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Genetics 1 and 2 2014

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Genetics 1 and 2 2014 Genetics 1 and 2 2014 Presentation Transcript

  • Theoretical Genetics What Genes Do You Have??
  • EYE COLOR
  • HAIR COLOR/TEXTURE
  • FEMALE OR MALE? http://www.angelbabygifts.com/
  • WIDOW‟S PEAK Dominant http://facstaff.uww.edu/wentzl/geneticsfeb02.html
  • TONGUE ROLLING Homozygous recessives- non rollers http://www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/tongroll.html
  • FRECKLES
  • DIMPLES/CLEFT CHIN Dominant Images from: http://www.uni.edu/walsh/cleft.jpg http://www.imdb.com/media/rm1270258944/nm0000237 https://kyberia.sk/id/3591050/3 http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Image:Kirk-douglas-big-trees02.jpg
  • Bend finger at top joint? http://toadandmo.blogspot.com/2007/08/mos-hidden-talent.html
  • HITCHHIKER‟S THUMB =homozygous recessive
  • LONG 2nd TOE Dominant
  • LIVE LONG AND PROSPER
  • WIGGLE JUST YOUR LITTLE TOE? SEE VIDEO
  • ATTACHED EAR LOBES homozygous recessive = attached
  • Touch your nose with your tongue?
  • COLOR BLINDNESS RED-green colorblindness most common 8% of males & 0.5% females
  • THUMB FOLDING Right over left -44% Left over right-55%
  • PTC TASTER NON-TASTERS- homozygous recessive
  • Genetics and Heredity Traits 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • What is an inheritance? Set of characteristics passed onto an organism by its parents  genetic inheritance 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • What molecule transmits genetic inheritance from parents to offspring? DNA 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • What do we call the genetic instructions coded for by DNA? Genes Each gene in an organism is a set of instructions to build a specific protein 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • What structures in the nucleus contain DNA (and genes)? Chromosomes Example: Human chromosomes 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Remember: We have two copies of each chromosome (homologues) One copy inherited from mother, one from father 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Homologous Chromosome Two homologous chromosomes That are:  Identical in Pattern of banding Size Position of centromere 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Some terms used in genetics: 1. Trait: specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another (ex: plant height) 2. Gene: sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a specific trait 3. Locus: the location for a specific gene on a specific chromosome 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Terms in genetics, continued 4. Allele: one of a number of different forms of a gene (ex: T= „tall‟ allele; t=„short‟ allele) 5. Pure-breeding: pedigreed, shows the traits of its parents; often identical 6. Hybrid: offspring of parents with different Genes for a particular trait. 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Terms in genetics, continued 7. Homozygous: an organism that has two identical alleles for a given trait (ex: TT or tt) 8. Heterozygous: an organism that has two different alleles for a given trait (ex: Tt) 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Terms in genetics, continued 9. Dominant and recessive: the effect of a dominant allele on a trait masks the effect of any recessive allele paired with it (ex: T = dominant; t = recessive) 10. Genotype: genetic makeup of an organism (ex: TT or Tt or tt) 11. Phenotype: physical characteristics of an organism (ex: short or tall) 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Terms in genetics: P1 – Parent Generation F1 – First Generation F2 - Second Generation Filial – Latin for relating to parental generation. Test Cross – mating or “crossing” of genes usually shown by a Punnett Square Also a specific type of IB cross! 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Probability and Genetics 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Probability Definition: the likelihood that a particular event will occur Example: coin flip  the probability of both outcomes is the same  Probability of heads = 50%  Probability of tails = 50% 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • The same is true for genetics Every time baby is born the probability is 50/50 for boy girl. the same is true for distribution of traits except we can predict with some accuracy the probability of a trait showing by completing Punnett Square of know Parent alleles! 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Punnett Square Convenient way to show the results of any genetic cross. (Male) Alleles (Female) Alleles 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Genetics and Heredity Inheritance of traits coded for by single genes: The Monohybrid Cross: Principle of Dominance and Principle of Segregation 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Gregor Mendel: The Man! 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • His Basic Principles  Inherited traits are controlled by genes that occur in pairs.  An organism inherits an allele for each trait from each parent (2 alleles for each trait total).  One allele masks the presence of the other. Called the Principle of Dominance. Dominant (R) vs. recessive (r).  Alleles separate during meiosis I. Called the Law of segregation . 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • The Classic Pea Plant: A Monohybrid Cross  Monohybrid Cross – a cross involving one contrasting trait. Trait: plant height (Short or Tall) PRACTICE 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Principle of Dominance  If 2 individuals are crossed that are pure for contrasting traits, only the dominant trait will show. The recessive trait will not appear. 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Principle of Segregation  When gametes are produced by hybrid individuals, the recessive trait becomes separated from the dominant trait and produce a recessive offspring. 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Autosomal Trait  A Trait not related or dependent on sex. Human Traits - Autosomal Traits 2/2/2014 cottingham
  • Sickle Cell Anemia  Autosomal disease caused by a recessive allele  Abnormality in gene for protein hemoglobin causes problems in red blood cells  Caused by mutation – base substitution – Chromosome 11 – GAG to GTG  Homozygous Recessive have disease  Disease: hh  Normal: HH  Carrier: Hh – may produce a few sickle 2/2/2014 cottingham cells
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  • TEST CROSS PPT 2/2/2014 cottingham