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The cell cycle   mitosis
 

The cell cycle mitosis

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  • Polyploidy is the condition of some biological cells and organisms of containing more than two homologous sets of chromosomes . Polyploid types are termed according to the number of chromosome sets in the nucleus : triploid (three sets; 3n), tetraploid (four sets; 4n), pentaploid (five sets; 5n), hexaploid (six sets; 6n) and so on. Polyploidy occurs in some animals , such as goldfish , salmon , and salamanders , but is especially common among ferns and flowering plants , including both wild and cultivated species . Polyploidy also occurs in humans, although much less frequently. The polyploid conditions that have been observed in humans are triploidy (69,XXX ) and tetraploidy (92,XXXX). Additional chromosomes encode a large amount of surplus gene product, causing multiple anomalies such as defects of the heart and central nervous system. Most polyploid conceptions are spontaneously aborted, and many are incompatible with long-term survival.

The cell cycle   mitosis The cell cycle mitosis Presentation Transcript

  • The Cell Cycle - Mitosis
  • Cell Divisions
    • Mitosis – cell division resulting in 2 genetically identical cells
      • Have the same chromosome number as the “parent” cell.
    • General Functions:
      • Growth
      • Repair
      • Asexual Reproduction
    • Uncontrolled cell growth – result in tumors. Can occur in any body organ
  • Types of Cells
    • Haploid – one set of chromosomes (sex cells)
    • Diploid – two sets chromosomes (body cells)
    • Polyploidy – more than 2 sets chromosomes
  •  
  • The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Mitosis: An Interactive Animation
    • INTERPHASE
      • Stage between divisions
      • Cell carries out normal functions
      • Chromosomes NOT visible in cell – chromatin!
      • Prepares for cell division.
      • Three Phases: G1, S, G2
  • Interphase: G1 and G0
    • G1 - Growth 1 or pre-replication
      • Cell growth period just after mitosis
      • Metabolic activity high: RNA and protein
      • Cell spends from hours to an entire lifetime in G1
    • G0 - extended period of time in G1 phase
      • Multicellular organisms
      • Complex cells – nerve cells
  • INTERPHASE: S PHASE
    • Synthesis
      • DNA is synthesized
      • DNA replicates an EXACT copy of itself.
    • Chromosomes - to 2 “sister” chromatid
  • duplicated chromosome 20 µ m © Ed Reschke
  • Sister Chromatid
  • The “Chrom” words
    • Chromatin – DNA and protein (histone)
    • Chromosome – condensed and thickened chromatin for mitosis.
        • Held together by centromere
        • Can be 1 or 2 stranded
    • Chromatid - two of the same chromosome produced for mitosis or meiosis (2 are called “sisters”
  • INTERPHASE: G2 PHASE
    • Structure directly involved with mitosis are formed. 
    • The Cell makes the Organelles and substances it needs for Cell Division. 
    • A time during which the Cell prepares to divide.
    • Premitosis: 2 to 5 hours
  • Late G2 Phase
  • Mitosis Anny’
  • Mitosis in Real time
  • M – PHASE : MITOSIS
    • Nuclear division
      • Four Phases:
        • PROPHASE
        • METAPHASE
        • ANAPHASE Mitosis: An Interactive Animation
        • TELOPHASE
    • CYTOKINESIS – division of the whole cell
  •  
  • Prophase
  •  
    • PROPHASE
      • “ Chromosomes” get thicker, visible – (Supercoiling)
      • Nuclear membrane dissolves
      • Centrioles go to either side of cell: Spindle fibers appear
      • Chromosomes begin to connect to spindle fibers at centromere
  • Spindle Fibers and Kinetochore
    • Spindle fibers – extend from centriole; microtubule
    • KINETOCHORE FIBERS - protein, attachment point for spindle fibers; within centromere
  • METAPHASE
  • Metaphase
  • Metaphase
    • Chromosomes line up single file at EQUATOR.
    • Spindle fibers attached to chromosome at centromere (kinetachore)
    • Centrioles positioned at the two poles
    • Spindle fibers begin to pull chromosomes from centromere…signals the beginning of…
  • ANAPHASE
  •  
    • Spindle Fibers pull apart centromere of each chromosome in opposite directions
    • Centromeres splits
    • Individual chromatid are pulled to either side of cell.
    • “ Chromatid to chromosome”….
    Anaphase
  •  
  • TELOPHASE
  • TELOPHASE
    • After the Chromosomes reach opposite ends of the Cell:
      • the Spindle Fibers Disassemble.
      • The Chromosomes return to Chromatin: thin and long.
    • New Nuclear membrane begins to form around the Chromatin at each end of the cell.
    • Cytoplasm begins to divide…
    • CYTOKINESIS BEGINS.
  • CYTOKINESIS
    • Cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division) takes place and the cell membrane “pinches in.”
    • Results in 2 daughter cells that are the exact replica of the parent cell.
  • CYTOKINESIS
    • CYTOKINESIS OF ANIMAL CELLS:
    • The Cytoplasm Divides when a GROOVE called the CLEAVAGE FURROW forms through the Middle of the Parent Cell. 
    • The Cleavage Furrow Deepens until the parent cell pinches into TWO New Identical Cells. 
    • The New Cells are Now in INTERPHASE
  •  
  • CYTOKINESIS
    • In a Plant Cell, the material for NEW CELL WALL CALLED THE CELL PLATE   AND MEMBRANES GATHER AND FUSE ALONG THE EQUATOR, OR MIDDLE OF THE CELL, BETWEEN TWO NUCLEI.
    • Forming TWO New Identical Cells.
  • Plant Cell Mitosis MITOSIS Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase spindle fibers cell wall Chromosomes 6.2 µ m 6.2 µ m 6.2 µ m 25 µ m cell plate
  •  
  • Identify; plant /animal and the phase
  •  
  •  
  • Helpful Diagrams
  •  
  •  
  • Key Vocabulary
    • Mitosis
    • Cell cycle
    • Interphase
    • Cytokinesis
    • Chromosome
    • Chromatid
    • Chromatin
    • Histone
    • Centromere
    • Centriole
    • Spindle fiber
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Kinetochore
    • Cleavage furrow
    • Cell plate
    • Parent cell
    • Daughter cells