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Cellular respiration master honors Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Cellular Respiration! 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 2. The Essential Questions
    • How is cellular respiration important to maintain one’s life?
    • 1) What is cellular respiration?
    • 2) Explain the relationship that occurs between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
    • 3) Give the equation for cellular respiration. What are the reactants and what are the products in this equation?
    • 4)What types of organisms undergo cellular respiration?
    • 5) In what organelle does cellular respiration take place?
    • 6) What types of molecules are broken down through cellular respiration?
    • 7) What are the products and byproducts of glycolysis?
    • 8) What are the products and byproducts of Krebs cycle? 
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 3. More Essentials
    • 9) What are the products and byproducts of ETC? 
    • 10) What are the products and byproducts of fermentation?
    • 11) What are some food products that are associated with lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation?
    • 12) What is the main purpose of fermentation? 
    • 13) Explain why a runner may experience a burning sensation while running for a long distance. 
    • 14) How much ATP is produced in the various steps of cellular respiration?
    • 15) Explain the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. What does this mean in terms of efficiency?
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 4. Key Vocabulary
    • General: (words to apply in many places)
    • Oxidize
    • Reduce
    • Anabolism
    • Catabolism
    • Phosphorylation
    • Chemiosmosis
    • Mitochondria – outer, inner, intermembrane, matrix
    • Cytoplasm - (cytosol)
    • Aerobic (Acr)
    • Anaerobic (AnCR)
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 5. Key Vocabulary
    • ADP
    • ATP
    • NAD +
    • FAD
    • Glucose
    • G3P
    • Pyruvic Acid
    • Acetyl acid
    • CoA
    • Acetyl-CoA
    • Citric Acid
    • Oxaloacetate
    • ATP synth ase
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • Water
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
    • lactic acid
    • ethanol
  • 6. Key Vocabulary – THE PROCESSES
    • Glycolysis
    • Oxidative Decarboxylation
        • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC)
    • Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
    • Electron Transport Chain
    • ________________________
    • Fermentation – (anaerobic)
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 7. Metabolism
    • 2 parts:
    • Catabolism – breaking down food into carbs, fats, and protein
    • Anabolism – to construct molecules from smaller units.
    • BREATHING + EATING = CELL RESPIRATION
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 8.
    • BREATHING +
    • EATING
    • =
    • CELL RESPIRATION
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.3(bottom)
  • 9. Metabolism 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 10. Making Energy 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 11. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Page 120
  • 12. ATP, ADP and Glucose
    • ATP
    • Usable cellular energy
    • High energy in the bond that holds the 3 rd phosphate to the molecule.
    • ADP
    • Has 2 phosphate groups.
    • Lower energy
    • Glucose
    • Has 90x the amount of “potential” energy than ATP has.
    • Cells can use glucose to “charge” ADP to ATP.
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 13. Oxidation and Reduction
    • Oxidize – TO LOSE ELECTRONS and LOSE Hydrogen
      • Any molecule containing carbon (1 st 3 parts)
    • Reduce – TO GAIN ELECTRONS and GAIN HYDROGEN.
      • Electron Carriers: NAD+ and FAD
    • OIL RIG
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 14.
  • 15. NAD+ and FAD
    • ARE COENZYMES
    • Every time a molecule GAINS electrons it is reduced :
      • NAD+ and FAD are electron carriers and hydrogen acceptors
    • All electrons carried by NAD+ or FAD will be taken to the Electron Transport Chain to undergo CHEMIOSMOSIS!
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 16. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.4
  • 17. PHOSPHORYLATION – whenever any molecule is a recipient of a phosphate (P i ) group! ADP to ATP 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 18. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.6
  • 19. Mitochondria 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Outer membrane – encloses mitochondria, contains protein channels. Inner membrane – folds into CRISTAE that encloses the MATRIX (the internal fluid of the mitochondria). KREBS CYCLE TAKES PLACE IN THE MATRIX! ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN IN THE INNER MEMBRANE! Intermembrane Space – used in the ETC to hold hydrogen ions.
  • 20. Cell Respiration –the equation (the absolute minimum you need to know)
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 --> 6H 2 O + 6 CO 2 + 36 ATP
    • OCCURS IN A SERIES OF SMALL REACTIONS USED TO MAXIMIZE THE PRODUCTION OF ENERGY.
    • OPERATES USING CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND ENZYMES:
        • Enzyme + substrate ----- product + enzyme
    • TWO PHASES:
    • ANAEROBIC(no oxygen required) – in CYTOPLASM
    • AEROBIC(requires oxygen) - in MITOCHONDRIA
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 21. Cell Respiration – an overview 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 22. Location of Specific Steps of Respiration 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 23. Location of Specific Steps
  • 24. GLYCOLYSIS – overview
    • Anaerobic phase – occurs in cytoplasm .
    • Common to nearly all living organisms
    • Breaks down glucose into two smaller molecules (two pyruvates)
      • Glucose is OXIDIZED by NAD+
      • Produces two ATP’s (net)
      • Creates high energy electrons.
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 25.
  • 26. Glycolysis 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Glycolysis animation
  • 27. Glycolysis
    • Occurs in CYTOPLASM:
    • 2 ATP needed to break GLUCOSE into:
        • Two - 3 – CARBON COMPOUNDS – G3P
    • ANOTHER REACTION FURTHER “ BREAKS DOWN ” the 3C compound (oxidized)
      • Removes high energy electrons
      • Removes 2 HYDROGEN
        • 2NAD+ to 2NADH (electron carrier): REDUCTION
        • PHOSPHORYLATES 4 ATP MOLECULES
    • Leaves: Two – 3 CARBON COMPOUNDS: PYRUVATE
    • Because of energy released to start Glycolysis: NET ATP made= 2 molecules
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 28. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.7.b
  • 29. Glycolysis: Inputs and Outputs 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 30. Oxidative Decarboxylation & The Krebs Cycle
    • Most Important Reminder
    • Since the diagrams represent 1 pyruvate: ALL NUMBERS MUST BE DOUBLED!!!!
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 31. Oxidative Decarboxylation 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
    • Also called:
    • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex
    • Link Reaction
    • Preparatory Reaction
  • 32. Oxidative Decarboxylation
    • A transition step --- in the matrix!
    • FOR EACH PYRUVATE:
      • Each pyruvate loses one carbon (it goes off as CO 2 )– A WASTE PRODUCT!
      • Pyruvate is converted to a 2-carbon molecule(2C) = Acetate. (oxidized)
      • 2C is picked up by CoA to form Acetyl CoA – can enter the Krebs Cycle
        • NAD+ is reduced to NADH
        • NO ATP made
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 33. The Krebs Cycle
    • ANIMATIONS
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 34.
  • 35. The Krebs Cycle 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham the Krebs cycle
  • 36. The Krebs Cycle
    • FOR EACH PYRUVATE:
    • Oxaloacetate(4C) joins Acetyl(2C) to form Citric acid(6C).
        • Co enzyme A leaves reaction
    • Citric acid is broken down from 6C to 5C to 4C
    • Along the way:
          • 2 more CO 2 are released
          • 3 more NAD+ are reduced to NADH
          • 1 FAD is reduced to FADH 2
          • 1 ADP is phosphorylated to ATP
    • Oxaloacetate is recycled.
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 37. Citric Acid Cycle 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 38. Krebs Cycle Totals For 2 Pyruvates! 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 39. Oxidative Decarboxylation & The Krebs Cycle
    • Most Important Reminder
    • Since the diagrams represent 1 pyruvate: ALL NUMBERS MUST BE DOUBLED!!!!
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 40. Electron Transport Chain
    • Animations
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 41.
  • 42. The Electron Transport Chain 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Electron Transport System and ATP Synthesis
  • 43. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.9
  • 44. ETC
    • Inner Membrane of Mitochondria:
    • Electrons from NADH and FADH 2 are passed into the ETC. (Oxidation)
    • 2. Electrons are passed from one carrier protein to the next losing energy .
    • 3. This “lost” energy pumps H+ ions across the membrane (by active transport) creating a + charge in the intermembrane and – charge in the matrix.
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 45.
  • 46. ETC
    • 4. “Leftover” electrons combine with H+ ions.
        • Hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water!
    • THEN:
    • 5. H+ in the intermembrane space diffuse back into matrix thru ATP synthase .
    • 6. This process releases energy causing ADP to phosphorylate into ATP……
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 47. Chemiosmosis
    • Hydrogen ions (H+) pass through the membrane…down the gradient…
    • Energy is released…
    • ADP is phosphorylated to ATP.
    • Chemiosmotic Oxidative Phosphorylation
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 48. Counting the ATP
    • For every NADH that is produced, 3 ATP’s can be generated through chemiosmosis.
    • For every FADH 2 that is produced 2 ATP’s can be generated through chemiosmosis.
    • Let’s Do the math…
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 49. Process NADH FADH2 ATP from Electron Transport Chain Direct ATP from process glycolysis Oxidative Decarboxylation Krebs Cycle
  • 50. Energy Yield per Glucose Molecule 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 51. Inside the Mitochondria 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 52. Protein and Fat Respiration 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 53. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.1
  • 54.
    • PROTEIN –
    • Amino acid – without nitrogen can enter
        • Glycolysis – as pyruvate
        • Ox. Decarb. – as acetyl
        • Krebs cycle – as acetyl
    • FAT
      • Glycerol – can enter as G3P (Triose)
      • Fatty Acid – can enter as Acetyl
        • Very Hard to break bonds to smaller molecules
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 55. RESPIRATION WITHOUT OXYGEN 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 56. Without Oxygen:
    • Without oxygen, no more NAD + ’s are generated.
    • Without NAD + ’s the Krebs cycle shuts down.
    • Pyruvate cannot convert to Acetyl CoA
    • Does glycolysis continue?
    • Yes, but how? …
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 57. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 58. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 59. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 60. Fermentation
    • Anaerobic Respiration
    • Glycolysis occurs BUT…
    • Pyruvate is REDUCED to either lactic acid or ethanol
    • 2CO2 and 2NAD(oxidized) are released in Alcohol Fermentation. Ethanol(2C)
    • 2 NAD reduced: Lactic Acid(3C) Fermentation
    • 2 ATP generated
    01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  • 61. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Page 126
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  • 67. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham