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Human circulation ib master
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Human circulation ib master



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  • 1. Transport - The Human Circulatory System03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 2. General Functions of Transport Systems...  Maintain internal homeostasis  Deliver oxygen, food and other nutrients, hormones  Remove CO2 and other metabolic wastes (urea)  Maintain cells in a fluid environment that allows exchange of these many materials03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 3. Blood Vessels03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 4. Arteries are adapted to deal Thick outer wall with blood under HIGH pressure Thick layer of Narrow lumen muscle and elastic (space through fibres which blood flows) Veins are adapted to deal with blood under LOW pressure Thinner outer wall than arteries Thinner layer of muscle and elastic fibres than arteries Wide lumen03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 5. Which is the Artery and Vein???03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 6. Veins also have valves to… …keep blood flowing in the right direction Valves open to allow blood to Valves close flow… to stop blood…TOWARDS flowing…heart …AWAY FROM heart 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 7. Capillaries are adapted for … …exchange of materials.Gaps between The capillaries are very narrow.cells in capillary (They are just large enough forwall… a red blood cell to squeeze…allow through)plasma toleak in and This means that blood in theout capillaries moves very… SLOWLY Oxygen, food molecules and hormones diffuse from the blood to theWall of capillary cellsis very thin… …only one cell thick Carbon dioxide and other wastes diffuse from the cells to the blood 03/14/12 23:09 cottinghamin Cells Body Tissues
  • 8. The Smallest Blood Vessels03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 9. Arteries Vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart. Blood High in oxygen (except Pulmonary Artery) 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 10. 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 11. Veins Vessels that carry blood TOWARD the heart from body tissues. One direction. Blood Low in Oxygen (Except Pulmonary Vein) .03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 12. Capillaries Smallest blood vessels. 1 layer of endothelial cells thick. HAVE ONE WAY VALVES. Red blood cells pass through in single file Gases diffuse in lungs.03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 13. 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 14. Major Veins and Arteries Inferior and Superior Vena Cava – return blood to the right atrium (BLUE) Pulmonary Artery – carries blood from heart to the lungs (BLUE) Pulmonary Vein – carries blood from lungs to the heart (RED) Aorta – carries blood from the heart to all body parts. (RED)03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 15. THE HEART03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 16. The Heart and Blood Flow in Mammals General:  Double-sided pump. Blood content:  Right: low in O2, high in CO2  Left: high in O2, low in CO2 Basic Structure:  Right and Left side separated by the SEPTUM.  Atrium – upper chambers.  Ventricles – lower chambers.  Chambers separated by valves  Flow from the heart separated by valves.03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 17. 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 18. The Mammalian Heart INNER BODY03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 19. The Human Heart03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 20. Valves and Nodes03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 21. Valves and NodesVALVES Atrioventricular – allows blood to flow between atria and ventricle Semilunar – allows blood to flow from ventriclesNODES – control impulse release Sino Atrial – (SAN) – release impulse Atrioventricular (AVN) – connected to Bundle of His connected to Purkinje Tissue Cardiac Angiography 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 22. • The “pacemaker” sets the tempo of the heartbeat.03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 23. CARDIAC CYCLE – Control of the Heartbeat!!! The Heart is MYOGENIC!!!03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 25. Cardiac Cycle03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 26. The Cardiac Cycle  The heart is composed of cardiac muscle and each beat is a sequence of muscle contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole).  An average blood pressure is 120/80 (mm Hg) of pressure on artery walls.  The atria contract first, followed immediately by the ventricles.03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 27. CONTROL OF HEARTBEAT1. Myogenic2. Pacemaker – region of the heart (wall of R.A.) responsible for initiating contraction.3. Nerves from the brain carry messages to pacemaker - speed up heartbeat4. Adrenaline – carried to heart in blood --- tells pacemaker to speed up heartbeat. 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 28. Pathway of Circulation You must be able to trace blood from anywhere in the body and back to that point.  Pulmonary Circulation – involves the LUNGS and ALL parts to the heart except the LEFT VENTRICLE and AORTA.  Systemic Circulation – begins in the LEFT VENTRICLE and ends before entering the RIGHT ATRIUM.  Exchange of gases on the cellular level in capillaries.  Coronary Circulation – supplies blood to the heart.  Hepatic Portal Circulation – from the digestive system to the liver. Excess glucose leaves blood in the liver.  Renal Circulation – carries03/14/12 23:09 cottingham blood to and from the kidney.
  • 29. BLOOD03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 30. Transported by the Blood Nutrients – CFP’s O2 and CO2 Hormones Antibodies Urea Heat03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 31. The Blood is made up of four components… Red Blood White Blood Cell A straw- Cells Cells fragments coloured called… liquid called… …platelets …plasma Carries dissolvedCarry oxygen Fight Help with substances: infections blood clotting Carbon dioxide Other wastes Food molecules Hormones03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 32. Red Blood Cells are adapted for carrying oxygen Shape: Biconcave disc Dimple on either side of cell increases… … surface area for absorption of oxygen Mature red bloodCell is packed with … cell has no… nucleus…haemoglobin This make s more room for… haemoglobin. In the Lungs Haemoglobin + Oxygen Oxyhaemoglobin In the03/14/12 23:09 BodyTissues cottingham
  • 33. PLASMA 50% - 60% of blood volume Composed of:  Water, Glucose, hormones, ions, gases dissolved in plasma Blood proteins:  albumin(most abundant, regulates diffusion of plasma),  globulin(transport and immunity),  Fibrinogen and prothrombin (clotting). 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 34. Erythrocytes 5 to 6 million/cmm 40% of blood volume Made in bone marrow03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 35. Leucocytes Larger than RBC Made in bone marrow. 6000 – 8000/ cmm 2% to 3% of blood Contain nuclei 2 GROUPS  Phagocyte  Lymphocytes (t- cells and B-cells)03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 36. Platelets 200,000 to 400,000 /cmm Smaller than RBC or WBC No nucleus Made of bits of cytoplasm Made in bone marrow03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 37. Blood Clotting03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 38.  end03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 39. Blood Typing03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 40. Blood Typing BLOOD TYPE CAN RECEIVE FROM CAN DONATE TO AB AB,A,B,O AB ONLY (UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT) A A or O A or AB B B or O B or AB O O ONLY O,A,B,AB (UNIVERSAL DONOR) How Does Rh factor affect blood types?????03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  • 41. Evolution of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems03/14/12 23:09 cottingham