Arab And Israel


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Arab And Israel

  1. 1. Arab and Israel
  2. 2. <ul><li>Let them hate us, as long as they fear us. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caligula, Roman emperor 037-041 (12 AD - 41 AD) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Back History <ul><li>Abraham: 2,000 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves present day south-eastern Iraq and heads west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes family/clan/tribe with him </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moses: 13 th Century BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads a group out of Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philistines control the coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canaanites control the hills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kings Saul/David/Solomon: 11 th to 10 th Century BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create the Kingdom of Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split into two Kingdoms: Israel in the north and Judah in the south </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Back History <ul><li>Israel conquered by Assyrians in the 8 th century and Judah taken by Babylonians in the 6 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Return in 397 BCE and reclaimed the land for the Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greeks conquer region in 332 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews didn’t care for Hellenistic culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolt 165 BCE (Hanukkah: Festival of Lights) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rome takes region: 64 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews still aren’t happy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolt 66 AD: Brutally put down, Jerusalem sacked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolt again 132-135, brutally put down and Jews dispersed: Diaspora </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Byzantines take a hard whack: 628/629 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But anti-Semitism in Europe drives the occasional Jew back to the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim rulers generally lenient and accepting </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Current Day <ul><li>Israel: Over 7 million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 5 million Jewish citizens and one million non-Jewish Arabs citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various other groups: Christian/Druze </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males at 18 get three years of service/females 2 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews divided into European or Asia/African descent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A large proportion (35%) refugees or returnees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportional representation democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2% of vote gets a seat in the 120 seat Knesset (Parliament) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prime Minister elected by popular vote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 parties in 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kadima: 29, Labor: 19, Likud: 12, Eastern Jews: 12 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. British Involvement: <ul><li>After 1936-1939 Arab revolt the British severely limited Jewish immigration to Palestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy effectively kills thousands of Jews attempting to flee Nazi controlled Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish leaders have no choice to back England in WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to form civilian militias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haganah: Unofficial Army </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palmach: Regular fighting force of the Haganah </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But some choose to oppose British rule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irgun: militant offshoot of the Haganah </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted both British and Arab </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stern Gang or Lehi: more militant offshoot of the Irgun </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab leaders have a choice and some flee to Germany (Arab religious leader of Jerusalem) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. British Involvement: <ul><li>Britain’s policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Road to hell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Arabs happy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain access to oil during the war, and after </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs vastly outnumbered Jews </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Jews happy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But was never a consistent backer of a Jewish state </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peel Commission 1937: Only real answer is partition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish state/Arab state/Neutral Jerusalem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1921-22 movement of nearly 2 million Greeks/Turks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs refuse anything short of Arab dominated region </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brits shelve Peel Commission findings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saw itself as remaining a Great Power after WWII </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. British Involvement: <ul><li>Post World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can not survive financially and can not militarily control the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looks to set up Arabs as proxies in the region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All the region’s leaders are beholden to Britain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sets up the “Arab League” in 1945 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey, Greece and Iran under increasing pressure from Soviet Union and internal communist parties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets looking to set up proxies as well </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ala Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. British Involvement: <ul><li>Post World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs want Jews out and an Arab nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stop all immigration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jews want increased immigration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accept holocaust survivors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain refuses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish terror organizations increasingly target British </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain has over 100,000 troops in region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financially and morally drained </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decides to give the problem to newly created United Nations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. United Nations: <ul><li>An impossible problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs refused to discuss any option except their complete control over the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews discussed the issue and got what they wanted: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN General Assembly Resolution 181, November 1947 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partition the region (ala Peel Commission) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two state solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>33 to 13 with ten abstentions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All Arab Nations voted no </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US and USSR voted yes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain sets the date of 14 May 1948 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. United Nations Resolution 181: <ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its not a solution to the problem if one side refuses to accept it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arab League: Iraq, Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Threaten war if partition went forward </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decided they didn’t need diplomacy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Would use military force and change Palestine to suit their needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In retrospect, not the brightest move </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not really agree on any war goals or aims, just that they would go to war. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. United Nations Resolution 181: <ul><li>Early 1948 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain slowly pulling out and vacuum is left </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish militias begin to take over not just “their” portion but also Arab portions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control of key road intersections and key terrain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By end of April/early May Jewish forces controlled most of the area designated for the Jewish state but also half the area designated for the Arab portion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9 April 1948: Jewish forces kill 100 to 250 Arab villagers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Panic spreads among Arab and many flee their homes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arab leaders tell them it is only temporary and many Arabs leave to avoid the future battle they know is coming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs are supremely confident they will crush the Jews </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. United Nations Resolution 181: <ul><li>Early 1948 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs weren’t organized in Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No national government in the wings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized local forces with no leader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab nations do not coordinate any of their efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lack of trust between them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differing agendas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jordan’s Emir Abdullah only intention was to seize the Muslim Holy site in Jerusalem: Haram al-Sharif </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sincerely believe they were going to be victorious </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Israeli Independence <ul><li>May 14 1948 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel comes into existence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. recognizes Israel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arab league declares war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Army units from Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq attack </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet Union recognizes Israel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 15 th to June 11 th </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israelis hold off all attacks except the Jordanians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Truce brokered by the UN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>July 8 th to July 19 th </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel attacks Arab positions and expands boundaries except against the Egyptians in the Negev Desert and the Jordanians holding Jerusalem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Truce from 20 July to 14 October </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 15 th: Israel attacks again and seizes West Jerusalem </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Israeli Independence <ul><li>War causes over 750,000 Arab refugees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>180,000 to Egyptian controlled Gaza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>240,000 to the West Bank and 50,000 more into Jordan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100,000 into Lebanon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70,000 into Syria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Israel counts 500,000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some (250,000) stayed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arab countries still think this is a temporary problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They will beat the Israelis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dec 11 th 1948: UN Resolution 194 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refugees should be permitted to go back to their homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is still a war on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Arab Nation recognizes Israel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Israeli Independence <ul><li>January 6 th 1949: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt agrees to UN sponsored negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1947 Partition plan gave Jews 55% of Palestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1949 the Jewish state comprises 77% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refugees: what should be done? </li></ul>