Excretion h onors master

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Excretion h onors master

  1. 1. The Excretory System03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  2. 2. Essential Questions/Learning Outcomes List four major functions of the urinary system. Trace the path of urine from its formation to its exit from the body. Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the male versus female urethra label the structure of a nephron. Distinguish between glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion. Discuss where the reabsorption of salt occurs and how it is hormonally controlled. Describe two ways that the kidneys regulate blood pH . Indicate how damage to the glomeruli/nephrons can lead to uremia and edema. Describe three common disorders of the bladder and urethra.03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  3. 3. Vocabulary  Cortex Osmoregulation  Medulla Nitrogen waste  Pelvis Urea  Nephron Urine  Bowman’s Capsule Ureter  Glomerulus Urethra  Loop of Henle Urinary bladder  Collecting Duct Kidney  Pore Renal vein and artery  Sebaceous Gland  Pacinian Corpuscle  Melanocyte03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  4. 4. Osmoregulation Regulation of Body Fluids and Salt Levels. How do different animals control the amount of water in their bodies? – Amoeba, and Paramecium use contractile vacuoles – Fish – Humans use their kidneys03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  5. 5. Excretion  What is excretion? – The removal of metabolic wastes from the organism  What are the main metabolic wastes in living organisms? – Carbon Dioxide – Water – Urea – a nitrogenous waste – from amino acids – Ammonia – nitrogen waste – Mineral Salts – Creatinine – from muscle metabolism!! – Uric Acid – from nucleic acid03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  6. 6. Nitrogenous Wastes 03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  7. 7. Excretory Organs What organs remove nitrogenous wastes? – Protists – diffusion – Planaria – Insect – Fish excrete through gills – Marine birds need to excrete excess salt03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
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  9. 9. Human Excretory System What are the main human excretory organs? – Lungs – Liver – Sweat Glands – Kidneys03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  10. 10. Lungs and Liver  Disposal of hemoglobin Remove carbon dioxide when old red blood cells are and water. destroyed…form bile pigments.  Compounds containing nitrogen break down to from urea…go to kidney.03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  11. 11. The Human Urinary System03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  12. 12. Urinary Tract03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  13. 13. The Kidney - overview Bean shaped organ 10cm long found against the muscles of the back below the diaphragm Functions: – Remove the waste of cellular metabolism from the blood to produce URINE – Control the concentration of some substances. HOW KIDNEYS WORK03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
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  15. 15. 1. Cortex Filtering of the Blood03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  16. 16. Filtering Unit in the Cortex: Nephron!!!!NEPHRON – each kidney about 1.25 million nephronParts to the Nephron: – Bowman’s Capsule – double walled cup structure – Glomerulus – cluster of blood capillaries – Proximal Convoluted Tubule – most reabsorption and secretion – Loop of Henle –(in medulla) tubule that winds and twists before emptying filtrate into a collecting duct. Water Reapsorption….. – Distal Convoluted Tubule – “filtrate fine-tuning.” Specialized reabsorption and secretion controlled by the hormone ALDOSTERONE! ( Adrenal Gland) – Collecting Duct – can receive filtrate from several nephrons. Final regulated water reabsorption. Controlled by the hormone ADH!! (Pituitary Gland)03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  17. 17. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. nephrons Fig. 16.3b renalcollecting cortexduct renal medulla03/26/12 19:29 b. Nephrons cottingham
  18. 18. Nephron03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
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  20. 20. 2. Medullacontain the Loop of Henle and collecting ducts; carry urine to the….03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  21. 21. 3. Pelvis Drains urine into the URETER…03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  22. 22. 03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  23. 23. Formation of Urine! – FiltrationThe Mammalian Kidney - HOW KIDNEY1. Filtration – occurs in the GLOMERULUS. – Blood is placed under pressure. – Pressure forces water, salts, urea, glucose and amino acids OUT of the blood and….. Into the BOWMAN’S CAPSULE. Blood cells and blood proteins are too large to pass through. Urine(filtrate) passes through tubule into the collecting duct.03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  24. 24. Formation of Urine - Reabsorption Reduces volume of filtrate Occurs in the tubules and collecting duct. Returns important substances to blood  99% of water(osmosis)  glucose(act. Transport)  amino acids(A.T.)  some salt ions(A.T.)  Potassium ions (A.T.) If there is too much of a particular substance, it reaches the Kidney Threshold Level – if the concentration reaches a certain level, the excess is not reabsorbed.03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  25. 25. Formation of Urine - Secretion Takes substances out of the blood and add them to the filtrate! Selective Process. Creatinine is secreted! Ions, drugs, toxins secreted! BY REABSORPTION AND SECRETION, THE FILTRATE IS CHANGED AS IT TRAVELS THRU THE NEPHRON.03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  26. 26. Hormones and Excretion Aldosterone  Regulates Na and K excretion  Presence of hormone stimulates secretion of K and reabsorption of Na.  Helps to maintain proper blood pressure. – High Salt Level Raises Blood pressure  Helps to control blood pH levels – secretion of H+ into tubules.  Released due to high K levels.03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
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  29. 29. Hormones and ExcretionADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Released by pituitary gland in response to signal from the hypothalamus(brain).  Responsible for final reabsorption of water  In collecting duct. – Lower levels of water: release of ADH into blood. – ADH causes the cell membranes in collecting duct to become permeable to water. – Process reverses when water level is restored.03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  30. 30. Urinary Tract03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  31. 31. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fig. 16.1 1. Kidneys producerenal artery urine.renal veinaorta 2. Ureters transportinferior vena cava urine. 3. Urinary bladder stores urine. 4. Urethra passes urine to outside. 03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  32. 32. Other Urinary System Organs Renal Artery – blood enters the kidney Renal Vein – Blood leaves the kidney Ureter – connects kidney to Bladder Urinary bladder – Stores urine Urethra – tube leading out of the body – Part of the penis in men03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  33. 33. Skin (Integumentary)SWEAT GLANDS: Small, coiled, tubular glands. Found in the dermis Contain ducts which lead to the epidermis: pores. Blood capillaries near gland. Water, Salt, nitrogenous waste diffuse from blood into the gland. TEMPERATURE REGULATION 03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  34. 34. Other Skin Parts Epidermis – outer water proof layer Dermis – contains all skin parts: – Blood vessels – Sebaceous glands – Pacinian Corpuscles – Melanocytes – Hair follicle Hypodermis – contains subcutaneous fat 03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  35. 35. Diseases of the Excretory SystemKidney Stones – Cause - metabolic disorder… calcium, proteins and uric acid the build up of these substances into a large deposit (stone)03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  36. 36. Cirrhosis Liver - excessive intake of alcohol over a extended period of time which causes an impairment of liver functions.03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  37. 37. Bladder Infectioninfection of the urinary tract burning sensation in the that can move down from the middle of the back towards the front of the groin, burning sensation while urinating03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  38. 38. Dialysis Artificial filtering of blood. the process of cleaning wastes from the blood artificially with special equipment.03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
  39. 39. Kidney Transplant Kidney Transplant Animation03/26/12 19:29 cottingham
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