Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Protein Synthesis

2,240

Published on

1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,240
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Protein Synthesis Section 3.5Thank you Mr. Taylor for the use of several slides
  • 2. Gene Expression RNA (ribonucleic acid)
  • 3. Gene Expression Three Classes of RNA – Messenger RNA (mRNA)  Takes a message from DNA to the ribosomes  Codon  Transcription – Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)  Makes up ribosomes (along with proteins) – Transfer RNA (tRNA)  Transfers amino acids to ribosomes  Anticodon  Translation
  • 4. Gene Expression Gene Expression Requires Two Steps: – Transcription – Translation
  • 5. Overview: the roles of transcription and translation in the flow of genetic information (Layer 1)
  • 6. Overview: the roles of transcription and translation in the flow of genetic information (Layer 2)
  • 7. Overview: the roles of transcription and translation in the flow of genetic information (Layer 3)
  • 8. Overview: the roles of transcription and translation in the flow of genetic information (Layer 4)
  • 9. Overview: the roles of transcription and translation in the flow of genetic information (Layer 5)
  • 10. IT’S ANN’Y TIME
  • 11. Transcription
  • 12. Gene Expression Transcription – During transcription, a segment of the DNA serves as a template for the production of an RNA molecule – Formation of Messenger RNA (mRNA)  RNA polymerase binds to a promoter  DNA helix is opened so complementary base pairing can occur – HELICASE!  RNA polymerase joins new RNA nucleotides in a sequence complementary to that on the DNA – Messenger RNA formed - CODON  Strand carries code for protein  Is complementary to the section of DNA
  • 13. Transcription of DNA to form mRNA
  • 14. Translation
  • 15. ANNY TIME
  • 16. Gene Expression Transfer RNA - ANTICODON – tRNA transports amino acids to the ribosomes – Single stranded nucleic acid that correlates a specific nucleotide sequence with a specific amino acid – Amino acid binds to one end, the opposite end has an anticodon – the order of mRNA codons determines the order in which tRNA brings in amino acids
  • 17. Transfer RNA: Amino Acid Carrier
  • 18. Gene Expression Translation (overview) – In cytoplasm/ribosome – mRNA - Triplet codon: AUG initiates translation – tRNA – attached to certain amino acids – corresponds to anticodon --- complementary to codon – mRNA bonds to tRNA – H bonds – 20 different enzymes for each amino acid – Needs ATP – 2 amino acids make peptide bond – continues – Stop codon: UAA, UAG, UGA – nonsense codon – mRNA fragment – returns to nucleus
  • 19. Translation
  • 20. Translation
  • 21. Translation
  • 22. The Genetic Code
  • 23. Overview of Gene Expression
  • 24. Genetic Code- The Genetic Code  Triplet code- each 3-nucleotide unit of a mRNA molecule is called a CODON  There are 64 different mRNA codons – 61 code for particular amino acids  Redundant code-some amino acids have numerous code words  Provides some protection against mutations – 1 start codon – AUG – also codes for a.a. - MET – 3 are stop codons signal polypeptide termination
  • 25. Messenger RNA Codons
  • 26. Gene ExpressionDegenerate – two or more codons code for the same amino acidUniversal – all living organisms use the same code (including viruses)(Transcribe and Translate a Gene)
  • 27. One Gene, One Polypeptide 1940’s (Beadle and Tatum) – one gene will always make one enzyme. Became – One Gene, One Polypeptide Hypothesis Really One Allele, One Protein – Exceptions  Some genes do not produce polypeptides  Some genes code for RNA which does not produce a polypeptide. - (no start codon)
  • 28. Summary of Gene Expression
  • 29. END
  • 30. Gene Expression Ribosome and Ribosomal RNA – Ribosome has a binding site for mRNA and for 2 tRNAs – Facilitate complementary base pairing – Ribosome moves along mRNA and new tRNAs come in and line up in order – This brings amino acids in line in a specific order to form a polypeptide – Several ribosomes may move along the same mRNA  Multiplecopies of a polypeptide may be made  The entire complex is called a polyribosome
  • 31. Polyribosome Structure and Function
  • 32. mRNA Processing

×