmark Companies Levels Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 22
  23. 23. Managing Knowledge can be supported by many types of initiatives... New knowledge Codification Organization Sharing Dissemination Protection & Innovation M&A Succession Corporate Communications planning Strategic Benchmarking Hiring Knowledge „Story telling‟ Protection Competitive Intelligence Competence Mapping of processes Centers Enterprise Memory Mapping of competences Community of Practices Organizational Development Lições Memory of Projects Coaching & mentoring aprendidas Innovation Processes Climate Surveys Programa de Career planning idéias Lessons Learned & Best Practices Yellow pages of experts Knowledgebases Search engines Security Policies Corporate Portals & Content Management IT Blogs e Wikis E-Learning Taxonomy Client & Supply-chain Portals Document Management Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 23
  24. 24. It is a good idea to start with the top management issues! Knowledge X Management Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 24
  25. 25. It is a good idea to start with the top management issues! Core Competence & Key business processes Knowledge domains IT infrastructure K culture Knowledge & information sources Knowledge challenges Knowledge methods Knowledge governance Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 25
  26. 26. KM needs to be integrated in the management system of the organizations ... Management System KM - Macroprocesses Shared Corporate Priorities Budget Accountability Alignment Resources Replicate Change Tested IT Methods Management platfoms Process-oriented KM Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 26
  27. 27. ...Each process needs to incorporate KM methods and tools.... Business Processes Inovate/create Protect Codify KM cycle Disseminate Organize Sharing Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 27
  28. 28. ...one should, however, start by the business issues...  what is the business issue?  what is the scope of the work?  what kind of knowledge is involved?  what is the knowledge challenge?  which methods can be used?  what kind of tools will need to be used?  what kind of governance needs to be in place?  how can the results be measured? Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 28
  29. 29. Measuring Results in KM initiatives Business Innovation Additional Sales Lead-time reduction Cost reduction Problem Resolutions Impact Competence development KM Process Auditing Activities - Acess Talent retention Satisfaction level Global Perspective Activity - Inputs Factors Integration Performance of Systems Qualitatives Quantitatives Type of Measurement TerraForum Consultores © Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 29
  30. 30. A few reflections on measuring KM  You only manage what you measure!  Quantitatives x Qualitatives  Leaders x Managers  Time x ROI  Knowledge worker productivity  Cost of doing business Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 30
  31. 31. A few reflections on measuring KM Not everything that counts can be counted; Not everything that can be counted, counts... Albert Einstein Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 31
  32. 32. Approach: Broad KM Assessment KM: 7 Dimensions  D1 – Strategy & Senior Management  D2 – Information Systems & Communication  D3 – Organizational Culture  D4 – Work Processes & Organization  D5 – Human Resources Management Policies and Practices  D6 – Measurement of Results  D7 – Learning through Partnerships & Monitoring of Environment Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 32
  33. 33. The Seven Dimensions  Why 7 Dimensions- PART I  KM is not a single project, but a series of initiatives aimed at improving knowledge processes  There are underlying organizational characteristics and management practices that make KM more or less effective  A number of market leaders excel at managing knowledge without having ever heard about “knowledge management”  Major failings in one dimension may prove fatal to KM initiatives Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 33
  34. 34. The Seven Dimensions  Why 7 Dimensions- PART II  The 7 Dimensions Methodology looks into key aspects that organizational theory has shown to influence how valuable information, ideas and knowledge is created, organized, validated, shared, used and protected in organizations.  Knowledge processes are embedded in the political, cultural, social and working processes of any organization.  the 7 Dimensions approach looks into the enabling conditions (the fundamentals) that make the knowledge management perspective a sustainable proposition. Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 34
  35. 35. The Seven Dimensions  Why 7 Dimensions- PART III Each typical organizational knowledge management goal (e.g. Innovation, learning, sharing, etc) happens in a complex setting not as a result of an isolated action (e.g. new collaboration software), but of multiple and intertwined actions that occur over time and reinforce each other Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 35
  36. 36. Key Ties between 7 Dimensions & KM D1- Strategy Leadership, Alignment & Value of Intangibles D2- Information Access, Organization, Validation, Publication, Dissemination, Protection D3- Culture Support for Innovation, Sharing, Systemic Thinking and Ethical Behaviour D4- Work Process Embedding KM-related practices into work D5- HR Practices Supply, Nurturing and Reward of Talents and Appropriate Behavior and Results D6- Measurement KM-related and relevant practices and results are monitored and lead to action D7- External Links Valuable Information, Ideas and Knowledge exchanges with the environment Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 36
  37. 37. A successful Knowledge Management strategy is based on an effective diagnosis – one that is holistic and multifaceted... Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 37
  38. 38. … evaluating important characteristics of organizations based on, and guided by, learning and knowledge. Knowledge 7 Dimensions Processes  D1  D2  D3  D4  D5  D6  D7 Innovation Framework Organizational Alignment Individual Learning Information Access and Use Organizational Sharing Publishing and Documentation Asset Protection Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 38
  39. 39.  D1 – Senior Management, Vision and Strategy  This dimension covers:  Strategic competencies  Organizational knowledge map  Knowledge vision and strategies  Intangible assets value  Organizational alignment  Knowledge Management leadership Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 39
  40. 40.  D2 – Information and Communication Systems  This dimension covers:  Communication channels  Information and communication transparency  Information asset governance  IT implementation and infrastructure  User experience  Information architecture (e.g. Taxonomy)  Information security  Collaboration Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 40
  41. 41.  D3 – Organizational Culture  This dimension covers:  Organizational mission and core values  Standards and valued behaviour  Trust  Learning  Sharing  Innovation  Critical thinking  Openness and respect for diversity Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 41
  42. 42.  D4 – Organizational Procedures and Work Design  This dimension covers:  Teams  Roles and responsibilities  Informal and formal networks  Reflection and learning processes  Decision-making processes  Problem-solving processes  Documentation processes Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 42
  43. 43.  D5 – Human Resources Policies and Practices  This dimension covers:  Recruiting policies and practices  Training strategies  Career planning  Talent management  Competencies and strategic imperatives  Recognition and rewards systems  Knowledge retention Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 43
  44. 44.  D6 – Results Measurement  This dimension covers:  Measurement sytems and methods  Customer focus  Role of information systems  Impact on individual and organizational capabilities Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 44
  45. 45.  D7 – Environmental and Situational Learning  This dimension covers:  Customer relationships  Supplier and partner relationships  External expertise exchange  Benchmarking  External assessments: policies, markets, government Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 45
  46. 46. The 7 Dimensions and 100 Management practices© diagnostic model is founded on established pratices and on a solid theoretical background. It uses innovative and descriptive statistical techniques. Innovative and Theoretical and The 7 descriptive statistical practical grounding Dimensions and techniques to analyze, within Knowledge 100 Management interpret and display Management practices© results Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 46
  47. 47. The diagnosis helps to establish KM priorities based on internal and external factors Step 1. Step 2. Alignment with the Understand the Organization‟s Environment Surrounding Environment •Target Audience •Comparative Organizations •Core Processes •Industry Trends •Governance Prioritized Action Items Step 3. KM Assessment The Ideal State The Desired State Triggers Measurable Response and a Plan Difference The Worst State The Current State Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 47
  48. 48. The diagnosis is part of a structured process of clear and well defined phases and can be regularly applied to evaluate the progress of a program in each of the knowledge dimensions. Planning Context Survey Analysis Workshop  Explanation of  Explanation of  Email invitations  Results and  Presentation of the concepts the concepts with individual statistics are results and passwords consolidated recommendations  Analysis of the  Context organization’s understanding  Participants  Advanced  Thematic processes with the complete the statistical analysis workshops to participants questionnaire  dicuss emerging  Establishing Interpretation of issues or specific business focus  Demonstrating  Initial responses the results dimensions. for KM the and results  Recommendations  Adapting the questionnaire followed online  Final results questionnaire  Selecting participating departments and sections  Sample selection and participants  Pre-registration Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 48
  49. 49. Tailored Questionnaire Personal Password: Confidential responses Possible to complete in stages Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 49
  50. 50. Online Help Simple responses Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 50
  51. 51. Checks for errors in form completion Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 51
  52. 52. Popup help and annotation Click here Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 52
  53. 53. Evaluation of the users’ experience of the diagnostic tool Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 53
  54. 54. Results can be followed online by a control panel for both TerraForum and for the client Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 54
  55. 55. Control Panel: User response Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 55
  56. 56. Control Panel: User management Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 56
  57. 57. Online results: Charts of responses Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 57
  58. 58. Online results: Core statistics Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 58
  59. 59. Online results: Cross tab statistics Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 59
  60. 60. Online results: Cross tabs by dimension Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 60
  61. 61. Export results to a spreadsheet for more sophisticated analysis Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 61
  62. 62. Dr. José Cláudio C. Terra jcterra@terraforum.com.br www.terraforum.com.br www.terraforum.ca Paris, 9 Février 2005 p. 62
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