Arab And Israel
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Arab And Israel

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Arab And Israel Arab And Israel Presentation Transcript

  • Arab and Israel
    • Let them hate us, as long as they fear us.
      • Caligula, Roman emperor 037-041 (12 AD - 41 AD)
  • Back History
    • Abraham: 2,000 BCE
      • Leaves present day south-eastern Iraq and heads west
      • Takes family/clan/tribe with him
    • Moses: 13 th Century BCE
      • Leads a group out of Egypt
    • Region
      • Philistines control the coast
      • Canaanites control the hills
    • Kings Saul/David/Solomon: 11 th to 10 th Century BCE
      • Create the Kingdom of Israel
      • Split into two Kingdoms: Israel in the north and Judah in the south
  •  
  • Back History
    • Israel conquered by Assyrians in the 8 th century and Judah taken by Babylonians in the 6 th
      • Return in 397 BCE and reclaimed the land for the Jews
    • Greeks conquer region in 332 BCE
      • Jews didn’t care for Hellenistic culture
      • Revolt 165 BCE (Hanukkah: Festival of Lights)
    • Rome takes region: 64 BCE
      • Jews still aren’t happy
      • Revolt 66 AD: Brutally put down, Jerusalem sacked
      • Revolt again 132-135, brutally put down and Jews dispersed: Diaspora
    • Byzantines take a hard whack: 628/629
      • But anti-Semitism in Europe drives the occasional Jew back to the region
      • Muslim rulers generally lenient and accepting
  • Current Day
    • Israel: Over 7 million
      • Over 5 million Jewish citizens and one million non-Jewish Arabs citizens
        • Various other groups: Christian/Druze
        • Males at 18 get three years of service/females 2 years
      • Jews divided into European or Asia/African descent
        • A large proportion (35%) refugees or returnees
      • Proportional representation democracy
        • 2% of vote gets a seat in the 120 seat Knesset (Parliament)
        • Prime Minister elected by popular vote
        • 12 parties in 2006
          • Kadima: 29, Labor: 19, Likud: 12, Eastern Jews: 12
  • British Involvement:
    • After 1936-1939 Arab revolt the British severely limited Jewish immigration to Palestine
      • Policy effectively kills thousands of Jews attempting to flee Nazi controlled Europe
      • Jewish leaders have no choice to back England in WWII
        • Begin to form civilian militias
          • Haganah: Unofficial Army
            • Palmach: Regular fighting force of the Haganah
        • But some choose to oppose British rule
          • Irgun: militant offshoot of the Haganah
            • Targeted both British and Arab
            • Stern Gang or Lehi: more militant offshoot of the Irgun
      • Arab leaders have a choice and some flee to Germany (Arab religious leader of Jerusalem)
  • British Involvement:
    • Britain’s policy
      • Road to hell
        • Keep Arabs happy
          • Maintain access to oil during the war, and after
          • Arabs vastly outnumbered Jews
        • Keep Jews happy
          • But was never a consistent backer of a Jewish state
      • Peel Commission 1937: Only real answer is partition
        • Jewish state/Arab state/Neutral Jerusalem
          • 1921-22 movement of nearly 2 million Greeks/Turks
          • Arabs refuse anything short of Arab dominated region
          • Brits shelve Peel Commission findings
      • Saw itself as remaining a Great Power after WWII
  • British Involvement:
    • Post World War II
      • Can not survive financially and can not militarily control the region
        • Looks to set up Arabs as proxies in the region
          • All the region’s leaders are beholden to Britain
          • Sets up the “Arab League” in 1945
        • Turkey, Greece and Iran under increasing pressure from Soviet Union and internal communist parties
          • Soviets looking to set up proxies as well
            • Ala Eastern Europe
  • British Involvement:
    • Post World War II
      • Palestine
        • Arabs want Jews out and an Arab nation
          • Stop all immigration
        • Jews want increased immigration
          • Accept holocaust survivors
            • Britain refuses
          • Jewish terror organizations increasingly target British
        • Britain has over 100,000 troops in region
          • Financially and morally drained
          • Decides to give the problem to newly created United Nations
  • United Nations:
    • An impossible problem
      • Arabs refused to discuss any option except their complete control over the region
      • Jews discussed the issue and got what they wanted:
        • A Nation
      • UN General Assembly Resolution 181, November 1947
        • Partition the region (ala Peel Commission)
        • Two state solution
          • 33 to 13 with ten abstentions
            • All Arab Nations voted no
            • US and USSR voted yes
            • Britain sets the date of 14 May 1948
  •  
  • United Nations Resolution 181:
    • Problem:
      • Its not a solution to the problem if one side refuses to accept it
        • Arab League: Iraq, Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia
          • Threaten war if partition went forward
          • Decided they didn’t need diplomacy
            • Would use military force and change Palestine to suit their needs
            • In retrospect, not the brightest move
          • Did not really agree on any war goals or aims, just that they would go to war.
  • United Nations Resolution 181:
    • Early 1948
      • Britain slowly pulling out and vacuum is left
        • Jewish militias begin to take over not just “their” portion but also Arab portions
        • Control of key road intersections and key terrain
        • By end of April/early May Jewish forces controlled most of the area designated for the Jewish state but also half the area designated for the Arab portion
          • 9 April 1948: Jewish forces kill 100 to 250 Arab villagers
            • Panic spreads among Arab and many flee their homes
            • Arab leaders tell them it is only temporary and many Arabs leave to avoid the future battle they know is coming
            • Arabs are supremely confident they will crush the Jews
  • United Nations Resolution 181:
    • Early 1948
      • Arabs weren’t organized in Palestine
        • No national government in the wings
        • Disorganized local forces with no leader
      • Arab nations do not coordinate any of their efforts
        • lack of trust between them
        • Differing agendas
          • Jordan’s Emir Abdullah only intention was to seize the Muslim Holy site in Jerusalem: Haram al-Sharif
        • Sincerely believe they were going to be victorious
  • Israeli Independence
    • May 14 1948
      • Israel comes into existence
        • U.S. recognizes Israel
        • Arab league declares war
          • Army units from Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq attack
        • Soviet Union recognizes Israel
      • May 15 th to June 11 th
        • Israelis hold off all attacks except the Jordanians
        • Truce brokered by the UN
      • July 8 th to July 19 th
        • Israel attacks Arab positions and expands boundaries except against the Egyptians in the Negev Desert and the Jordanians holding Jerusalem
        • Truce from 20 July to 14 October
      • October 15 th: Israel attacks again and seizes West Jerusalem
  • Israeli Independence
    • War causes over 750,000 Arab refugees
      • 180,000 to Egyptian controlled Gaza
      • 240,000 to the West Bank and 50,000 more into Jordan
      • 100,000 into Lebanon
      • 70,000 into Syria
    • Israel counts 500,000
      • Some (250,000) stayed
    • Arab countries still think this is a temporary problem
      • They will beat the Israelis
    • Dec 11 th 1948: UN Resolution 194
      • Refugees should be permitted to go back to their homes
      • Problem:
        • There is still a war on
        • No Arab Nation recognizes Israel
  • Israeli Independence
    • January 6 th 1949:
      • Egypt agrees to UN sponsored negotiations
    • 1947 Partition plan gave Jews 55% of Palestine
      • By 1949 the Jewish state comprises 77%
    • Refugees: what should be done?
  •