Photosynthesis honors master

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  • 1. photosynthesis
  • 2. Essential Questions
    • What if the sun quit shining?
    • Is the process of photosynthesis dependent on light?
    • What is photosynthesis?
    • What organisms undergo photosynthesis?
    • How do plants make food?
    • What adaptations does a leaf have to undergo photosynthesis?
    • What are the raw materials needed for photosynthesis?
  • 3. Essential Questions
    • What are the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis.
    • How do the light dependent reactions occur?
    • How do the light independent reactions occur?
    • What is the Calvin Cycle?
    • What factors affect photosynthesis?
    • Why is photosynthesis important to the environment?
  • 4. Important Vocabulary
    • chlorophyll
    • Accessory pigment
    • Stomata
    • Guard cell
    • Spongy layer
    • Palisade layer
    • Epidermis
    • CHLOROPLAST
      • GRANUM
      • THYLAKOID
      • STROMA
    • NADP & NADPH
    • Photosystem II and I
    • ATP synthase
    • Carbon Fixation
    • Rubp
    • Rubisco
    • G3P
    • ATP & ADP
  • 5. The Photosynthesis Song!
  • 6. Photosynthesis
  • 7. Organisms are classified based on how they get their food
    • Heterotrophs
    • Autotrophs
      • Chemoautotrophs
      • Photoautotrophs
  • 8. Our Primary Energy Source
    • What is the primary energy source for life on this planet?
    • The sun!
    • There are the two different types of autotrophs:
    • Photoautotrophs
      • Source of energy = sun
      • Source of carbon = carbon dioxide
    • Chemoautotrophs
      • Source of energy = inorganic chemicals
      • Source of carbon = carbon dioxide
  • 9. The Nature of Light
    • Visible light is the component of the Electromagnetic spectrum of energy that a plant uses for photosynthesis.
    • Photon – particle of light!
  • 10.  
  • 11. What Colors do we see?
    • Why do leaves of plants look green?
      • Leaf pigments….like chlorophyll.
      • Pigments can absorb , reflect, or transmit the light energy.
      • An object that absorbs all colors is BLACK.
      • An object appears that color when it reflects that color.
  • 12.  
  • 13. Photosynthetic pigments
    • Found in the Chloroplast.
    • Chlorophyll a – absorbs less blue and more red light. It is directly involved in photosynthesis.
    • Chlorophyll b – absorbs more blue and less red light. It is an accessory pigment – assists chlorophyll a.
    • Other accessory pigments:
    • Carotenoids – absorb blue light. Reflect yellow, red, orange light.
  • 14. What does the graph below represent?
  • 15. LEAF Structure
  • 16. Leaves and Photosynthesis
  • 17. Adaptations for Nutrition – The Leaf
    • Cuticle – waxy outermost layer
    • Epidermis – 1 cell thick. Allows light to penetrate.
    • Stomate – on lower epidermis. Gas exchange. Water transpiration.
    • Guard Cell – regulates opening of stomate.
    Mesophyll – contains vascular bundle AND… + Palisade layer – site of photosynthesis. + Spongy layer – irregular cells, large air spaces…for diffusion of gases.
  • 18. Chloroplasts
  • 19. THE CHLOROPLAST
  • 20. Chloroplast
    • Thylakoid –
      • photosynthetic membranes.
      • Arranged in stacks called GRANA.
      • Contain chlorophyll: photosystems
      • Light DEPENDENT reactions occur
    • Stroma –
      • Outside the thylakoid
      • Light INDEPENDENT reactions occur.
  • 21. Photosynthesis – an overview (the absolute minimum you must know!!!
    • 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
    • Light energy needed - Capture LIGHT - PHOTO
    • ATP used and generated
    • NADP + :the electron carrier, that combines with 2 electrons and one hydrogen ion.
    • NADP + becomes reduced into NADPH, when it receives the electrons.
    • Glucose (SYNTHESIS) and oxygen are made.
    • NADP : nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • 22. Photosynthesis – an overview
  • 23. The Light Reactions
  • 24. Light Reactions
  • 25. Organization of a Thylakoid
  • 26. Light Reaction (overview) Produce OXYGEN gas and convert ADP and NADP+ into energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
  • 27.
    • PHOTOSYSTEM II (PII)
    • Chlorophyll pigments (purple circles) in thylakoid membrane absorb light energy.
      • The energy is absorbed by electrons…passed to ETC.
    • PHOTOLYSIS
    • During this process, H 2 O is broken down, and O 2 is released.
    • Electrons from hydrogen replace electrons in chlorophyll.
    • H+ begin to create a positive gradient in the THYLAKOID.
  • 28.
    • Electrons lose energy as they pass down the ETC.
    • Energy lost “pumps” more H+ into the Thylakoid thru membrane by active transport.
    • PHOTOSYSTEM I
    • Light energy re-energizes electrons
    • Electrons combine with NADP and H+ to form NADPH – an electron carrier
    • NADPH moves into the stroma for Light Independent Rxns.
  • 29.
    • Production of ATP
    • The concentration of H + ions inside the thylakoid membrane becomes much higher than the concentration outside.
    • H + ions rush out through membrane protein called ATP synthase.
    • The ATP synthase spins like a turbine and the energy is used to bind ADP and P together to form ATP.
  • 30. Summary of the Light Reactions
    • Input:
    • Light
    • Water
    • ADP
    • NADP +
    • Output:
    • 18 ATP
    • 12 NADPH
    • Oxygen
    What do you need for more light reactions to occur?
  • 31. Summary of the Light Reactions
    • Input:
    • Light
    • Water
    • ADP
    • NADP +
    • Output:
    • 18 ATP
    • 12 NADPH
    • Oxygen
    ADP, and NADP +
  • 32. Summary of the Light Reactions
    • Input:
    • Light
    • Water
    • ADP
    • NADP +
    • Output:
    • 18 ATP
    • 12 NADPH
    • Oxygen
    What is the waste product of photosynthesis?
  • 33. Summary of the Light Reactions
    • Input:
    • Light
    • Water
    • ADP
    • NADP +
    • Output:
    • 18 ATP
    • 12 NADPH
    • Oxygen
    Oxygen
  • 34.  
  • 35. Light Independent Reactions
  • 36. Light Independent Reactions (overview)
    • aka – Carbon Fixation, Calvin Cycle, Dark Rxns.
    • Uses CO 2 to form a 2- 3 carbon molecules
    • Needs ATP
    • Needs NADPH – is oxidized
    • Carbon Molecule reduced
    • Leaves 6 – 5 carbon molecules
  • 37.  
  • 38. Light Independent Reactions
  • 39. Light Independent reactions
    • Carbon Fixation
    • 6CO 2 enter the cycle and bonds with 6 – 5 carbon molecules (Rubp)
      • Catalyzed by enzyme Rubisco.
    • These molecules split into 12 – 3 carbon molecules.
  • 40. Light Independent reactions
    • Reduction:
    • Each 3 carbon molecule is REDUCED by 12 NADPH (oxidized).
    • 12 ATP IS NEEDED!
    • Result: G3P the 3 – carbon molecule that will become glucose.
      • 2 – G3P exit the Calvin Cycle to become Glucose
  • 41. Light Independent reactions
    • Regeneration:
    • 10 – G3P molecules are rearranged into
    • 5 – 6 carbon molecules (Rubp)
    • 6 ATP needed
  • 42. Calvin Cycle Reactions
  • 43. Fate of G3P
  • 44. Calvin Cycle Reactions
    • Importance of the Calvin Cycle
      • G3P (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate) can be converted to many other molecules
    • The G3P can form:
      • Fatty acids and glycerol to make plant oil
      • Glucose phosphate (simple sugar)
      • Fructose (which with glucose = sucrose)
      • Starch and cellulose
      • Amino acids
  • 45. Fate of G3P
  • 46. Photosynthesis and Respiration Compared
  • 47. How the Rate of Photosynthesis can be affected.
  • 48. Rate of Photosynthesis
    • What is a rate?
        • It is the activity per unit time.
    • What factors can affect the photosynthetic rate?
        • Light intensity
        • Temperature
        • Oxygen
        • Carbon Dioxide Concentration
    • Sometimes these factors are called LIMITING FACTORS.
  • 49. The Effect of Light Intensity on Photosynthetic Rate
  • 50. The Effect of Temperature on Photosynthetic Rate
  • 51. The Effect of Light Intensity and Temperature on Photosynthetic Rate Which is the limiting factor here; light intensity or temp.?
  • 52. Carbon Dioxide Concentration
  • 53. Oxygen Concentration What would a graph for increasing levels of CO 2 look like?
  • 54.