A Preliminary Exploration For The Benefits Of Neurofeedback Ppt[1]


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A Preliminary Exploration For The Benefits Of Neurofeedback Ppt[1]

  1. 1. A Preliminary Exploration for the Benefits of Neurofeedback on ADHD<br />Judith Collins <br />Harding University <br />McNair Scholarship Program<br />OSU Research Symposium<br />
  2. 2. Abstract <br />ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of behavioral symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (APA, 2000).<br />Play Attention is the brand name of a neurofeedback technique<br />This current pilot study will investigate the effects of Play Attention protocol.<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />Studies have suggested that 3-5% of school-aged children qualify for a diagnosis of ADHD (Dryer, Kiernan & Tyson, 2006).<br />There are 20 to 25% children diagnosed with ADHD also has a learning disability (Padolsky, 2008).<br />ADHD cannot be cured, but must be managed. <br />Five million people diagnosed (Nowacek and Mamlin, 2007).<br />2.5 million using medication as a form treatment (CBS News, 2009).<br />
  4. 4. School/Home Environments<br /> Children’s behavior may be influenced by or influence other’s actions. <br /> Teachers can utilize manipulation in the classroom to prevent behavioral problems (Fox, Tharp, and Fox, 2005).<br /> ADHD is commonly partnered with <br /> some type of comorbid disorder, such as Learning Disability (Faigel,1998).<br /> Children with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are among the most common childhood mental health referrals (Edwards, Gardner, Chelonis, Shultz, Flake, and Diaz ,2007).<br />
  5. 5. Treatment/Neurofeedback<br /> Play Attention is a computerized game designed to increase, among other things, the attention span of users (“attention stamina”) and their ability to stay on task (Play Attention, 2004).<br /> Subjects were reassessed on the CCPT II after having completed twenty-four sessions of Play Attention, and their Play Attention scores on attention stamina and ability to stay on task were noted after the sixth and twenty-fourth sessions. <br />
  6. 6. Treatment/Neurofeedback<br /> Medications for ADHD have become an interesting topic.<br />Parents and teachers are interested in neurofeedback as an alternative treatment for controlling behaviors at home and school.<br />Some behaviors associated are:<br />Poor academic performance, learning disability, conduct disorders, oppositional defiant disorder (Doehnert, Brandeis, Straub, Steinhausen & Drechsler,2007)<br />
  7. 7. Methods<br />The Current Pilot Study<br />Pre-test and post-test design <br />Focused on a small group of children’s grades and attention span /the study target home and school.<br />Measured by the Connors’ Continuous Performance Test II and Play Attention.<br />Explore to see if there is any improvement after utilizing the Play Attention protocol.<br />The data include grades, number of Play Attention sessions, and Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II results. <br />
  8. 8. Participants<br />Six males ranging in age from 7 to 14 years<br />Five Caucasians and one Hispanic.<br />The clinical samples are from the general population of local public schools in central arkansas. <br />Two of the samples were twins age 14 at the mid-level grade, and four ranged in age from 8 to 10.<br />They were treated at Harding University Professional Counseling Clinic with the parents’ permission.<br />
  9. 9. InstrumentsPlay Attention and CCPT II<br />The Play Attention system is a neurofeedback instrument which uses a computerized game interface. (Play Attention, 2009).<br />Play Attention’s system consists of a lightweight bicycle-style helmet with a sponge-lined sensor connected to a standard personal computer (Play Attention, 2009). <br />Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II is used in assessing inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity in children’s behaviors (Conner’s, 2004).<br />
  10. 10. Results<br />Different schools, grades, number of sessions, ages and subject matter <br />The scenarios could affect CCPT II results, Play Attention performance and school grades thereby causing results to be inconsistent.<br />Five of the six participants showed improvements in their average math and english grades<br />Three of the six participants showed a lower clinically significant attention problem.<br />Confounding Factors<br />
  11. 11. CCPT II<br /> This scale indicates the chance, out of 100, that the individual in question has a significant attention problem.<br />Table 1.<br />Clinical Confidence Index Associated with ADHD Assessment<br />Participant Pre Play Attention Post Play Attention<br />1 73.40 35.87<br />2 30.94 7.42<br />3 29.47 31.22<br />4 50.00 67.84<br />5 38.59 70.25<br />6 71.63 50.00<br />
  12. 12. Play Attention Scores<br />Tables 2 and 3 <br />Attention Stamina Ability to Stay on Task<br />Session 6 Session 24 Session 6 Session 24<br />1 Participant<br />90% 88% 89% 50%<br />2 Participant<br />98% 100% 76% 64%<br />3 Participant<br />89% 98% 98% 99%<br />4 Participant<br />67% 85% 71% 89%<br />5 Participant<br />83% 90% 92% 81%<br />6 Participant <br />72% 72% 60% 66%<br />
  13. 13. Discussion<br />The results are inconclusive and no inferential statistics.<br />CCPT II results could be adversely affected.<br />Results could also have been altered by unforeseen events.<br />A larger samples suggested for future research.<br />Some participant improved and some got worse.<br />Life stressors, medication, difficulty of school material could be the reasons.<br />Neurofeedback appears to be helpful.<br />
  14. 14. Proposed Future Research<br />The limitations of this pilot study have created a need for further research.<br />A larger sample size of the general population<br />Better research design, more consistent data collection<br />A broader diversity of participants and a host of other limitations should be addressed in future research.<br />This pilot study did seem to indicate the potential benefits of neurofeedback. <br />
  15. 15. Conclusion<br />There are some benefits of neurofeedback as an alternative to ADHD medications.<br />No known side effects as some ADHD medications.<br />A child’s behavior could improve.<br />Teachers could benefit with increased knowledge of ADHD. <br />A positive intervention for behavior at home and at school. <br />
  16. 16. Acknowledgments<br />The Author Express Thanks to…<br />Dr. Gene Wright<br />The McNair Program Directors<br />Anne Lehman<br /> Harding University Counseling Department (LPC’s)<br />Counseling Dept. Graduate Students<br />Dr. Kathy Howard<br />
  17. 17. References<br />American Psychological Association. (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision. <br />Conners, K. (2004). Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CPT ll) Manuel. Multi-Health Systems: North Tonawanda, N.Y.<br />Doehnert, M. B., Brandeis, D., Straub, M., Steinhausen, H.C., & Drechsler, R. (2008). Slow cortical potential neurofeedback in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: is there neuropsysiological evidence for specific effects? Biological Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , 115, 1445-1456.<br />Dryer, R. K., Kiernan, M.J., & Tyson, G.A. (2006 ). Implicit theories of the characteristics and cause of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder held by parents and professionals in the psychological, educational, medical and allied health fields. Australian Journal of Psychology , 58, (2), 79-92.<br />Edwards, M. C., Gardner, E.S., Chelonis, J.L., Schulz, E.G., Flake, R.A. & Diaz, P.F. (2007). Estimates of the validity and utility of the conners' continuous performance test in the assessment of inattentive and/or hyperactivity behaviors in children. J Abnorm Child Psychol , 35, 393-403.<br />Fox, D. J., Tharp, D.E., & Fox, L.C. (2005). Neurofeedback: an alternative and efficacious treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback ,30, (4), 365-37.<br />Http://www.playattention.com. (2009).<br />Nowcacek J. E., & Mamlin. N. (2007). General education teachers and students with ADHD: What modifications are made? Preventing School Failure , 51,(3), 28-35.<br />Play Attention User’s Manual (pp. 1-8). (2004). Ashville, NC: Unique Logic & Technology, Inc.<br />