Educate One Educate All
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Educate One Educate All

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A social change campaign aimed at achieving universal primary education in Afghanistan.

A social change campaign aimed at achieving universal primary education in Afghanistan.

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Educate One Educate All Educate One Educate All Document Transcript

  • EDUCATE ONE EDUCATE ALL                                   PREPARED BY:a social campaign     Jessica Stanton Georgina Neill Ryanfor Afghanistan   Anaëlle Bejar   Julia Corderoy            
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY By Julia Corderoy AIMS & OBJECTIVES By Jessica Stanton & Georgina Neill Ryan TARGET AUDIENCE By Anaëlle Bejar SITUATION ANALYSIS By Julia Corderoy THEORY By Julia Corderoy DESIGN IDENTITY & KEY MESSAGES By Georgina Neill Ryan CHANNELS By Jessica Stanton, Georgina Neill Ryan, Anaëlle Bejar & Julia Corderoy EVALUATION By Jessica Stanton REFERENCESEducate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 2    
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:“Education is the most powerful weapon which you canuse to change the world.” - Nelson MandelaReceiving an education is a human right, yet around the world right now, 69million children are not in school, and 774 million adults are illiterate. Whatdoes that mean? It means that 1 in 5 people cannot read this (GCE, 2012).The United Nations Millennium Development Goal #2 is to “ensure that, by2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a fullcourse of primary schooling” (UN, n.d.).Our campaign will be focussing on achieving universal primary education inAfghanistan.According to the United Nations Development Programme Afghanistan(UNDP, 2011), 1 in 5 Afghans is a child of school age. This is the highestproportion in the world. However, despite the success of a large back-to-school campaign run by UNICEF in 2002-2005, only 45% of children inAfghanistan finish primary school – for boys it is 56%, but for girls it is only30% (UNDP, 2011).Of the children that do get the chance to receive basic primary education,they are probably receiving it from teachers who are not properly qualified.Only 36.5% of primary school teachers in Afghanistan have received theproper training and education (UNESCO, 2008).This is enough. It is time for change. Our campaign, “Educate One Educate All” strives to give boys and girls alike the education they deserve.Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 3     View slide
  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:Research was conductedinto Afghanistan’s currenteducation challenges toguide the objectives of thecampaign. From theresearch, we found that thepercentage of total primaryteachers qualified in primaryschool teaching was 36.5%(UNESCO, 2008).Afghanistan in 2005 had ahigh student teacher ratiofor primary schools of 83.4 students per teacher (UNESCO, 2008). Ourfindings pointed to the necessity to improve the quality of teaching in primaryschool education in Afghanistan.The aim of our campaign is to encourage and to provide higher qualityteaching for teachers in primary education.To make our aims realistic we have implemented two specific and achievableobjectives: 1. Encourage teachers to become qualified and receive a higher education for teaching. By 2017, we aim to have all primary school teachers enrolled in a training course. 2. Encourage more female high school students to become teachers. By 2017, we aim to have 50% of primary school teachers female. This is an increase in female schoolteachers of 15%.The second objective is specific to female teachers as our research foundthat only 34.5% of primary school teachers were female (UNESCO, 2008).These objectives are clear and outline what we are hoping to achieve. Theseobjectives are measurable as they have a quantifiable element to them. Todetermine the success of our objectives we will conduct quantitativeresearch to assess how many people have had exposure to our campaign andhow many have acted in response to it. The objectives are achievable andrealistic as we have access to training courses to achieve the campaignobjectives and our objectives are clearly mapped out within an achievabletime frame of 4 years, making our objectives long term.Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 4     View slide
  • TARGET AUDIENCE:To be effective, a campaign must target a specific audience. The targetshould be big enough to warrant attention, viable, accessible and responsive.It must be able to make an impact on the problem (UNAIDS, n.d.).In our campaign, we want to reach two targets:Teachers in primaryschools:Only 36.5% of primaryschool teachers inAfghanistan are qualified(UNESCO, 2008). We wantto encourage them to attainproper education, and reachour objective of having allprimary school teachersqualified or enrolled in atraining course by 2017.Young girls in high school between the ages of 12 and 19:Our second objective is to increase the amount of female teachers in primaryschools. It has been shown that more female teachers result in more girlsattending school. By targeting teenage girls, we want to make them envisage the possibility of a teaching career and increase the number of girls studying primary school teaching after high school. Furthermore, by encouraging young girls to become a teacher, it will help to decrease the teacher/pupil ratio and so improve the quality of the education. These two target audiencesare the most receptive. Additionally, teachers will be able to influence theircolleagues and young girls their friends.Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 5    
  • SITUATION ANALYSIS:A situation analysis examines both the internal and external environmentsthat influence or affect an organisation. It helps to identify the context – thepolitical, economic and social factors that are creating or maintaining thesituation, in order to determine one’s capabilities.Our SWOT analysis will identify both the internal factors (strengths andweaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats) of ourcampaign, the environment in which it is operating, as well as our targetaudiences.Strengths: • Knowledge of school system: Both target audiences have extensive knowledge of the Afghan school system. Current primary school teachers have the experience and knowledge of the teaching side of the system, while young girls have the recent experience and knowledge of being a student within the system. By targeting both these audiences, we are able to draw a more accurate depiction of both the achievements and gaps within the Afghan education system, in order for a more effective campaign. • Empowerment: By targeting young girls and encouraging them to enter the workforce as teachers, it gives them a sense of empowerment – that they are actively contributing to the deconstruction of gender inequities and the reconstruction of their society. When educated, women are more likely to have healthy babies, to send their own children to school and the health of their entire family improves. • Qualified teachers: Our campaign aims to urge current primary school teachers to attend further training and education courses – according to statistics by UNESCO (2008) only 36.5% of primary school teachers are properly educated. Properly trained teachers’ results in a stronger education system for both teachers and students. • Education for girls: Our campaign encourages more females to become qualified primary school teachers – according to statistics by UNESCO (2008) only 34.5% of primary school teachers are female. According to a report published by the Afghan Ministry of Education, only 37% of girls are enrolled in school (Ayobi, 2010). By increasing the number of female teachers, it will in turn increase the number of girls enrolling in primary school education (Ferguson, 1990).Weaknesses: • Resistance to change: Some primary school teachers may be reluctant to adopt the behavioural change that the campaign is encouraging. People become comfortable and set in their ways and may be anxious or nervous about change, and the unknown. • Capriciousness/unpredictability: Young girls can be erratic and impulsive in nature – they can change their mind all the time and have aEducate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 6    
  • tendency to think in the here and now, rather than thinking about the future. If the campaign does capture their attention, they may not follow through or adopt a lasting behavioural change. • Doesn’t target males: To help break the cycle of poor education amongst women, the attitudes of males need to change too. Many girls or women are not being educated or entering the workforce because of the cultural views of their fathers, husbands, etc who might prohibit them from doing so. Our campaign aims at changing the behaviours of young women, to encourage them to enter the workforce as teachers to increase primary school attendance for girls. There needs to be another campaign running simultaneously targeting and changing male attitudes too.Opportunities: • Feelings of being letdown: Young girls may have a feeling of being letdown by the education system themselves, which may inspire and motivate them to get involved and help change the system for future generations. • Fall of the Taliban: During the Taliban era, many female teachers were barred from working in schools and many girls were prohibited from school. However, since the fall of the Taliban in 2001 education is now compulsory up to the age of 9, education is also free up until the undergraduate level of university and at least 3,500 new schools have been built (School Is Open, n.d.). • More students/heightened sense of responsibility: With the increase in school facilities and new legislation regarding education, this means more students will be enrolling in primary school. As a result, this may motivate current primary school teachers to want to get properly educated because they will feel a heightened sense of responsibility. • Education facilities for teachers: Teacher training centres have increased from 4 to 42 – at least one per province with male and female boarding facilities (Ayobi, 2010). This creates easier access for primary school teachers to become properly educated.Threats: • Feelings of being letdown: Young girls may have a feeling of being letdown by the education system themselves, so they might have lost trust and be bitter towards the education system. As a result, this may discourage them from wanting to actively involve themselves in any sorts of behaviour change towards education. • Cultural resistance: Although the Taliban edict has fallen, their influence still exists. According to a study compiled by CARE International, between January 2006 and December 2008, 1,145 attacks on the Afghan education system were carried out. The study also reports, out of these attacks, girls’ schools account for 40%, mixed schools account for 32% and boys’ schools only account for 28% (Glad, 2009). This is due to a cultural resistance embedded in Afghan societyEducate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 7    
  • that girls shouldn’t attend or work in schools. This cultural resistance is largely a result of lingering Taliban influence. • Government weakness: The decreasing hold and weakness of the central government in Afghanistan in regulating and enforcing the rule of law opens up space for criminal groups to take advantage of assets and infrastructure. According to a study “school damage has become the mark of internal community or tribal disputes” and consequently, criminal groups (Glad, 2009).Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 8    
  • CAMPAIGN THEORY:Our campaign is going to implement a multi-pronged approach to thecampaign methodology, in order to develop a more profound and effectivemessage.Participatory campaign approach:A participatory campaign approach aims to involve the people affected by thecampaign in developing the campaign itself. Our campaign will involveaudience research participation by conducting workshops in primary schools(Snyder, 2002, p. 462). These workshops will be a place where students andteachers can brainstorm and discuss ideas such as: • What makes a good teacher? • What qualities would you like to see in your teacher? • What qualities do you admire about your teacher?Students will be able to nominate their favourite teacher, and discuss whythey are their favourite teacher. We will use the findings of these workshopsto establish their current teaching situation, as well as their desired teachingsituation and incorporate these findings into educational courses for primaryschool teaching.Social Marketing:A social marketing approach utilises marketing technologies to conduct acampaign for the common good, as opposed for commercial gain. They aimto influence the voluntary behaviour of the target audience in order toimprove their own personal quality of life as well as that of their society.Our campaign will employ a social marketing approach through thedissemination of our message “Educate one, educate all” throughcommercial channels such as the radio, newspapers and public billboards –this will include advertisements, posters and interviews.Drawing upon a social marketing approach, we will also be relying on theexchange theory - which is the mutually beneficial exchange of tangible orintangible items between two parties (Hastings, 2007, p. 29). By encouragingexisting primary school teachers to gain proper qualifications, we hope tohighlight that while they are able to provide better quality education for theyounger generation they are also gaining a sense of empowermentthemselves – that they are contributing to the reconstruction of their society,and making a difference.Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 9    
  • DESIGN IDENTTITY AND KEYMESSAGES:For our campaign, we want the style of our identity to have a broad basedappeal and the tone to be enthusiastic and inclusive and draw on the targetaudience to improve the current education challenges within Afghanistan.The style of our key messages is positive and aspirational. The tone of ourkey messages is encouraging for the target audience and desired toencourage the individual to improve their lives and help rebuild the nationthrough improved education. They will also encourage the younger femalegeneration to attend school. The communication channels that will be used inthis campaign are: • Radio • Newspapers • Schools • BillboardsThese communication channels will create exposure to the target audienceand feature the key messages of the campaign. The key messages of thecampaign are: • Educate One, educate all • Provides a long term job/creates quality jobs • Becoming a qualified teacher allows primary school teachers and young females to contribute to their community and to the overall recovery and reconstruction of their country. • More female teachers in primary schools will increase the enrolment and attendance of girls in school.The branding of ourcampaign is focused onbeing both culturally andgender appropriate andchange oriented. This isevident in the logo as theperson is not genderspecific and appearsyouthful which will helpengage our targetaudiences. The logo usesthe national colours ofAfghanistan as this willenhance the brand andmake it more desirable within the target audience. The person reaching forthe star is symbolic of aspiration and by being aspirational reflects thebehavioural change objective of the campaign. The logo design will be usedin pilot market testing to make sure it is culturally and gender sensitive toensure the target audience will recognise that the logo stands for behaviouralchange and the key messages are clearly understood. The use of billboardsEducate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 10    
  • and posters will be used to create awareness of the key messages andengage the target audience. The use of posters and billboards will be used ina pilot market testing to see whether the target audience responds in apositive manner to the messages being delivered. The billboards and posterswill also have the logo design and slogan “Educate One Educate All” of thecampaign to create exposure and recognition of the campaign’s brand. Theposters will also use the national colours of red, green, black and white tocontinue having cultural awareness.The campaign identity will also work with other brands and entities, includingschools, Teacher Training Colleges (Kirk, 2008) and Non-GovernmentOrganisations including United Nations Educational, Scientific and CulturalOrganisation (UNESCO) and Afghanistan’s Ministry of Education. Workingalongside other brands and organisations will help to give the brand of thecampaign its credibility.Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 11    
  • COMMUNICATION CHANNELS:Communication channels are vital in our campaign as they transmit ourmessage to our intended target audience. We chose a variety of differentchannels, not only to reach our target audience but also to confidentlyprovide reliable information. If a media outlet generates reliable and usefulinformation then people will be more willing to gather information from thatchannel (Ferguson, 1990, p. 178). Our chosen communication channels willnot only raise awareness of our campaign and its key messages, but alsoprovide our target audience with information to help them adopt the newbehaviour – such as available teaching courses, applications for teachingcourses, facts and figures, as well as contacts for further information.RADIO:Radio is used as one of the communication channels as it is the most popularform of media in Afghanistan. ARMAN FM is a privately owned radio station in Afghanistan owned by the largest media company MOBY Group. ARMAN FM was launched in 2003 after the Taliban. This radio station is a direct juxtaposition to the censorship of the Taliban years. ARMAN FM’s entertainment resonated with its audience’s enthusiasm for change. This radio station is hosted equally by men and women and offers programs in the two major languages Dari and Pashto. ARMAN FM’s entertainment is a collection of global youth trends, and also the use of interviews and news and current affairs are part of the entertainment. This station is suitable, as it will reach a large proportion of both our target groupsespecially our second group: young girls between the ages of 15-19. Theradio station has a large audience that is enthusiastic about change this ishighly useful in building awareness and highlighting the importance ofteachers getting qualifications and encouraging young girls to becometeachers. Guest speakers including current teachers who are enrolled incourses and current students will be interviewed on ARMAN FM so they canfurther explain the importance of education and communicate key messagesof our campaign. By communicating our message Educate One Educate All,through interviews on ARMAN FM we hope to build awareness and createbehavioural change among our target groups: teachers in primary schoolsand young girls between the ages of 15-19.NEWSPAPERS:The Afghanistan Group of Newspapers is an independent media groupoperating in Afghanistan. Their two papers The Daily Outlook and The DailyAfghanistan are read nationwide, distributing papers in 32 provinces of thecountry out of 34.Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 12    
  • Since 2001, after the fall of the Taliban Government, there has been asignificant leap in newspaper circulation and readership. Newspapers tendto reflect more openly on domestic developments than broadcasters. Wehope to build awareness of the campaign by publishing “Educate OneEducate All” advertisements as well as highlight our key messages throughpublishing interviews with The Afghanistan Ministry of Education, teachersand students to explain the importance of quality and equal primaryeducation. It will also provide information about available teaching courses. The Daily Outlook (The Daily Outlook, n.d.) was the first independent English language newspaper of Afghanistan. It is geared towards and received by the new generation of Afghans, who have a more global perspective and are comfortable interacting in English.They feel empowered by their use of English. This channel will target theyounger generation, and our second target market: young girls between theages of 12-19.The Daily Afghanistan (The Daily Outlook, n.d.) publishes in Pashto and Dari (the two main national languages of Afghanistan). It is the largest daily newspaper that publishes in Dari and Pashto in Afghanistan. This channel will target the older generation, and our first target market: teachers in primary schools. Through communicating our campaignand our message through The Daily Outlook and The Daily Afghanistan wehope to build awareness and trust of the readers in both English and thenational languages.BILLBOARDS:Billboards will be used as promotional material. It will be used to promote thecampaign and encourage primary school teachers to become qualified. Thebillboards will show the campaigns logo and the slogan “Educate One,Educate All”. It will also show a female Afghanistan teacher holding the handof a primary school student which emphasises the campaign’s slogan,‘Educate One’ (educating a teacher) will ‘Educate All’ (educate the students).These billboards can be put in places such as bus stops and also act as aposter which will be placed around schools and community centres to raisemore awareness of the campaign. This channel will not only reach our targetaudience but also reach the wider community, further raising awareness ofour campaign. In addition to this, badges will also be used as promotionalmaterial. Badges will show the logo and slogan of the campaign and will beworn by qualified primary school teachers. This allows people to participatein the promotion of the campaign by acting as messengers and also causesthem to feel a sense of empowerment as they have achieved something thatwill benefit their community and nation.Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 13    
  • SCHOOLS:Schools are a way for our campaign to directly reach our target audience andallow them to gain more information about our campaign. We will do this in culturally acceptable ways and gain permission from principles of schools to allow us to work with students and teachers in primary schools. We will work with primary school students and teachers and form workshops, which will allow them to brainstorm ideas about what makes a good teacher. Guest speakers such as qualified teachers in Afghanistan cantalk to primary school teachers about the benefits of gaining qualificationsand communicate key messages of our campaign. These guest speakers canalso talk to girls in high schools to inspire and encourage them to chooseteaching as a career. Therefore schools can be used to encourage teachersto gain proper qualifications for teaching and encourage girls to chooseteaching as a career.Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 14    
  • EVALUATION:Monitoring and evaluation are vital for a communication campaign as theyallow you to see the successes or failures of the campaign, whether it hasreached the intended target audience and effectively communicated keymessages and if there is a behaviour change (UNAIDS, n.d., pp. 8-9). The endpoint for our “Educate One Educate All” campaign is 2017 and this providesour campaign with a specific time period to reach our goals (UNAIDS, n.d., p.9). At the end of this period, we will conduct a report outlining theeffectiveness and success of our campaign. This evaluation will also assesswhether we have completed our objectives and compare our results with ourobjectives. This report will also list new statistics such as the percentage of: • Primary school teachers that have gained the proper qualifications • Primary school teachers enrolled in a teaching course • Female students enrolled and attending schools • Female primary teachers • Female girls enrolled in a teaching courseThese statistics will portray whether we have achieved our objectives.Throughout the period of our campaign we will also monitor and evaluate theprogress at the end of each school year. Quantitative research will be done toassess how many people have had exposure to our campaign and the numberof people who have decided to adopt the new behaviour (UNAIDS, n.d., p. 8).This will be done through forms that ask questions such as: • Have you seen this campaign? • What was the campaign trying to communicate? • Did seeing this campaign influence you to gain the proper qualifications for teaching/ choose teaching as a career?                                      Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 15    
  • REERENCE LIST:Ayobi, S. (2010, January 14). Where We Are Now. Retrieved May 4, 2012,from Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Education:http://english.moe.gov.af/index.php/about-moe  Ferguson, S. D. (1990). Communication Planning: An Integrated Approach.Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.GCE. (2012). Millions Miss Out. Retrieved May 5, 2012, from Global Campaignfor Education: http://www.campaignforeducation.org/en/why-education-for-all/millionsmissout/  Glad, M. (2009). Knowledge on Fire: Attacks on Education in Afghanistan.Retrieved May 4, 2012, from CARE International: http://www.care-international.org/Media-Releases/new-report-studies-attacks-on-afghan-schools.html  Hastings, G. (2007). Social Marketing: Why should the Devil have all the besttunes? Oxford: Elsevier.Kirk, J. (2008, June 16). Teacher Management Issues in Fragile States:Illustrative examples from Afghanistan and Southern Sudan. Retrieved April26, 2012, from UNESCO:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0017/001780/178016e.pdf  School Is Open. (n.d.). Afghanistan Education History. Retrieved May 4, 2012,from School Is Open:http://www.schoolisopen.org/sio/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=53&Itemid=62  Snyder, L. B. (2002). Development Communication Campaigns. In W.B., & B.Moby (Eds.), Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication (pp.457-478). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.The Daily Outlook. (n.d.). About Us. Retrieved April 29, 2012, from The DailyOutlook: The Leading Indepedent Newspaper:http://outlookafghanistan.net/about  UN. (n.d.). United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Retrieved April 14,2012, from United Nations:http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/education.shtml  UNAIDS. (n.d.). Wac Campaign Guide. Retrieved February 2, 2010, fromUNAIDS: http://data.unaids.org/WAC/in_waccampaignguide_04_en.pdf  Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 16    
  • UNDP. (2011, July 21). Millennium Development Goals in Afghanistan.Retrieved May 5, 2012, from UNDP Afghanistan:http://www.undp.org.af/demo/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=80&Itemid=68  UNESCO. (2008, January). UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Retrieved March29, 2012, from Data Centre:http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/ReportFolders/ReportFolders.aspx                Educate One Educate All: a social change campaign for Afghanistan 17