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Cellular respiration coreonlymaster ib
 

Cellular respiration coreonlymaster ib

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    Cellular respiration coreonlymaster ib Cellular respiration coreonlymaster ib Presentation Transcript

    • Cellular Respiration! 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Whew! This stuff’s hard!!
    • Thought I forgot the cat picture?? 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Cellular Respiration
      • The controlled release of energy in the form of ATP from organic compounds in cells.
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • THE PROCESSES
      • Glycolysis
      • Oxidative Decarboxylation (PDC)
      • Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
      • Electron Transport Chain
      • _______________________
      • Fermentation – (anaerobic)
          • Glycolysis
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Making Energy 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • ATP, ADP and Glucose
      • ATP
      • Usable cellular energy
      • High energy in the bond that holds the 3 rd phosphate (P) to the molecule.
      • anabolic (synthesis)
      • ADP
      • Has 2 phosphate (P i ) groups.
      • Lower energy
      • catabolism.
      • Glucose
      • Has 90x the amount of “potential” energy than ATP has.
      • Cells can use glucose to “charge” ADP to ATP.
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • PHOSPHORYLATION – whenever any molecule is a recipient of a phosphate (P) group! ADP to ATP 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • NAD+ and FAD
      • ARE COENZYMES
      • Every time a molecule GAINS electrons it is reduced:
        • NAD+ and FAD are electron carriers and hydrogen acceptors
      • All electrons carried by NAD+ or FAD will be taken to the Electron Transport Chain to undergo CHEMIOSMOSIS!
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Mitochondria
    • Mitochondria 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Outer membrane – encloses mitochondria, contains protein channels. Inner Membrane – contains ETC and ATP synthase that carry out phosphorylation. Cristae – tube like projections in the inner membrane. Increases surface area for phosphorylation. Matrix – contains enzymes to run the Krebs cycle Intermembrane Space – used in the ETC to hold hydrogen ions. Draw on whiteboard!
    • Cell Respiration –the equation (the absolute minimum you need to know)
      • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 --> 6H 2 O + 6 CO 2 + 36 ATP
      • OCCURS IN A SERIES OF SMALL REACTIONS USED TO MAXIMIZE THE PRODUCTION OF ENERGY.
      • OPERATES USING CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND ENZYMES:
          • Enzyme + substrate ----- product + enzyme
      • TWO PHASES:
      • ANAEROBIC(no oxygen required) – in CYTOPLASM
      • AEROBIC(requires oxygen) - in MITOCHONDRIA
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Cell Respiration – an overview 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Respiration – An Overview 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • GLYCOLYSIS – overview
      • Anaerobic phase – occurs in cytoplasm .
      • Common to nearly all living organisms
      • Breaks down glucose into two smaller molecules (two pyruvates)
      • Produces two ATP’s (net)
      • Creates high energy electrons.
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Draw on Whiteboard! 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Glycolysis
      • IN CYTOPLASM:
      • 2 ATP needed to break GLUCOSE into:
          • Two – Triose Sugar Compounds (LYSIS)
        • 2 pyruvate are formed by:
          • Removal of hydrogen from each TRIOSE
          • Removal of high energy electrons
          • NAD+ carries electrons and Hydrogen (NADH)
      • PHOSPHORYLATION of 4 ADP (to ATP) MOLECULES
      • Leaving:
      • Two – 3 CARBON COMPOUNDS: Pyruvate
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Energy from Glycolysis 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Energy Generated
      • 2 ATP USED
      • 4 ATP MADE
      • 2 ATP NET - MADE AFTER GLYCOLYSIS
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Draw on Whiteboard! 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Oxidative Decarboxylation (link reaction)
      • FOR EACH PYRUVATE:
      • A transition step --- in the matrix!
        • Decarboxylation – a CO 2 is removed by the enzyme decarboxylase .
        • – a hydrogen is removed by the enzyme dehydrogenase .
      • Result
        • 2 carbon molecule - acetyl group
        • Acetyl group combines with Coenzyme A forming Acetyl CoA
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Draw on Whiteboard! 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • The Krebs Cycle 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • The Krebs Cycle
      • FOR EACH PYRUVATE:
      • 4 Carbon sugar joins Acetyl(2C) to form a 6 carbon sugar.
      • 6C is broken down to 5C then to 4C (see flow chart)
      • Along the way:
            • 2 more CO 2 are released (decarboxylation)
            • 3 NAD+ gain electrons and hydrogen to become NADH (coenzyme - electron carrier)
            • 1 FAD gain electrons and hydrogen to become FADH 2 (electron carrier)
            • 1 ADP is phosphorylated to ATP
      • 4 carbon oxaloacetate is recycled.
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Oxidative Decarboxylation & The Krebs Cycle
      • Most Important Reminder
      • Since the diagrams represent 1 pyruvate: ALL NUMBERS MUST BE DOUBLED!!!!
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • The Electron Transport Chain 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane Electron Transport Chain NAD + FAD NADH FADH 2
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Membrane NADH NAD + FAD FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain ~ e ADP + P ATP
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • ETC
      • Electrons from NADH and FADH 2 are passed into the ETC.
      • Hydrogen and Electrons are passed from one carrier protein to the next losing energy.
      • The “lost” energy pumps H+ ions across the membrane (by active transport) creating a + charge in the intermembrane and – charge in the matrix.
      • Electrons, Hydrogen ions, and O 2 form WATER.
      • H+ move back into matrix thru ATP synthase .
      • This process releases energy causing ADP to phosphorylate into ATP.
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Chemiosmotic Oxidative Phosphorylation
      • The production of ATP relies on the energy released by oxidation.
      • Electron Transport Chain – series of electron carriers.
          • Inner mitochondrial membrane
      • Occurs by chemiosmosis.
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Chemiosmosis
      • THE MOVEMENT OF ION ACROSS A SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE.
      • UP AN ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT.
      • GENERATES ATP
    • Counting the ATP
      • For every NADH that is produced, 3 ATP can be generated through chemiosmosis.
      • For every FADH 2 that is produced 2 ATP can be generated through chemiosmosis.
      • Let’s Do the math…
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • The Grand Total
      • TWO ATP are also used to “shuttle” the NADH from the cytoplasm to the Mitochondria after GLYCOLYSIS.
      • 38–2=36 ATP:Net from ACR
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Respiration Without Oxygen: Anaerobic Cellular Respiration 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • WHITEBOARD!!! 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • 11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Fermentation
      • Anaerobic Respiration
      • Glycolysis occurs BUT…
      • Pyruvate is converted to either lactic acid or ethanol
        • 2CO 2 are “released,” 2 NADH are “recycled” in Alcohol Fermentation: Ethanol(2C)
        • 2 NADH are “recycled” : Lactic Acid(3C) Fermentation
      • NAD+ reused
      • 2 ATP generated – enuf for simple organisms
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
    • Industrial Advantages
      • Alcohol:
        • Beverages – grapes incubated at the correct temperature with bacteria or yeast
          • CO2 is kept – “sparkling” wine.
      • Lactic Acid:
        • Yogurt production – lactobacillus and lactococcus bacteria
          • Makes milk sour and clot
        • ***Humans – under high energy demand. Muscle cells will ferment producing lactic acid – PAIN.
      11/27/11 14:40 cottingham
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