Power To The People


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Power To The People

  1. 1. “ Power to the Soviets” The Bolshevik Revolution 1917 By: Mary Katherine Lake
  2. 2. Timeline of the Russian Revolution 1917 <ul><li>January 1: Many soldiers families are starving because 50% of the nations farmers are fighting in the war, and are being kicked off their land by kulaks. </li></ul><ul><li>January 9: The Bolshevik party was increasing to 24,000 people. They organized demonstrations in remembrance of Bloody Sunday. Moscow workers go on strike, and 145,000 workers go on strike in Petrograd. Other cities also had a one day strike. </li></ul><ul><li>January 26: After appealing for a new Provisional Government, the Workers’ Group has its members arrested by the secret police. </li></ul><ul><li>January 31: Petrograd is starving, crowds of women break into stores. </li></ul><ul><li>February 10: The Councilor of State, Mikhail Rodzianko, meets with Czar Nicholas II and warns him of problems happening throughout the country. Nicholas II ignores his advice. The Bolsheviks call a strike in Petrograd, as this strike continues a Menshevik strike begins. There were 90,000 workers on strike. The police tried to make arrests but they failed. The Bolshevik Petrograd Committee calls on workers to overthrow Czar Nicholas II. </li></ul><ul><li>February 22: Nicholas II leaves to go to headquarters in Mogilev. </li></ul><ul><li>February 23: The February Revolution begins. Women textile workers start a strike in Petrograd. The 128,000 workers demanded an end to the World War, and more food. </li></ul><ul><li>February 25: Some Bolsheviks (Vyborg District) break into police stations and cut the telephone cords to the government office. Many were killed or wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>February 27: The Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks believed that the revolution needed to be capitalist before the nation moved into Socialism. The Menshevik, N.S. Chkheidze becomes leader of the Soviet. Meanwhile, the Duma create a Provisional Committee that asked the Czar to save himself by sharing power with the Prime Minister, but the Czar refused. </li></ul><ul><li>March 3: The Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet ordered the arrest of Czar Nicholas II </li></ul>
  3. 3. Timeline of the Russian Revolution 1917 <ul><li>March 5: First issue of the Pravda came out since being closed down during the World War. </li></ul><ul><li>March 12: Stalin arrives in Petrograd after being released from prison. Also, the Provisional government abolishes the death penalty. </li></ul><ul><li>March 18: Stalin becomes a member of the Executive committee of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ deputies. </li></ul><ul><li>March 21: Lenin’s “Letters from Afar,” are published. </li></ul><ul><li>March 27: Trotsky leaves exile in New York to return to Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>April 4: Lenin delivers his April Thesis, meanwhile, Trotsky is arrested and put into a British prison for their opposition of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>April 12: Provisional Government passes a law allowing the freedom of meetings and unions. </li></ul><ul><li>April 18: Milyukov secretly promises allies that Russia will continue the World War until complete victory </li></ul><ul><li>May: Milyukov resigns, members of the Mensheviks and the Socialist Revolutionaries join the government. </li></ul><ul><li>May 4: Trotsky arrives in Russia after being released from prison. </li></ul><ul><li>June 3: The First All- Russian Congress Of Soviets begins in Petrograd. </li></ul><ul><li>June 18: Offensive launched by Russia against Austria Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>June 26: The second Machine Gun Regiment demands: All power to the Soviets! </li></ul><ul><li>July 3 and 4: Workers and Soldiers in Petrograd demand the Soviet takes power. Fighting results, and the Soviet restores order with troops brought back from the front. Trotsky is arrested again, and Lenin goes into hiding. </li></ul><ul><li>July 12: The death penalty is reintroduced to the front. </li></ul><ul><li>July 24: The Second Coalition Government is formed; Kerensky appoints himself as President. </li></ul><ul><li>August 3: Stalin is elected to the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Timeline of the Russian Revolution 1917 <ul><li>August: The Kornilov putsch. An attempt by General Kornilov to establish a dictatorship, and it was a disaster. The leader of the Socialist Revolutionaries resigns from the government and denounces Kerensky for complicity in the plot. </li></ul><ul><li>September 4: Trotsky and other Bolshevik leaders are released from prison after public pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>September 12: Lenin illegally publishes “Lessons of Revolution”, and also finishes his most important theoretical work: “Proclamation of the Petrograd Revolutionary Military Committee ”. </li></ul><ul><li>September: The Bolsheviks win control of the Petrograd Soviet. </li></ul><ul><li>October: The Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government on the night before the meeting of second All-Russian Congress of Soviets. </li></ul><ul><li>October 26: At two in the morning, the Winter Palace was captured which brought victory for the Revolution in Petrograd. The Decree on Peace, and the Decree on Land is issued, also there is a formation of a new government. </li></ul><ul><li>November 2: Bolsheviks gain Moscow. </li></ul><ul><li>November 7: Ukraine proclaimed independent </li></ul><ul><li>November 18: A Soviet government is established in Vladivostok. </li></ul><ul><li>November26: Beginning their efforts to end World War I, the Soviet begins to talk to Axis Powers. </li></ul><ul><li>December 17: Bolsheviks win a majority of the votes of the army. Which was justification for dissolving the Constituent assembly. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Pravda <ul><li>The Pravda was the Russian newspaper. </li></ul>The first issue was published since Being closed down as a result of its peaceful stance on World War I on March 5, 1917
  6. 6. Proclamation of Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee By: Vladimir Lenin Translation To Citizens of Russia The Provisional Government is deposed. The state power is transferred into the hands of the Military Revolutionary Committee, an organ of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, which heads the Petrograd proletariat and garrison. The cause for which the people has been struggling — immediate call for democratic peace, liquidation of ownership of land by landed nobility, workers' control over the industry, creation of the Soviet government — is ensured. Long live the revolution of workers, soldiers and peasants! <ul><li>Lenin finished writing this document on September 12, 1917. It was said to be his most theoretical work. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What was the Bolshevik Revolution? <ul><li>In October 1917, Lenin convinced the Bolshevik Party to form an immediate revolt against the Provisional Government. The Bolshevik leaders felt it was important to act quickly while they had the strength to do so. The armed workers known as Red Guards and the other revolutionary groups moved on the night of November 6. They were under the orders of the Soviet's Military Revolutionary Committee. The Red Guards seized post and telegraph offices, electric works, railroad stations, and the state bank. Once the shot rang out from the Battleship Aurora, thousands of people in the Red Guard stormed the Winter Palace. The Provisional Government had officially fallen to the Bolsheviks way of government. Once the word came to the rest of the people that the Winter Palace had been taken, people from all over came and filled it up. Lenin announced his attempt to construct the socialist order in Russia. This new government was made up of Soviets, and led by the Bolsheviks. By early November, the factory workers were definitely backing up the Bolshevik motto: &quot;All power to the soviets!&quot; </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Winter Palace <ul><li>November 1917, armed factory workers stormed the Winter Palace in Petrograd. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Defending the Palace                    
  10. 10. Map of Petrograd in 1917 <ul><li>Formerly St. Petersburg, it was renamed Petrograd in 1914 and was called Leningrad from 1924–1991. Its original name, St. Petersburg was restored in 1991. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How did it start? <ul><li>The Russian Revolution came in 1917, but for nearly a century the czars had been causing social unrest. </li></ul><ul><li>There was rapid industrialization that made the people of Russia very discontent. The growth of factories brought new problems such as child labor, bad working conditions, and extremely low wages. As a result, several revolutionary movements began to grow and compete for power. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a group that followed the views of Karl Marx and they successfully established a following in Russia. They believed that the industrial class of workers would overthrow the czar. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Marxists split into two groups. The more moderate Mensheviks wanted a broad base of popular support for the revolution. The more radical Bolsheviks supported a small number of committed revolutionaries that were willing to sacrifice anything for change. The leader of the Bolsheviks was Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. </li></ul><ul><li>The revolutionaries didn’t have to wait long to realize their visions. From 1904 to 1917 Russia went through a series of bad events. Events like the Russo-Japanese War, Bloody Sunday, and World War I showed the czar’s weakness and paved the way for revolution. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Who were the Bolsheviks? <ul><li>Bolshevik means &quot;majority&quot; in Russian. A Bolshevik was a member of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, which was a Marxist political party. They were led by Vladimir Lenin. They made lots of promises such as withdrawing Russia from WWI, they said they would give land and power to the peasants, and said that they would improve working conditions and lifestyles of those who worked in the industrial cities. This gave them popularity all over Russia. They believed in day to day practical issues. </li></ul><ul><li>They ruled Russia completely after the Russian Revolution. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Who was involved? <ul><li>Vladimir Lenin </li></ul><ul><li>Leon Trotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Kerensky </li></ul>
  14. 14. Vladimir Lenin <ul><li>Birth: April 10, 1870, in Simbirsk, Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Death: Jan 21, 1924, in Moscow, Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Vladimir was the son of a school and civil service official and was drawn to the revolution at a young age when his brother, Aleksander I. Ulyanov, was executed in 1887 for his participation in a plot to kill Alexander III. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin's studied law at the University of Kazan but was banished from the school because of revolutionary activities. He completed his studies independently and practiced law briefly. He soon gave up his legal practice, and turned to studying the teachings of Karl Marx. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin was exiled to Siberia in 1895, his exile ended in 1900. </li></ul><ul><li>He was founder of the Bolsheviks, and was the leader of the Bolshevik Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the first head of the Soviet state from 1917 to 1924. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin’s speeches and writings were highly regarded by his successors and followers. He contributed to Marxism in many ways. Lenin was known as one of the greatest and most practical revolutionists of all times. He combined his theories with his political instincts. Although he attacked any theoretical revisionism or gradualism, he supported opportunistic compromises to further the establishment of socialism. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Leon Trotsky <ul><li>Birth: October 26, 1879, in the Russian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Death: August 21, 1940 in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>He was the fifth child of a wealthy but illiterate Jewish farmer, David Leontyevich Bronstein and Anna Bronstein . </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky became involved in revolutionary activities in 1896, where he was introduced to Marxism. His talents and commitment quickly earned respect from the workers and other revolutionaries. He was elected the president of the Petrograd Soviet during the 1905 Russian Revolution (which failed). </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky was a member of the Bolshevik Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky led the Bolshevik Revolution with the help of Vladimir Lenin. </li></ul><ul><li>He was elected head of the Soviet in 1917 for the second time. </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky founded and led the Red Army, saving the infant revolution from being crushed. </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky and others founded the Left Opposition to fight against Stalinism. For his defense of workers’ democracy and international, permanent revolution he was exiled by Stalin and searched for by Stalin’s assassins across the globe. Trotsky still supported the idea of world revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky and his supporters later founded the Fourth International, an international party of socialist revolution which still exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin’s assassins finally caught up with Trotsky in Coyacun, Mexico and put an ice pick though his head. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Alexander Kerensky <ul><li>Birth: May 4, 1881 in Simbarsk, Imperial Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Death: June 11, 1970 in New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>Kerensky was the son of a headmaster. He graduated from St. Petersburg University with a degree in Law. He had many political allegiances early on, and he often defended anti-Czar revolutionary groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Kerensky was one of the main rulers of the revolution that occurred in February 1917. He was elected vice chairman of the Petrograd Soviet, and was the first Minister of Justice in the newly formed Provisional government. Kerensky did not make good decisions military wise and politically while he was ruling Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin was determined to overthrow Kerensky before the Russian Constituent Assembly voted to legitimize his government. This is one of the reasons that the Bolshevik Revolution took place. Kerensky’s government had hardly any support in the city. Only one very small force tried to fight the Bolsheviks, but not a single shot was fired. It took less than twenty hours to overthrow Kerensky and his government. </li></ul><ul><li>Kerensky went into hiding and narrowly escaped, he eventually ended up in France. He and his wife lived in Paris until 1940, and then they settled in New York City. He taught graduate courses, wrote, and broadcasted on Russian politics and history. </li></ul><ul><li>Once Kerensky died, many Russians refused to bury him. They saw him as the reason Russia fell to the Bolsheviks. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Results of the Revolution <ul><li>Within days after the revolution, Lenin began to take charge. He ordered all the farmland to be distributed to the peasants . The Bolsheviks decided to give control of the factories to the workers. They also signed a truce with Germany to stop all of the fighting in Russia during WWI, and they began peace talks. In March of 1918, Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. This treaty made Russia surrender large parts of its territory to Germany and its allies . </li></ul><ul><li>Russians were very angry about the embarrassing terms of the treaty, and they objected to the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks now had to deal with solving more problems. Their opponents were known as the White Army. The White Army was made up of different groups, some wanted the czar to return, some wanted a democratic government, and there were socialists who opposed Lenin’s form of socialism. The three groups didn’t get along very well, the only thing uniting them was their desire to defeat the Bolsheviks. Leon Trotsky commanded the Bolshevik Red Army. For about three years there was civil war in Russia. Many died in the civil war, around 14 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia was left in chaos after the war, there was loss of life from fighting, hunger, and a flu epidemic. The Red Army won on the end, and defeated all its opponents. This showed that the Bolsheviks were able to seize power and keep it. </li></ul><ul><li>War and Revolution destroyed Russia’s economy, Lenin started to revive the economy and restructure the government. Russia slowly recovered because of new policies and the peace that followed the civil war. Russia was organized into several self-governing republics all under the Central government. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bolshevik revolution tried to destroy the existing political structures. They used violence to control people, and millions were killed. A positive effect was that Russia had established a state controlled society that lasted for decades. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Works Cited <ul><li>McNeal, Robert H. “ The Bolshevik Tradition .” Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Clare, John D. “ Bolshevik Revolution, November 1917” , Greenfield History Site, 2006. November 14, 2007 http://www.johndclare.net/Russ5.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Lynch, Michael. “Reactions and Revolutions: Russia 1881-1924.” Spartacus Educational. November 18, 2007 http:// www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSnovemberR.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Bagsen, Brian. “Timeline of the Russian Revolution (1917)”. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia. November 14, 2007 http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/events/timeline/1917.htm </li></ul><ul><li>“ Revolutions in Russia.” Modern World History. Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell, 2005 </li></ul>