The              Immune               SystemSome images courtesy of Steve Taylor…Bandung Intl. School
PATHOGENS• The immune system responds to the  presence of proteins not made by the  body.• These proteins are called antig...
Pathogen vs. Non Pathogen
Method of Transmission              know a disease for each•   Air – “droplets”•   Direct contact – physical contact•   Th...
Types of Pathogens• Bacterial – Cholera, Tetanus• Viral – AIDS, polio, measles• Fungal – Athlete’s Foot,  Yeast Infection,...
Worms•   Worms are usually    ingested as eggs•   Found in minute    particles of feces•   Eggs hatch into larvae•   Can m...
Antibiotics• Bacteria vs. Virus  – Act against specific chemicals or chemical    pathways in prokaryotes.  – DO NOT affect...
ANTIBIOTIC TUTORIAL
Defense Against Disease
Bodys First Lines of Defense      NONSPECIFIC• Skin – keratin on surface• Mucous membranes – mouth,nose,  throat• Tears - ...
Skin
Second Line of Defense              Counterattack!!!!!...will kill absolutely anything!!!CELLS THAT KILL INVADING MICROBES...
Ouch! - ANATOMY OF A SPLINTER!!
Types of White Blood Cells
Interferon• Protein• Released by cells  infected with  viruses• Combines receptors   on healthy cells to  produce antivira...
Third Line of Defense:         Mounting a Specific Defense!!!!• The type of WBC that make up the  “specific” immune system...
T and B Cells• T Cells – several types  – Activate B cells (t-helper)  – Destroys toxins (t-killer)  – Stops immune respon...
Immune System DisordersAIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome• Retrovirus – RNA as its genetic material• RNA is transc...
BacteriophageRetrovirus
HIV• Human Immunodeficiency Virus• Attacks “Helper” T – Cells.• Process:     •   T – cells and HIV antigens bind     •   H...
Animation: How the HIV Infection Cycle Works
AIDS - transmission• Sexual relations – all forms    – Transmitted through small tears in soft tissue•   Sharing needles –...
HIV DATA - THE WORLD• Gapminder: Unveiling the bea
HIV – Social Implications• The vast majority of cases are in Africa, with  rapid increases in Asia and Central America•   ...
Immune ib master2009forupload
Immune ib master2009forupload
Immune ib master2009forupload
Immune ib master2009forupload
Immune ib master2009forupload
Immune ib master2009forupload
Immune ib master2009forupload
Immune ib master2009forupload
Immune ib master2009forupload
Immune ib master2009forupload
Immune ib master2009forupload
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Immune ib master2009forupload

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Immune ib master2009forupload

  1. 1. The Immune SystemSome images courtesy of Steve Taylor…Bandung Intl. School
  2. 2. PATHOGENS• The immune system responds to the presence of proteins not made by the body.• These proteins are called antigens.• An antigen that causes a disease is called a pathogen.• Pathogen = disease causing organism.
  3. 3. Pathogen vs. Non Pathogen
  4. 4. Method of Transmission know a disease for each• Air – “droplets”• Direct contact – physical contact• Through food• Cuts in the skin• Infected needles• Blood transfusion• Animals and Insects
  5. 5. Types of Pathogens• Bacterial – Cholera, Tetanus• Viral – AIDS, polio, measles• Fungal – Athlete’s Foot, Yeast Infection,• Protozoan - Malaria• Worm – Tapeworm
  6. 6. Worms• Worms are usually ingested as eggs• Found in minute particles of feces• Eggs hatch into larvae• Can migrate out of the intestines
  7. 7. Antibiotics• Bacteria vs. Virus – Act against specific chemicals or chemical pathways in prokaryotes. – DO NOT affect Eukaryotic cells. – Viruses are “intracellular” parasites that uses the host cell – Drugs used against them also compromise human cells (chemotherapy)
  8. 8. ANTIBIOTIC TUTORIAL
  9. 9. Defense Against Disease
  10. 10. Bodys First Lines of Defense NONSPECIFIC• Skin – keratin on surface• Mucous membranes – mouth,nose, throat• Tears - lysozyme• Saliva - lysozyme• Stomach Acid - acidic• Urine
  11. 11. Skin
  12. 12. Second Line of Defense Counterattack!!!!!...will kill absolutely anything!!!CELLS THAT KILL INVADING MICROBES:Phagocytes:• Recognize chemical receptors on foreign invaders – often proteins• Identifies and destroys pathogens: endocytosis: form vacuole fuse with lysosomes and are digested• Work in the blood – push through capillaries into tissue – Work to control infection – Causes visible inflammation, heat, pus, fever (not over 105)
  13. 13. Ouch! - ANATOMY OF A SPLINTER!!
  14. 14. Types of White Blood Cells
  15. 15. Interferon• Protein• Released by cells infected with viruses• Combines receptors on healthy cells to produce antiviral enzymes.• Inhibit protein synthesis in viruses
  16. 16. Third Line of Defense: Mounting a Specific Defense!!!!• The type of WBC that make up the “specific” immune system:• Antibodies – specific protein produced by Lymphocyte: » T – Cells » B – Cells Travel in blood and lymph Produced in bone marrow » T – cells mature in the thymus (behind the sternum) » B – cells mature in bone marrow• Antigens – foreign substances that stimulate antibody production
  17. 17. T and B Cells• T Cells – several types – Activate B cells (t-helper) – Destroys toxins (t-killer) – Stops immune response (t-supressor)• B Cells – – produces specific antibodies for antigensMonoclonal Selection – Production of the same antibody (proliferation) from the original antigen-antibody complex. – Can be referred to as “memory cells’
  18. 18. Immune System DisordersAIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome• Retrovirus – RNA as its genetic material• RNA is transcribed into DNA• Reverse Transcriptase
  19. 19. BacteriophageRetrovirus
  20. 20. HIV• Human Immunodeficiency Virus• Attacks “Helper” T – Cells.• Process: • T – cells and HIV antigens bind • HIV virus enters and replicates. • T – cell ruptures releasing new viruses • Viruses infect other T – cells • Virus increases & T cells decrease• Without Helper T- cells , lymphocytes cannot form to produce antibodies.• No Antibodies…the pathogen survives
  21. 21. Animation: How the HIV Infection Cycle Works
  22. 22. AIDS - transmission• Sexual relations – all forms – Transmitted through small tears in soft tissue• Sharing needles –drug use• Contaminated blood transfusions• Accidents• Tattoos and Piercings
  23. 23. HIV DATA - THE WORLD• Gapminder: Unveiling the bea
  24. 24. HIV – Social Implications• The vast majority of cases are in Africa, with rapid increases in Asia and Central America• changes in sexual behavior• unease over blood transfusions• ostracizing• breakdown of family structure – huge loss in work force – drugs are available to control effects of HIV, but cost is high – poor families have limited resources, and are impoverished by the cost of drugs• huge drain on medical resources• poor nations have little drug availability

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