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Bridging the GAP between KM
    Theory and Practice

   Dr. José Cláudio C. Terra




       FIS, University of Toronto, A...
Some ideas about knowledge...


“Knowledge is true and justified belief”
          (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995)

“A mix of fl...
Some ideas about knowledge...

 We know a lot more than we can tell

 Knowledge depends on context

 Knowledge is socia...
Managing Knowledge

                                              Philosophy
                                            ...
Managing Knowledge

                                             Philosophy
                                             ...
Managing Knowledge

                                                      Strategy
                                      ...
Knowledge, however, is not
     broken down by
  organizational function




      FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2...
Another important and practical thing to think about is
         the idea of projects and processes

          Complementa...
“It is important to remember that KM practice has been

deeply influenced by   recent improvement in our ability
to proces...
FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005   p. 10
What kind of knowledge has value for organizations?


 Metaphors, Values and Stories (Cultural – k)

 Tacit – abstract

...
The Context for KM




“What Knowledge Management offers us is insight
into aspects of management that we have failed to
u...
Objectives of Knowledge Management

 KM: it is necessary to have a double
             perspective !!!

      Organization...
Employee’s perspective


The Needs of the Knowledge Worker?




         FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005   p. 14
Knowledge Worker: how do they learn?



               Telling Stories                           Knowing what to
         ...
Objectives of Knowledge Management


 KM: it is necessary to have a double
             perspective !!!

      Organizatio...
Objectives of Knowledge Management

                                             Integrate
                      Provide
 ...
Managing Knowledge can be supported by initiatives at many levels...


                  New knowledge
                   ...
Operational Definition of KM



“KM means focused attention on and constant
improvement of the key processes, people
issue...
Key Assumptions



Knowledge processes do not generate value if
disconnected from business processes and
priorities.




 ...
It is a good idea to start with core processes and business issues!



     Core Competence & Key business processes


   ...
...one should, however, start by the business issues...


     what is the business issue?

     what is the scope of th...
Approach: Broad KM Assessment



                  KM: 7 Dimensions
 D1 – Strategy & Senior Management

 D2 – Informatio...
Key Ties between 7 Dimensions & KM


D1- Strategy             Leadership, Alignment & Value of Intangibles

D2- Informatio...
Who is concerned with KM?




      FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005   p. 25
Who is concerned with KM?
 Corporations

 Governments

 NGOS

 Universities



          FIS, University of Toronto, A...
Institutionalizing Knowledge Management
(% of Large Enterprises Adopting Formal KM programs)


                           ...
KM Initiatives in Governments from OECD countries


                            Broad Definition of KM
   Organisational ...
KM Initiatives in Governments from OECD countries
            Good knowledge/information management is one of the top five...
KM Initiatives in Governments from OECD countries

 Efforts made at improving KM
   (increasing with higher score on the i...
KM landscape in practice


What’s consolidated                                 What’s emerging & hot
• Corporate Universit...
KM: what kind of skills have proved very useful…


                   Knowledge & Learning theories


          • Strategi...
Dr. José Cláudio C. Terra
jcterra@terraforum.com.br
 www.terraforum.com.br
    www.terraforum.ca




  FIS, University of ...
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Knowledge Management

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Presentation at University of Toronto on Knowledge Management by Dr. Jose Claudio C. Terra

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Transcript of "Knowledge Management"

  1. 1. Bridging the GAP between KM Theory and Practice Dr. José Cláudio C. Terra FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005
  2. 2. Some ideas about knowledge... “Knowledge is true and justified belief” (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995) “A mix of fluid experiences, values, contextual information and intuition that provides a structure to evaluate and incorporate new experiences and information” (Davenport & Prusak, 1998) FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 2
  3. 3. Some ideas about knowledge...  We know a lot more than we can tell  Knowledge depends on context  Knowledge is socially built  Knowledge is cumulative  Knowledge may take a long time to develop and then... Eureka!  Complexity demands multiple types of knowledge  Knowledge is revealed in action or in its products FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 3
  4. 4. Managing Knowledge Philosophy Psychology Information Management Science Management Anthropology Sociology Economics FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 4
  5. 5. Managing Knowledge Philosophy Psychology Information Management Science Management Anthropology Sociology Economics FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 5
  6. 6. Managing Knowledge  Strategy  Human Resources  IT Management Science  Finance  R&D & Innovation Marketing FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 6
  7. 7. Knowledge, however, is not broken down by organizational function FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 7
  8. 8. Another important and practical thing to think about is the idea of projects and processes Complementary Approaches IM with IT focus KM Project Process FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 8
  9. 9. “It is important to remember that KM practice has been deeply influenced by recent improvement in our ability to process information and to communicate through many new devices and technologies in synchronous and asynchronous modes. The challenge, then, is to develop a coherent, aligned, comprehensive, systemic and systematic approach to KM that takes into consideration the constant interplay among organization strategy, values, human capital and information technology infrastructure.” FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 9
  10. 10. FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 10
  11. 11. What kind of knowledge has value for organizations?  Metaphors, Values and Stories (Cultural – k)  Tacit – abstract  Tacit – know-how  Competences They demand very different approaches  Spoken  Documents / data  Codified (scientific, processes, softwares)  Embodied FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 11
  12. 12. The Context for KM “What Knowledge Management offers us is insight into aspects of management that we have failed to understand properly because of our failure to consider the nature and characteristics of knowledge” Professor Robert M. Grant, Georgetown University FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 12
  13. 13. Objectives of Knowledge Management KM: it is necessary to have a double perspective !!! Organization’s perspective Employee’s perspective FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 13
  14. 14. Employee’s perspective The Needs of the Knowledge Worker? FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 14
  15. 15. Knowledge Worker: how do they learn? Telling Stories Knowing what to Teaching learn Formal Education Reflecting Corporate Training Writing Access to Information Chatting Working – Doing – Wanting to Making Mistakes / Innovating Learn FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 15
  16. 16. Objectives of Knowledge Management KM: it is necessary to have a double perspective !!! Organization’s perspective Employee’s perspective FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 16
  17. 17. Objectives of Knowledge Management Integrate Provide Not reinvent External Reduce Relevant the Information & Silos of Information wheel Knowledge Information J.I.T. Protect Map Facilitate Sell Knowledge Intellectual Capital K.M. Individual Competencies Individual Contribution Internal and Integrate Improve Acelerate External Divisions and Innovation Learning Benchmark Companies Processes FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 17
  18. 18. Managing Knowledge can be supported by initiatives at many levels... New knowledge Codification Organization Sharing Dissemination Protection & Innovation M&A Succession Corporate Communications planning Strategic Benchmarking Hiring Knowledge ‘Story telling’ Protection Competitive Intelligence Competence Mapping of processes Centers Enterprise Memory Mapping of competences Community of Practices Organizational Development Best Practices Memory of Projects Coaching & mentoring Innovation Processes Climate Surveys Idea Career planning Management Lessons Learned & Best Practices Yellow pages of experts Knowledgebases Search engines Security Policies Corporate Portals & Content Management IT Blogs e Wikis E-Learning Taxonomy Client & Supply-chain Portals Document Management FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 18
  19. 19. Operational Definition of KM “KM means focused attention on and constant improvement of the key processes, people issues and technology involved with the creation, identification, organization, dissemination, protection and usage of strategic knowledge in order to improve the firm’s results and benefit employees’ on-going learning.” FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 19
  20. 20. Key Assumptions Knowledge processes do not generate value if disconnected from business processes and priorities. FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 20
  21. 21. It is a good idea to start with core processes and business issues! Core Competence & Key business processes Knowledge domains IT infrastructure K culture Knowledge & information sources Knowledge challenges Knowledge methods Knowledge governance FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 21
  22. 22. ...one should, however, start by the business issues...  what is the business issue?  what is the scope of the work?  what kind of knowledge is involved?  what is the knowledge challenge?  which methods can be used?  what kind of tools will need to be used?  what kind of governance needs to be in place?  how can the results be measured? FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 22
  23. 23. Approach: Broad KM Assessment KM: 7 Dimensions  D1 – Strategy & Senior Management  D2 – Information Systems & Communication  D3 – Organizational Culture  D4 – Work Processes & Organization  D5 – Human Resources Management Policies and Practices  D6 – Measurement of Results  D7 – Learning through Partnerships & Monitoring of Environment FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 23
  24. 24. Key Ties between 7 Dimensions & KM D1- Strategy Leadership, Alignment & Value of Intangibles D2- Information Access, Organization, Validation, Publication, Dissemination, Protection D3- Culture Support for Innovation, Sharing, Systemic Thinking and Ethical Behaviour D4- Work Process Embedding KM-related practices into work D5- HR Practices Supply, Nurturing and Reward of Talents and Appropriate Behavior and Results D6- Measurement KM-related and relevant practices and results are monitored and lead to action D7- External Links Valuable Information, Ideas and Knowledge exchanges with the environment FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 24
  25. 25. Who is concerned with KM? FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 25
  26. 26. Who is concerned with KM?  Corporations  Governments  NGOS  Universities FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 26
  27. 27. Institutionalizing Knowledge Management (% of Large Enterprises Adopting Formal KM programs) 54% 28% 32% 1996 2000 2004 Source: Bain & Company, annual survey. In 2005, the survey involved 960 executives from 70 countries FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 27
  28. 28. KM Initiatives in Governments from OECD countries Broad Definition of KM  Organisational arrangements (decentralisation of authority, opening up bureaucratic divisions, use of information and communication technologies etc.);  Personnel development (mentoring and training practices, mobility etc.) and management of skills;  Transfer of competencies (databases of staff competencies, outlines of good work practices, etc.);  Managerial changes and incentives for staff to share knowledge (staff performance assessment and promotion linked to knowledge sharing, evolution of the role of managers, etc.). Source: KM Practices in 140 government organizations )Ministires/Departments/Agencies of Central Government), OECD, GOV/PUMA (2003)1, 27th Session of the Public Management Committee, 3-4 April, 2003 FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 28
  29. 29. KM Initiatives in Governments from OECD countries Good knowledge/information management is one of the top five internal priorities of your organisation 44.8 45 40 35 30 26.1 25 21.7 20 15 10 5.8 5 0 Yes No, but it will certainly No, but it will probably No become a priority in the become a priority in the next 2 ye longer run Source: KM Practices in 140 government organizations )Ministires/Departments/Agencies of Central Government), OECD, GOV/PUMA (2003)1, 27th Session of the Public Management Committee, 3-4 April, 2003 FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 29
  30. 30. KM Initiatives in Governments from OECD countries Efforts made at improving KM (increasing with higher score on the indicator) 22 Swe Group 1 20 Group 2 Fin 18 Kor Can Ice Nor Eng Fra 16 Irl US Den Hun Slo Ger Group 3 Gre 14 Pol Bel 12 Por 10 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 , Perception of level and quality of KM practices organisational and cultural change (improving with higher score on the indicator) Source: KM Practices in 140 government organizations )Ministires/Departments/Agencies of Central Government), OECD, GOV/PUMA (2003)1, 27th Session of the Public Management Committee, 3-4 April, 2003 FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 30
  31. 31. KM landscape in practice What’s consolidated What’s emerging & hot • Corporate Universities • Idea Management • E-learning • Automated Agents • Competence Mapping • Innovation Networks & Knowledge markets • Portals & Content Management • Knowledge Protection • Communities of Practice • Intellectual Capital Measurement • Yellow Pages • Project Management & KM • Lessons Learned & After Action Review • Storytelling • Benchmarking • Social Network analysis • Competitive intelligence • Collaborative commerce FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 31
  32. 32. KM: what kind of skills have proved very useful… Knowledge & Learning theories • Strategists • Information architect • Change Management •Taxonomy experts • Work & Process • IT experts designers Project Management FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 32
  33. 33. Dr. José Cláudio C. Terra jcterra@terraforum.com.br www.terraforum.com.br www.terraforum.ca FIS, University of Toronto, April 25, 2005 p. 33
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