Transport - Part I The Human  Circulatory  System
Transport III – Key Vocabulary <ul><li>Open Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Closed Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Schematic <...
Transport III – Key Vocabulary <ul><li>Electrocardiogram </li></ul><ul><li>Defibrillator  </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension <...
Which of the organisms below have transport systems?  Which do not? How can the paramecium and hydra thrive with no circul...
General Functions of   Transport   Systems ... <ul><li>Maintain internal homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver oxygen, foo...
Open   vs .  Closed   Systems Which system seems more efficient?  What are your reasons?
Open   vs .  Closed   Systems
<ul><li>Open Circulation (insects) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood does not have to be enclosed in blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><l...
Evolution   of   Vertebrate   Circulatory   Systems <ul><li>As vertebrates adapted to a terrestrial environment they neede...
Circulation in Fish Single-loop systems in fish do not maintain the higher blood pressures needed on land.  The blood flow...
Circulation in Fish and Amphibians Compare fish with the double-loop system found in terrestrial vertebrates.  Blood retur...
Circulation in Fish, Amphibians, and Mammals The evolution of the four-chambered heart gives total separation of oxygenate...
Blood Vessels
Arteries <ul><li>Vessels that carry blood  AWAY  from the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood High in oxygen  (except Pulmonary...
 
Veins <ul><li>Vessels that carry blood  TOWARD  the heart from body tissues. One direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Low in...
Capillaries <ul><li>Smallest blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>1 layer of endothelial cells thick. HAVE ONE WAY VALVES. </l...
Which is the Artery and Vein???
The Smallest Blood Vessels
 
Major Veins and Arteries <ul><li>Inferior and Superior Vena Cava  – return blood to the right atrium (BLUE) </li></ul><ul>...
THE HEART
The Heart and Blood Flow in Mammals <ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><li>Double-sided pump. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood content:...
 
The Mammalian Heart INNER BODY
The Human Heart
A few words on valves and nodes!
<ul><li>Pathway of Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>You must be able to trace </li></ul><ul><li>blood from anywhere in the </...
Gas Exchange in the Lung
The Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>The heart is composed of cardiac muscle and each beat is a sequence of muscle contraction ( syst...
 
<ul><li>The “pacemaker” sets the tempo of the heartbeat. </li></ul>
The Electrocardiogram <ul><li>Records the minute electrical current produced by the contraction of the heart. </li></ul>
A Heart Attack.. 55 yr old man
Atherosclerosis…leading to H.A.
Blood Pressure <ul><li>The force that blood exerts against vessel walls </li></ul><ul><li>BP is greater in arteries than v...
SPHYGMOMANOMETER <ul><li>Measures Blood Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>PULSE – measured in arteries each time the LV contracts...
Coronary Thrombosis <ul><li>Thrombosis – blood clot. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart muscle dies. </li></ul><ul><li>HEART ATTACK <...
Angina Pectoris <ul><li>A temporary muscle spasm of the heart . </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by a narrowing of the coronary ar...
Atherosclerosis <ul><li>Build up of “plaque” on the walls of arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: </li></ul>
Lymphatic System <ul><li>ICF – bathes body cells; formed from plasma </li></ul><ul><li>System of vessels that return some ...
BLOOD
Composition of Blood
PLASMA <ul><li>50% - 60% of blood volume </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, Glucose, hormones, io...
Erythrocytes <ul><li>5 to 6 million/cmm </li></ul><ul><li>40% of blood volume </li></ul><ul><li>Biconcave disk shape </li>...
Leucocytes  <ul><li>Larger than RBC </li></ul><ul><li>Made in bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>6000 – 8000/ cmm </li></ul><u...
Types of White Blood Cells
Platelets <ul><li>200,000 to 400,000 /cmm </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller than RBC or WBC </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul...
Blood Clotting
Blood Typing - Genetics
Blood Typing
Blood Typing How Does Rh factor affect blood types????? O,A,B,AB O ONLY O (UNIVERSAL DONOR) B or AB B or O B A or AB A or ...
Anemia <ul><li>Too few RBC or not enough Hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>No an adequate supply of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Leukemia <ul><li>Blood cancer characterized by the bone marrow producing an abnormally high number of WBC's. </li></ul><ul...
 
Hemophilia <ul><li>Genetic disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Person is missing one or ...
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Transcript of "Transport Systems In Animals Master"

  1. 1. Transport - Part I The Human Circulatory System
  2. 2. Transport III – Key Vocabulary <ul><li>Open Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Closed Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Schematic </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular </li></ul><ul><li>Heart (Coronary) </li></ul><ul><li>Right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Left atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Left ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Right ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Septum </li></ul><ul><li>Valve </li></ul><ul><li>Atrioventricular valve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tricuspid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semilunar valve </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Artery (Arteriole) RED </li></ul><ul><li>Vein (Venule) BLUE </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary </li></ul><ul><li>Aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Vein and Artery </li></ul><ul><li>Superior and Inferior Vena Cava </li></ul><ul><li>Systole </li></ul><ul><li>Diastole </li></ul><ul><li>Pacemaker (Sinoatrial Node) </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Sphygmomanometer </li></ul>
  3. 3. Transport III – Key Vocabulary <ul><li>Electrocardiogram </li></ul><ul><li>Defibrillator </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Angina Pectoris </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary Thrombosis </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardial Infarction </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic system </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph </li></ul><ul><li>ICF </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph node </li></ul><ul><li>Lacteal </li></ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul>
  4. 4. Which of the organisms below have transport systems? Which do not? How can the paramecium and hydra thrive with no circulatory system?
  5. 5. General Functions of Transport Systems ... <ul><li>Maintain internal homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver oxygen, food and other nutrients, hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Remove CO 2 and other metabolic wastes (urea) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain cells in a fluid environment that allows exchange of these many materials </li></ul>
  6. 6. Open vs . Closed Systems Which system seems more efficient? What are your reasons?
  7. 7. Open vs . Closed Systems
  8. 8. <ul><li>Open Circulation (insects) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood does not have to be enclosed in blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Flows into open spaces and “bathes” tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed Circulation (worm, mammals) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood is pumped through a system of vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood is confined to vessels. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Evolution of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems <ul><li>As vertebrates adapted to a terrestrial environment they needed more energy. Organisms that had more efficient circulatory systems had an advantage on land! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Circulation in Fish Single-loop systems in fish do not maintain the higher blood pressures needed on land. The blood flows directly from the gills to the body tissues.
  11. 11. Circulation in Fish and Amphibians Compare fish with the double-loop system found in terrestrial vertebrates. Blood returns to the heart where it is pumped again to the body tissues. Where is the inefficiency in the amphibian 3-chambered system?
  12. 12. Circulation in Fish, Amphibians, and Mammals The evolution of the four-chambered heart gives total separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.
  13. 13. Blood Vessels
  14. 14. Arteries <ul><li>Vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood High in oxygen (except Pulmonary Artery) </li></ul><ul><li>Walls are thick and elastic. NO VALVES </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries branch out get smaller and smaller: ARTERIOLES: BECOME CAPILLARIES </li></ul><ul><li>Made of connective tissue, smooth muscle, and endothelium (epithelial). </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure is high. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Veins <ul><li>Vessels that carry blood TOWARD the heart from body tissues. One direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Low in Oxygen(Except Pulmonary Vein) </li></ul><ul><li>Walls are thin and not relatively elastic. </li></ul><ul><li>Much less smooth muscle in veins. </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest Veins: VENULES…FROM CAPILLARIES </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure is low </li></ul><ul><li>Contain one way valves. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Capillaries <ul><li>Smallest blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>1 layer of endothelial cells thick. HAVE ONE WAY VALVES. </li></ul><ul><li>Red blood cells pass through in single file </li></ul><ul><li>connect ARTERIOLES and VENULES </li></ul><ul><li>Gases diffuse in lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer station from veins to arteries </li></ul>
  17. 18. Which is the Artery and Vein???
  18. 19. The Smallest Blood Vessels
  19. 21. Major Veins and Arteries <ul><li>Inferior and Superior Vena Cava – return blood to the right atrium (BLUE) </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Artery – carries blood from heart to the lungs (BLUE) </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Vein – carries blood from lungs to the heart (RED) </li></ul><ul><li>Aorta – carries blood from the heart to all body parts. (RED) </li></ul><ul><li>Renal Vein and Artery – blood to and from the kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatic Vein and Artery – blood to and from the liver……..PORTAL VEIN </li></ul><ul><li>Jugular Vein – blood away from the head </li></ul><ul><li>Carotid Artery – blood to the head </li></ul><ul><li>Subclavian Veins and Artery – takes blood to and from the arms </li></ul><ul><li>Iliac Vein and Artery – takes blood to and from the legs </li></ul>
  20. 22. THE HEART
  21. 23. The Heart and Blood Flow in Mammals <ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><li>Double-sided pump. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood content: </li></ul><ul><li>Right: low in O2, high in CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Left: high in O2, low in CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Right and Left side separated by the SEPTUM. </li></ul><ul><li>Atrium – upper chambers. </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricles – lower chambers. </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers separated by valves </li></ul><ul><li>Flow from the heart separated by valves. </li></ul>
  22. 25. The Mammalian Heart INNER BODY
  23. 26. The Human Heart
  24. 27. A few words on valves and nodes!
  25. 28. <ul><li>Pathway of Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>You must be able to trace </li></ul><ul><li>blood from anywhere in the </li></ul><ul><li>body and back to that point. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Circulation – involves the LUNGS and ALL parts to the heart except the LEFT VENTRICLE and AORTA. </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic Circulation – begins in the LEFT VENTRICLE and ends before entering the RIGHT ATRIUM. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of gases on the cellular level in capillaries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coronary Circulation – supplies blood to the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatic Portal Circulation – from the digestive system to the liver. Excess glucose leaves blood in the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Renal Circulation – carries blood to and from the kidney. </li></ul>
  26. 29. Gas Exchange in the Lung
  27. 30. The Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>The heart is composed of cardiac muscle and each beat is a sequence of muscle contraction ( systole ) and relaxation ( diastole ). </li></ul><ul><li>An average blood pressure is 120/80 (mm Hg) of pressure on artery walls. </li></ul><ul><li>The atria contract first, followed immediately by the ventricles. </li></ul><ul><li>Heartbeat is regulated by nerves that enter the “pacemaker”. </li></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>The “pacemaker” sets the tempo of the heartbeat. </li></ul>
  29. 33. The Electrocardiogram <ul><li>Records the minute electrical current produced by the contraction of the heart. </li></ul>
  30. 34. A Heart Attack.. 55 yr old man
  31. 35. Atherosclerosis…leading to H.A.
  32. 36. Blood Pressure <ul><li>The force that blood exerts against vessel walls </li></ul><ul><li>BP is greater in arteries than veins </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse is measure of BP </li></ul><ul><li>Exact BP is measured as systolic/diastolic pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Constricted blood vessels have higher BP than dilated vessels </li></ul><ul><li>In veins heart has little effect on BP </li></ul><ul><li>How, then does blood move in veins? </li></ul>
  33. 37. SPHYGMOMANOMETER <ul><li>Measures Blood Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>PULSE – measured in arteries each time the LV contracts. Rate and rhythm of heartbeat can be measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension – arterial blood pressure remains much above normal. </li></ul>
  34. 38. Coronary Thrombosis <ul><li>Thrombosis – blood clot. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart muscle dies. </li></ul><ul><li>HEART ATTACK </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke – thrombosis of the brain. </li></ul>
  35. 39. Angina Pectoris <ul><li>A temporary muscle spasm of the heart . </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by a narrowing of the coronary artery. </li></ul>
  36. 40. Atherosclerosis <ul><li>Build up of “plaque” on the walls of arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: </li></ul>
  37. 41. Lymphatic System <ul><li>ICF – bathes body cells; formed from plasma </li></ul><ul><li>System of vessels that return some excess fluid (lymph) and proteins to the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes – filter foreign substances from the lymph fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce some lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Lacteals </li></ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul>
  38. 42. BLOOD
  39. 43. Composition of Blood
  40. 44. PLASMA <ul><li>50% - 60% of blood volume </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, Glucose, hormones, ions, gases dissolved in plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood proteins : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>albumin(most abundant, regulates diffusion of plasma), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>globulin(transport and immunity), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrinogen and prothrombin (clotting). </li></ul></ul>
  41. 45. Erythrocytes <ul><li>5 to 6 million/cmm </li></ul><ul><li>40% of blood volume </li></ul><ul><li>Biconcave disk shape </li></ul><ul><li>No nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Made in bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Transport oxygen and CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Contain hemoglobin(Hb) – iron contain protein </li></ul>
  42. 46. Leucocytes <ul><li>Larger than RBC </li></ul><ul><li>Made in bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>6000 – 8000/ cmm </li></ul><ul><li>2% to 3% of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Contain nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>2 GROUPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes (t-cells and B-cells) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 47. Types of White Blood Cells
  44. 48. Platelets <ul><li>200,000 to 400,000 /cmm </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller than RBC or WBC </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of bits of cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Made in bone marrow </li></ul>
  45. 49. Blood Clotting
  46. 50. Blood Typing - Genetics
  47. 51. Blood Typing
  48. 52. Blood Typing How Does Rh factor affect blood types????? O,A,B,AB O ONLY O (UNIVERSAL DONOR) B or AB B or O B A or AB A or O A AB ONLY AB,A,B,O AB (UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT) CAN DONATE TO CAN RECEIVE FROM BLOOD TYPE
  49. 53. Anemia <ul><li>Too few RBC or not enough Hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>No an adequate supply of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle Cell – genetic code mutation causing loss of elasticity in RBC >>>>>>>>> </li></ul>
  50. 54. Leukemia <ul><li>Blood cancer characterized by the bone marrow producing an abnormally high number of WBC's. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>- bruise easily (because the increased number of WBC's has taken the place of platelets needed for clotting) </li></ul><ul><li>lowered resistance to disease (because the WBC's being produced are abnormal, and therefore useless in fighting pathogens) </li></ul><ul><li>- WBC count can get as high as 75 000/drop </li></ul><ul><li>- WBC count does not return to normal levels </li></ul>
  51. 56. Hemophilia <ul><li>Genetic disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Person is missing one or more clotting factors : proteins essential to the formation of blood clots. </li></ul>

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