2. Asexual Reproduction► Produces IDENTICAL OFFSPRING► Who: unicellular organisms, simple animals, many plants( at some point)► Asexual reproduction: ►Binary Fission ► Budding ► Spore Formation ► Regeneration ►Vegetative Propagation
3. Binary Fission
4. Binary Fission► Simplest form► Parent divides into two equal portions.► New cells: DAUGHTER CELLS► Smaller first…grow to normal size► WHO: Bacteria(prokaryotic Mitosis) Protozoa: Ameba and Paramecium
5. Budding► Parentorganism divide into 2 UNEQUAL parts► New Individuals develop as outgrowths or “buds”► May separate or remain attached.► Who: Yeast and Hydra, Sponges(Porifera) and some Worms.
6. Spore Formation
7. Spore► Spores: single specialized cells that when released from PARENT CELLS can GERMINATE to form new individuals► Some spores have hard outer covering► Some spores have Flagella► WHO: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa
8. Spore Formation
10. Regeneration►Regrowthof lost body parts►WHO: simple animals: ►Hydra, planarian, starfish, and earthworm.
11. Animals and Parts RegeneratedCrayfish: claws, gangliaCrabs: clawsNewts: tails, limbs, jaws, organs, eyePlanaria: whole animal regeneratesLizards: tail, liverRabbits and Guinea pigs: skull bonesDogs: teethFish: brainFrogs: brain and cerebellum
12. Vegetative Propagation► VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION► One part of plant gives rise to new one► Roots, Stems, or Leaves► Includes: Natural Bulb Tuber Runner Rhizome Corm Artificial Cutting Layering Grafting
14. Tuber►A modified underground stem produced at the tip of a rhizome.► The "eyes" of the potato are actually buds.
15. Runner► stem that grows sideways along the surface► Strawberry, grass
16. Rhizome► stem that grows sideways underground► fern, iris, water lilies
17. Corm► Short, thickened underground stem, usually covered with papery (dry) leaves.► Corms serve as organs of food storage and in some plants ( crocus and gladiolus) of asexual reproduction.► they are often mistaken for bulbs.
18. ARTIFICIAL VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION► Techniques to allow plants to be grown with desirable traits.
19. Plant Cutting► stem, leaf or root: cut and dipped in hormones to encourage growth.► Stem – roses► Leaves – coleus► Root – sweet potato
20. Plant Layering► stem bent to be covered by soil...covered part forms roots► raspberries, roses.
21. Plant Grafting► stem or bud from one plant (stock) joined to another part (scion) at the growing regions