The Male And Female   Reproductive     Systems(Let’s Keep it clean,      people!)
Sex Cell Production   In most animals cells are produced in 2    ways: Mitosis – cell reproduction; asexual Meiosis – s...
Variations   Mainly during Meiosis:    – Crossing Over – recombination of genes    – Independent assortment of chromosome...
Male Reproductive
Parts to the System   PARTS AND FUNCTIONS:   In Scrotum    – Testes – produce sperm in tightly coiled tubes:      Semini...
HORMONES and NEGATIVE             FEEDBACK   GnRH stimulates the pituitary to release LH and FSH   LH stimulates the pro...
DRAW
Sperm Cells   HEAD –    – Contains nucleus – 23 chromosomes    – Acrosome – contains enzymes to penetrate      the egg. ...
Female Reproductive System
Parts and Functions   Parts and Functions:    – Ovaries –eggs produced in cavities:      FOLLICLES. Released at Ovulation...
DRAW
Menstrual Cycle                  LH                            FSH               estrogen                                 ...
   General: Hormones from Glands control cycle:    – Hypothalamus(in brain): GnRH…….secreted to      Pituitary:        F...
Stages of Menstruation   Menstruation – (5 days)     – Egg not fertilized     – Inner Uterine lining (endometrium) breaks...
Hormones: – and + feedback   ESTROGEN    – Negative feedback on pituitary to block FSH      release.    – Positive feedba...
From Fertilization    to Birth
Copulation vs. Fertilization   Copulation –    – Coupling    – Physical contact between male and female      needed for s...
Fertilization
DEVELOPMENT
After Fertilization   MALE AND FEMALE GAMETES LINE UP AT THE    EQUATOR          PREPARE FOR 1ST MITOTIC DIVISION       ...
Implantation
Development
Development   Embryo – development from about week 4 thru    week 12    – Outer embryonic layer grows blood vessels into ...
Changes During Pregnancy
Parturition
Hormonal Control
Parturition   Prostglandin – hormone- like substances; help to    stimulate contractions.   Oxytocin – hormone – release...
Parturition
Anmniocentisis         CVSIn Vitro Fertilization
Amniocentesis and CVSAmniocentesis –•inserting a needleinto the uterusthrough a verysmall incision inthe abdomen• needle t...
In vitro fertilization Approximately 1 of 6 couples Used mainly as a way to overcome a  female infertility (physiologica...
In Vitro Fertilization
IVF Process1.    Drug given to stop menstrual cycle.2.    Large doses of FSH given – 2 weeks3.    HCG given 48 hours befor...
Ethical Issues of IVFPro:                            Against:   Environmental infertility      Fate of extra embryos?   ...
Ethical Issues of Family        Planning
   Permanent                         Contraception    – Female sterilization (tubal      ligation)    – Vasectomy   Mech...
Birth Control and “Day After” Pill   Birth Control – synthetic estrogens and    progesterone(s) that prevent release of  ...
Ethics of Family Planning and           ContraceptionPro                    Against Can choose to get     Most not 100% ...
THE END!!!!!!!!!!
Puberty in Males Marked by a sharp increase in  testosterone production: Production of sperm: primary!! Secondary:    ...
Puberty in Females Marked by the onset of the menstrual  cycle Egg production: primary! Secondary:    – Breast Developm...
Developmental Terms to Know   Zygote – newly fertilized egg   Cleavage – first series of cell divisions; multiple    rou...
Implantation
Implantation Blastocyst contains fluid filled cavity called  blastocoel. Blastocyst:    – Two parts:         – Inner mas...
Twins!!!!!
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
The male and female repro ib master
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The male and female repro ib master

  1. 1. The Male And Female Reproductive Systems(Let’s Keep it clean, people!)
  2. 2. Sex Cell Production In most animals cells are produced in 2 ways: Mitosis – cell reproduction; asexual Meiosis – sex cell production; produces 4 gametes that are genetically non-identical
  3. 3. Variations Mainly during Meiosis: – Crossing Over – recombination of genes – Independent assortment of chromosomes – Mutation – produces new characteristics that can be passed – only in sex cells
  4. 4. Male Reproductive
  5. 5. Parts to the System PARTS AND FUNCTIONS: In Scrotum – Testes – produce sperm in tightly coiled tubes: Seminiferous Tubules - meiosis – Interstitial Cells – in between seminiferous tubules: produce TESTOSTERONE – Epididymis – stores maturing sperm Tubes – Vas Deferens – carries sperm from epididymis to urethra. – Urethra – in penis. Exit point for sperm Food and Travel - – Seminal Vesicles – releases “sugars” – Prostate Gland – releases alkaline solution – Cowper’s Gland – fluid to lubricate urethra, flush out urine Hormones: – GnRH stimulates production of FSH and LH(ICSH)
  6. 6. HORMONES and NEGATIVE FEEDBACK GnRH stimulates the pituitary to release LH and FSH LH stimulates the production of testosterone. FSH works on “sartoli’ cells to provide nourishment for sperm. Sartoli cells produce a hormone “inhibin” which inhibits the pituitary and hypothalamus resulting in lower levels of FSH HIGH LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE PRODUCES NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ON THE PITUITARY GLAND DECREASING LEVELS OF LH (ICRH).
  7. 7. DRAW
  8. 8. Sperm Cells HEAD – – Contains nucleus – 23 chromosomes – Acrosome – contains enzymes to penetrate the egg. Neck – packed with mitochondria Tail – flagellum for movement
  9. 9. Female Reproductive System
  10. 10. Parts and Functions Parts and Functions: – Ovaries –eggs produced in cavities: FOLLICLES. Released at Ovulation. – Oviduct – passageway for egg. SITE of fertilization – Uterus – muscular, pear shaped. Holds developing organism – Cervix – lower end of uterus – Vagina – entry point for sperm. Exit point for Fetus. Birth Canal.
  11. 11. DRAW
  12. 12. Menstrual Cycle LH FSH estrogen progesterone Follicle Stage Luteal Stages ovulationmenstruation
  13. 13.  General: Hormones from Glands control cycle: – Hypothalamus(in brain): GnRH…….secreted to Pituitary:  FSH – – Stimulates growth of egg – Stimulates secretion of estrogen  LH – – Stimulates ovulation – Stimulates empty follicle to convert to corpus luteum – Stimulates corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone – Ovary  Estrogen – Stimulates repair and growth of the uterus  Progesterone – Stimulates and maintains growth of the uterine lining
  14. 14. Stages of Menstruation Menstruation – (5 days) – Egg not fertilized – Inner Uterine lining (endometrium) breaks down and passes out of the vagina(with the egg). Follicle Stage – (9 days) – FSH production increases – Follicles in ovaries develop. (oocyte) – Estrogen secreted to heal, repair, and thicken endometrium with blood vessels Ovulation – Middle of Cycle--- 1 day – High level of estrogen decreases FSH and stimulates secretion of LH – High level of LH – Follicle ruptures and egg is released. Corpus Luteum Stage – ( 13 days) – Corpus Luteum is produced in ruptured follicle…stimulates progesterone production. – Maintains endometrial growth. – Egg implantation if fertilization takes place
  15. 15. Hormones: – and + feedback ESTROGEN – Negative feedback on pituitary to block FSH release. – Positive feedback on pituitary to signal release of LH Progesterone – Negative feedback to block FSH release – Negative feedback to block LH release
  16. 16. From Fertilization to Birth
  17. 17. Copulation vs. Fertilization Copulation – – Coupling – Physical contact between male and female needed for sperm to move from male to female: intercourse Fertilization – Fusion of male and female nuclei to produce a zygote
  18. 18. Fertilization
  19. 19. DEVELOPMENT
  20. 20. After Fertilization MALE AND FEMALE GAMETES LINE UP AT THE EQUATOR  PREPARE FOR 1ST MITOTIC DIVISION  NO CELL GROWTH  “CLEAVAGE DIVISION” AFTER SEVERAL DIVISIONS: – BALL OF CELLS = MORULA  REACHES UTERUS IN APPX. 4 DAYS Implantation – into wall of the endometrium
  21. 21. Implantation
  22. 22. Development
  23. 23. Development Embryo – development from about week 4 thru week 12 – Outer embryonic layer grows blood vessels into the uterine wall – placenta – Placenta – exchange of nutrients – maternal and fetal; source of estrogen and progesterone (acts as an endocrine gland) – Chorion – keep mother and baby blood from mixing. – Amnion & Fluid – shock absorber; insulation – Umbilical Cord – contains artery and vein; fetus to placenta Fetus – Week 13 - 40
  24. 24. Changes During Pregnancy
  25. 25. Parturition
  26. 26. Hormonal Control
  27. 27. Parturition Prostglandin – hormone- like substances; help to stimulate contractions. Oxytocin – hormone – released by pituitary gland POSITIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEM Parturition – process of delivering the fetus and placenta. Includes – Labour – dilation of cervix, vagina – Expulsion – Birth – Afterbirth – delivery of placenta
  28. 28. Parturition
  29. 29. Anmniocentisis CVSIn Vitro Fertilization
  30. 30. Amniocentesis and CVSAmniocentesis –•inserting a needleinto the uterusthrough a verysmall incision inthe abdomen• needle takesamniotic fluid –contains embryoniccells.• used to detectgenetic defects
  31. 31. In vitro fertilization Approximately 1 of 6 couples Used mainly as a way to overcome a female infertility (physiological) issue: blocked oviducts or timely ovulation Cannot be used in the case of low sperm count.
  32. 32. In Vitro Fertilization
  33. 33. IVF Process1. Drug given to stop menstrual cycle.2. Large doses of FSH given – 2 weeks3. HCG given 48 hours before collection – matures eggs4. Man provides semen.5. Eggs extracted through the vagina6. Each egg is mixed with some sperm in a petri dish – incubated 24 hours7. Check to see if fertilized!8. Embryo’s selected and placed in uterus9. Wait approximately 2 to 3 weeks and take pregnancy test – implantation10. Scan as normal for any developmental issues
  34. 34. Ethical Issues of IVFPro: Against: Environmental infertility  Fate of extra embryos? will not affect offspring  Long term storage of Not developed – no pain embryos – stem cells? to embryo  Multi pregnancy places Genetic screening before stress on family transferring  Expensive Parents have strong  High rate of failure desire for child  religious
  35. 35. Ethical Issues of Family Planning
  36. 36.  Permanent Contraception – Female sterilization (tubal ligation) – Vasectomy Mechanical – Diaphragm – Intra Uterine Device – Condom Chemical – Spermicide – Birth control pill* – “day-after” pill* Other – Rhythm - cycle – Withdrawal before ejaculation – Abortion
  37. 37. Birth Control and “Day After” Pill Birth Control – synthetic estrogens and progesterone(s) that prevent release of GnRH ---- FSH & LH Morning After – – Blocks progesterone receptors in uterus. – altering the lining of the womb, so a fertilized egg cant embed itself there.
  38. 38. Ethics of Family Planning and ContraceptionPro Against Can choose to get  Most not 100% pregnant effective A few methods 100%  Promotes promiscuity effective  Abstinence difficult in Population control marriage  Irreversible
  39. 39. THE END!!!!!!!!!!
  40. 40. Puberty in Males Marked by a sharp increase in testosterone production: Production of sperm: primary!! Secondary:  Enlargement of penis and testes  Growth of body hair: face, underarm, pubic  Deepening of voice  Broad shoulders - muscle
  41. 41. Puberty in Females Marked by the onset of the menstrual cycle Egg production: primary! Secondary: – Breast Development – Body curve – placement of tissue – Hair: underarm, pubic
  42. 42. Developmental Terms to Know Zygote – newly fertilized egg Cleavage – first series of cell divisions; multiple rounds of mitosis Morula – 4-16 cells; solid ball of cells Blastomere – cells of the morula Blastocyst – after 5 days; develops a hollow cavity Implantation – blastocyst penetrates endometrium Endometrium – uterine lining Gestation – pregnancy, 40 weeks
  43. 43. Implantation
  44. 44. Implantation Blastocyst contains fluid filled cavity called blastocoel. Blastocyst: – Two parts: – Inner mass cells - will develop into the embryo – Trophoblast – releases HCG hormone; digests a hole into the endometrium HCG helps to maintain progesterone levels during pregnancy. Pregnancy test.
  45. 45. Twins!!!!!

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