The Japanese were basically to blame for the Manchurian Incident.
They blew up a railway section and quickly hid some where close. When the Chinese went to check on the explosion Japanese junior officers came out of hiding and blamed them for the explosion, pretending they were never there.
Why Did It Start?
Japanese wanted to take over the Chinese government in Manchuria so they hatched a clever plan to blow up a railway and blame the Chinese for it.
This would give them a to reason to use their army to take over Manchuria’s government.
How Did It Happen?
The Japanese were extremely clever in blaming the Manchurians.
They placed small bits of dynamite on the railway so it wouldn’t do too much damage and stored weapons ready for the invasion in a concrete bunker that they disguised as a swimming pool.
Where they blew up the railway wasn’t even an important place. It didn’t even have an official name, but it was only eight hundred meters away from a place being stationed by troops.
The Japanese used this to their advantage and immediately blamed the troops once they got there, pretending to have just arrived at the scene of the crime.
The Chinese hated the fact that Japan was in control instead of Russia
Japan’s China Policy was constantly conflicting with others throughout the 1930s
The Japanese were having a hard time deciding whether to colonize Manchuria or strengthen their bond with it economically.
Born on June 3, 1901 Zhang Xuwliang, also known as the “Young Marshal“, was the ruler of Manchuria during the Manchurian Incident.
It was troops under his rule that were blamed for blowing up the railway.
He spent 50 years under house arrest for helping start another incident called the X’ian incident but was referred as a hero for this.
Instead of fighting the Japanese he surprised them instead by retreating his troops when they invaded.
Born on January 21, 1885, Seishiro Itagaki was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army during WII. He was born into a samurai class family and graduated from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy on 1904
On 1931 he became the chief of the Intelligent Section of the Kwantung Army.
This was one of the reasons why he was chosen to help plan the Manchurian Incident
Another one would be because he was a military advisor for Manchukuo which was a puppet state for Manchuria.
This allowed him to have access to all the parts of Manchuria including the railways.
Born on January 18, 1889 and died on August 15, 1949, KanjI Ishiwara, just like Seishiro, was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army. He was born in Tsuruoka and lived in a samurai class family.
Along with Seishiro, he was primarily responsible for the Manchurian Incident.
He studied the military strategies in Germany and came up with a basic military theory and doctrine.
While leaving Germany he converted to Nichiren Buddhism.
On the morning of September 19, 1931 the Japanese attacked the Manchurians with strong force.
Japan quickly destroyed Zhang Xuwliang’s and many Chinese soldiers fled from battle.
The Chinese army was mainly made up of irregulars and new recruits. They were no match for the experienced Japanese army.
By the evening of the same day the Japanese had complete control over Mukden. Five hundred Chinese died along with only two Japanese.
What happened Afterwards?
The Chinese foreign embassy submitted a strong to protest to the League of Nations asking them to make Japan stop all operations being done in Manchuria.
The Japanese tried to say it was an act of self-defense for the whole blown up railway thing but the League of Nations saw through this and told them to stop.
After some negations that led no where, Japan decided to leave the League of Nations.
Japan did not leave all of Manchuria afterwards and still controlled a little bit against the League of Nations’ Wishes.
The Lytton Report was a famous report given by a group of people from the United Kingdom.
These people were given the task to go to Manchuria to see if Japan really did act out of self-defense. Their decision would help the League of nations decide whether to make Japan leave Manchuria or let them stay.
It took six months for them to decide, but the Lytton Report came up with the conclusion that Japan did not act out of self-defense.
This lead to Japan leaving the League of Nations.
1931- Manchurian Incident starts and ends
1932- Lytton Report begins
1933- Japan withdrawals from the League of nations