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Human respiration ib master
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  • 1. Human Respiration:Ventilation 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 2. Human Respiration Involves the process of:a) cellular respiration: Glucose + O2  H2O + CO2 + 36 ATP’sb) gas exchange: exchange of gases between the internal and external environment with the use of lungsc. ventilation - breathing 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 3. Ventilation System why do we need it!? adequate lung ventilation is essential to gas exchange ventilation provides a continual supply of fresh air to the lungs needed to maintain a large concentration gradient for gas exchange >> surface of the alveoli O2 must be delivered regularly CO2 must be quickly eliminated 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 4. (I) Human Respiratory System  Composed of a network of passageways which permits air to flow from the external environment and into the lungs 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 5. The Upper Respiratory Tract 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 6. Nasal Cavity The nose Lined with a ciliated mucus membrane The cilia and mucus: 1. Filters air 2. Warms air 3. Moistens air 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 7. Pharynx Known as the throat region It is an area in which both air and food pass through 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 8. Larynx Humans  use the larynx as a voice box  contains vocal cords that vibrate and produce sound as air passes through 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 9. EpiglottisA cartilaginous flap It “covers” the trachea when swallowing food 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 10. Trachea Known as the windpipe Kept open by rings of cartilage Lined with a ciliated mucus membrane One cigarette paralyzes the cilia for 20 minutes 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 11. Lung03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 12. Bronchi Bronchus = singular Trachea divides into two major divisions known as bronchi The bronchi contain cartilage rings as well The bronchi subdivide many times forming smaller tubules known as bronchioles 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 13. Bronchioles Lack cartilage rings Tiny bronchioles subdivide and terminate (end) with structures known as alveoli 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 14. Alveoli 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 15. Alveoli Are thin: single layer of cells – easy diffusion Moist: helps gases to dissolve before passing thru membranes/ Alveoli increase surface area for gas exchange Rich in blood vessels: O2 diffuses into the blood from the alveoli and CO2 and water diffuse out of the blood and into the alveoli 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 16. (II) Breathing Process  Inhaling – Inspiration  Exhaling – Expiration  Lungs are highly elastic (stretchable)  Thoracic Cavity is sealed  Atmospheric Pressure Constant  Atmospheric Pressure forces air into the lungs:  Volume Inc. / Pressure Dec. = Inhale  Volume Dec. / Pressure Inc = Exhale 4 sets of MUSCLES that control breathing include: 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 17. Diaphragm and Abdominal Muscles Diaphragm contracts – flattens dome – Inhale Abdominal muscles relax Diaphragm relaxes – abdominal muscles contract - Exhale 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 18. Intercostal Muscles External Intercostals –  Attached to rib cage  Contracts to move rib cage up and out  Inhale Internal Intercostal  Attached to rib cage  Contracts to move rib cage down and in  Exhale 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 19. 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 20. II – Breathing Process 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 21. III – Gas Exchange 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 22. (III) Gas Exchange• High Concentration gradient needed.• In the blood, hemoglobin binds with oxygen from the alveoli to form oxyhemoglobin (HbO2)• Carbon dioxide is carried primarily in the plasma of the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions (HCO3)Lung Attack – Gas Exchange 03/14/12 23:12 cottingham
  • 23. THE END03/14/12 23:12 cottingham