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How Does Reading & Learning Change on the Internet: Responding to New Literacies

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This slide show provides an overview of the ways in which reading comprehension looks different relative to how we locate, critical evaluate, synthesize, and communicate information on the Internet.

This slide show provides an overview of the ways in which reading comprehension looks different relative to how we locate, critical evaluate, synthesize, and communicate information on the Internet.

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How Does Reading & Learning Change on the Internet: Responding to New Literacies How Does Reading & Learning Change on the Internet: Responding to New Literacies Presentation Transcript

  • Julie Coiro, Ph.D. University of Rhode Island [email_address] How Does Reading and Learning Change on the Internet? Responding to New Literacies
  • Goals for today’s conversation
    • Share your perspective and experiences about literacy learning with the Internet
    • Define a “new literacies perspective” of online reading comprehension
    • Propose a new way of thinking about reading, writing, and communicating
    • Spark conversations and reflection about new ways of teaching and learning with the Internet
  • Anticipation Guide
    • What perspectives do you bring to the table?
    • Where do you sit with regards to various issues related to literacy, learning, and the Internet?
    • How do these perspectives impact what actually happens at your school?
  • Welcome to REALITY …
  • A New Literacies Perspective considers the Internet as this generation’s defining technology for information, communication, and especially for learning.
  • The New Literacies Research Team
    • Supported by:
    • Ray and Carole Neag
    • The Carnegie Corporation of New York
    • U.S. Department of Education
    • The National Science Foundation
    • North Central Educational Research Lab
    • PBS
    • The Annenberg Foundation
    • William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
    • Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
    • Australian Council of Educational Research
  • Globalization and The Internet are Changing Literacy, Learning, and Communication
    • 1 billion readers and writers are now on the Internet (de Argaez, 2006)
    • The online population has tripled in the past 5 years (Evolution of Online Linguistic Populations, 2005).
    • 94% of online teens use the Internet for research (Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2005)
  • We live in an ever-changing global information economy
    • “ To thrive in the global knowledge economy, it is going to be important to change the whole educational system to ensure a wide base of knowledge workers who understand and use information technologies” ( Riley, 2005)
    • Today’s graduates need to be critical thinkers, problem solvers, and effective communicators who are proficient in both core subjects and new, 21 st Century global information skills (ETS, 2007; ISSN, 2007; Partnership for 21 st Century Skills, 2007; Time , 2007).
  • We live in an ever-changing global information economy
    • “ Other countries are racing us to the top” (Friedman, The World is Flat, 2005).
    • The first international assessment of online reading comprehension will take place in 2009, but the United States, so far, will not be participating (PISA, 2007). Likewise, NAEP excluded online reading comprehension from their 2009 reading framework.
  • Two new updates… NAEP 2012 has added a national “technological literacy”exam - but it’s separate from the reading and writing assessment The U.S. has joined the 67 other countries who will take the PISA2009
  • The Greatest Irony of NCLB
    • Students who need to be prepared the most for an online age of information are precisely those who are being prepared the least (Leu, 2007).
  • 2,000 BC 1,000 BC 1500 1800 1965 1985 1,000 2,500 300 165 20 Literacy through the ages… 1992 7 40,000 BC-10,000 BC 8,000 1997 2001 5 4 Internet WWW Wikis Weblogs
  • More recently… Podcasts Vlogs RSS Newsfeeds Tags Open source technologies
  • A New Literacies Perspective of Online Reading Comprehension
    • Students require additional, new skills to read and effectively comprehend information online.
    • Students are sometimes more literate than their teachers with certain aspects of using the Internet.
    • 3. The Internet is a READING and WRITING issue (not a technology issue) for every content-area classroom teacher, reading educator, and library media specialist.
  • How does reading and learning on the Internet change?
      • You begin by identifying an important question
      • New ways of locating information
      • New reasons for critically evaluating the information
      • New contexts for synthesizing information to answer your questions
      • New ways of communicating the answers to others
    • Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, and Cammack (2004)
  • Initial Evidence of something “new” (r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.) Leu, D. Castek, J., Hartman, D., Coiro, J., Henry, L., Kulikowich, J., Lyver, S. (2005). Offline Reading = CT State Reading Test Online Reading Comprehension= ORCA Blog
  • Additional Evidence: Predicting Online Reading Comprehension Coiro, 2007 n=120 Offline Reading Comp.= CT State Reading Test Online Reading Comprehension = ORCA Quia .579* 57.9% .154* 15.4% .074 7.4% .351* 35% Total R 2 Additional R 2 Online Reading Comprehension Additional R 2 Prior Knowledge R 2 Offline Reading Comprehension
    • Asking Questions
      • What would I like to know more about?
    • Locating
      • Where do I read first?
    • Evaluating
      • Which link is most useful?
      • How do I know it’s true?
      • What is the author’s purpose?
    • Synthesizing and Communicating
      • How do I come up with an original idea?
      • How do I share it with others?
      • Exploring the power of the Internet and inquiry (scaffold, inspire, link, and expand)
      • Previewing websites
      • Evaluating search results
      • Evaluating validity of information
      • Evaluating perspective/stance
      • Sorting, organizing, and synthesizing
      • Publishing with a range of tools and for a range of audiences
    What are the challenges… What can I teach… Issues Related to Preparing Students to Read on the Internet
  • Identifying Important Questions
    • Developing important questions is not typically considered a part of reading comprehension/content area learning.
    • Students seldom ask questions; student often answer questions.
    • Central to the new literacies is self-directed inquiry, information use, and learning.
  • Scaffolding inquiry - Grade 1
    • Teacher questions: What do worms look like? What do worms eat?
    • Student questions (1st graders): Why do worms have a ring around their body? Why are worms afraid of the sun? Why do worms make tunnels? What do worms sound like?
  • Inspiring inquiry - Grade 4+
  • Inspiring Inquiry - Grade 7
    • How is saliva put into the mouth and how is there so much of it all the time?
    • Posted by: Ben | April 25, 2005 10:28 AM
    • I have one question. What keeps the organs of the digestive system in place? If anyone knows the answer could they email it to me at danielma91@epals.com. Thank you!
    • Posted by: Daniel | April 26, 2005 01:22 PM
    • I learned that the stomach breaks down food with the acid. My question is what happens in the small intestine.
    • Posted by: Zach | April 25, 2005 06:54 AM
  • Expanding inquiry - Grades 9-12 Does the human desire to be free change over time?
  • Think-Pair-Share: What topics in your curriculum might lend themselves to giving students opportunities to generate their own questions?
  • Locating Information
    • Reading now requires navigating and evaluating the relevancy of multiple cues
      • Reading within search engine results
      • Reading within websites
    • Online reading requires new sources of prior knowledge, new levels of inferential reasoning, and new contexts for monitoring comprehension.
    • (Coiro & Dobler, 2007)
  • Searching within websites
  • Ask Jeeves for Kids
  • Yahooligans
  • Kidsclick
  • Evaluating relevancy - what’s next?
  •  
  • Challenge: Which link is most useful?
    • Learning Objective:
    • Evaluating search results
      • What clues do the words after the link give me?
      • Are the results in any special order?
      • Who sponsors the site?
      • What’s missing from this list?
      • How do you know and Why does it matter?
  • Sample Lesson: How do you fare? 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • Evaluating search results
    • Which site features information about hieroglyphics?
    • How many websites were found using this search?
    • Which site is sponsored by a California school district?
    • Which site is most apt to not be available in three months?
    • How can you tell in the results what search terms were used?
    • What’s the biggest disadvantage to visiting only these six websites for information about Ancient Egypt for 6th graders? (Hint: what’s missing??)
  • Challenge: So I’ve found a website…but where do I read first??? How do I know if it has what I need? A book versus a website…
  • LIST FIVE “BRAIN STEPS” YOU MIGHT TAKE TO PREVIEW THIS WEBSITE.
  • Challenge : Where do I read first?
      • STOP and THINK!
      • Preview left menu and top menu bars
      • Anticipate where each link will lead
      • Anticipate multiple levels (closer or further)
      • Explore interactive mouseover functions
      • Note the author/webmaster
      • Understand website search features
    Learning Objective: Previewing a website 1 2 3
  • Preview (infer) and consider…
    • Where does this webpage “sit” in the context of the whole website’s space?
    • How is the content organized (within this domain)?
    • What kinds of information are you likely to find within this website?
    • What kinds of information are you NOT likely to find within this website?
    • Who created the information at this page?
    • What are two different websites that link off of this webpage?
  • 1 BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE SITE CHANGES? CAN YOU FLEXIBLY ADAPT?? 2 3 4 5
  •  
  • Challenge: Critically Evaluating Information
    • Initial Understanding:
      • What three issues threaten this crop?
    • Demonstrating a Critical Stance:
      • Given the author’s recommendations, how might he vote on a decision to ration water supplies in years when there is a water shortage?
    • Developing an Interpretation:
      • In the bar graph, in which year was there the greatest decline of acreage?
    • Is this information REALLY TRUE??
    • How do I know??
    • THIS IS MISSING FROM standardized tests!!
    Critically Evaluating Information
  • Critically Evaluating Accuracy, Reliability, and Bias (Perspective)
    • There is little quality control of information.
    • Readers need to assume responsibilities once given to editors and publishing companies.
      • Judge overall accuracy, quality, and richness of content
      • Investigate author qualifications
      • Verify contact information
      • Recognize author’s lens/point of view
  • Critically Evaluating Information
    • Evaluating understanding : Does it make sense to me?
    • Evaluating relevancy : Does it meet my needs?
    • Evaluating accuracy : Can I verify it with another reliable source?
    • Evaluating reliability : Can I trust it?
    • Evaluating bias : How does the author shape it?
    • Evaluating choice : Which one is best and why?
  • Verifying Accuracy (Sometimes even reliable sources make mistakes)
  • Verifying Accuracy (Even people you know might have a “tricky” side)
  • Evaluating Accuracy of Online Information Total N=109 80% do not know how to evaluate accuracy or did not locate the page. Only 20% have strategies for evaluating accuracy 0 = 54% It seems right but you can never know; The website I N=58 think is always right; It had plenty of pictures; I checked it out with Ask Jeeves; Why would they lie? [misconceptions] 1 = 26% I know this is accurate because it’s made by a corporation N=28 and there is a place to contact them. [implicit trust] 2 = 19% I know this is accurate because I learned it in science class. N=21 [compared with prior knowledge] 3 = .02% I checked this information with www.____.com and they N=2 compared similarly. [checked with 2nd reliable source]
  • Evaluating Accuracy
      • STOP and THINK!
      • Cross check factual data with at least three other sources
      • Ask probing questions:
        • What claims is the author making?
        • What evidence do I find elsewhere to support those claims?
        • What evidence do I find elsewhere to refute those claims?
      • Consider the context of where you find the evidence
      • The challenge of confirming vs. disconfirming
      • -- Adapted from IMSA 21st Century Information Fluency Project (2007)
  • Students know you can’t trust everything on the Internet…but they do!
  • Evaluating Most Reliable Source Total N=109 71% considered only relevancy, text length, or did not know. Only 29% correctly identified the most reliable source 0 = 37% It’s really detailed and it has like 10 paragraphs of N=40 information. [readability, size of page, etc.] 1 = 34% I knew more about carbon monoxide than I knew from reading N=37 all of the other pages [only relevancy or interest] 2 = 16% There are no spelling mistakes and the url is a .org. [surface N=18 procedures] 3 = 13% This is most reliable because it is made by doctors from the N=14 American Lung Association [critically consider source]
  • Evaluating Least Reliable Source Total N=109 68% considered only relevancy or interest or did not know. Only 32% correctly identified the least reliable source 0 = 47% This is the least reliable source because the text is a little N=51 confusing to read. [readability, size of page, etc.] 1 = 21% It doesn’t really talk about anything specific - there’s not a N=23 lot of information about the topic [only relevancy or interest] 2 = 18% It’s a .com and they are trying to sell you something at the N=20 very top of the page. [surface procedures] 3 = 14% There are a lot of misspellings, there is no way to contact the people who put out this site, and it’s a .com compared to a N=15 .org or .gov [at least one critical attempt]
  • So what would you do to critically evaluate information on a website? With a partner… list five things you would do.
  • Think & Check Activity
  • A real-life scenario… What causes a hurricane?
  • Investigate the source homepage
  • Scrolling for “About Us”.. and then ??
  • Do some investigating at Snopes.com Where else could I look?
  • Search < dolphins dart guns >
  •  
  •  
  • “ As testament to its value and accuracy, this site won more than 20 awards, including the 1998 ‘Cool Site of the Year,’ just during the past twelve months.” AAAS (American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science) Who is the author?
  • Reliable UK News Source ?? Online text comprehension requires a constant process of reading, thinking, questioning, verifying, and synthesizing - many authentic opportunities await!
  • Challenge: How do we deal with advertising ?
    • “ Nope - it’s a .com site” … but ask why???
    • Don’t just avoid it; teach students how to recognize it and to sort out the learning.
    • Discuss the homepage layout of various commercial/educational sites…
      • Is the site “balanced”?
      • Where are the sales pitches hidden?
      • How does the organization’s “bias” influence what they put on their website and where they link to?
      • Who might be hurt or upset by their claims? Who might be marginalized or left out?
  • Evaluating Commercial Bias Total N=109 71% are mildly cautious of the ads [not the info] or think ads make it better! Only 30% see reason to caution information with advertising 0 = 43% It makes me think they must really know what they’re talking about; I think that what they are telling you about those things N=47 is really true [ads make the information better] 1 = 17% I think websites that try to sell you things just want to get a lot of money because the Internet is really expensive [caution, but N=28 not in relation to the information] 2 = 17% If a website is trying to sell you something then it is a bad source and doesn’t have good information [some suspicion or N=20 overgeneralization] 3 = 13% This site is probably one sided info - the information might be N=14 inaccurate or exaggerated [balanced consideration of bias]
  • What’s missing from Scholastic?
  • What are their motives?
  • What is the author’s motive? (Level 2) Comparing multiple perspectives
  •  
  •  
  • Detecting hidden agendas LEVEL 1 Detecting Fact vs. Opinion : Tell which website you think has the STRONGEST opinions about the use of sled dogs in the Iditarod. Tell whether you think the author of the website you chose is for or against racing sled dogs for competition. Select a quote from the website you chose and explain why you think it is an example of the author sharing strong opinions. LEVEL 2 Detecting Bias and Considering the Author: Tell which website (Site A, B, or C) gives opinions from more than one side of the issue. Who are the two people whose opinions are given in the website you chose in number 1? What factors make these two people feel the way they do about the treatment of sled dogs ?
  •  
  • Japanese Internment Camps Considering multiple perspectives (rather than “non-biased”)
  •  
  • Exploring multiple perspectives…
    • Think of a topic or theme in your curriculum or content area that can be studied from multiple perspectives. Share a few ideas with a partner about the potentials and concerns that would arise from a unit framed in exploring the issues from multiple perspectives.
    • Asking Questions
      • What would I like to know more about?
    • Locating
      • Where do I read first?
    • Evaluating
      • Which link is most useful?
      • How do I know it’s true?
      • What is the author’s purpose?
    • Synthesizing and Communicating
      • How do I come up with an original idea?
      • How do I share it with others?
      • Exploring the power of the Internet and inquiry (scaffold, inspire, link, and expand)
      • Previewing websites
      • Evaluating search results
      • Evaluating validity of information
      • Evaluating perspective/stance
      • Sorting, organizing, and synthesizing
      • Publishing with a range of tools and for a range of audiences
    What are the challenges… What can I teach… Staying on track
  • Challenge: Synthesizing Information
    • The pattern of reading for information on the Internet is very different from reading in textbooks -- non-linear and much more within multiple, multi-leveled sources.
    • Synthesizing information from multiple, and widely disparate information sources, with different levels of validity, becomes a challenge.
    • Even “literal-level” reading is different….
    • What do Amur tigers eat?
    2 3 4 1 5 Multiple, non-linear pathways within a website
  • Synthesizing information from multiple sources
  • Summarizing, Synthesizing, & Plagiarizing
  • Communicating Answers to (and with) Others
    • Many new literacies, from many new technologies, for communication.
      • Email
      • IM
      • Weblogs
      • Webpages
      • Word Processors
      • Podcasts
      • Virtual Environments
    • Each rapidly changes, generating even newer literacies (e.g., cognitive skills & social practices).
  • Communicating with…
  • Communicating by… Creating a Podcast Participating in a Second Life Virtual Classroom Discussion
  • Communicating by… Creating and sharing information in a VoiceThread
  • Communicating with VoiceThread
  • Each tool has its own set of literacies ~ and nuances
  •  
    • Email
    • IM
    • Weblogs
    • Webpages
    • Wikis
    • Google Docs
    • Podcasts
    • You Tube
    • Virtual Environments
    • VoiceThread
    • Do you know the set of literacies and social practices associated with each of these online technologies?
    • Do all of your students have equal opportunities to explore, learn, and communicate with these tools and practices?
    Each tool has its own set of literacies
  • Revisiting our goals for today’s conversation
    • Share your perspective and experiences about literacy learning with the Internet
    • Define a “new literacies perspective” of online reading comprehension
    • Propose a new way of thinking about reading, writing, and communicating
    • Spark conversations and reflection about new ways of teaching and learning with the Internet
  • Central Ideas
    • The Internet requires new, more complex forms of higher level thinking, reading comprehension, and communication skills.
    • We should be paying attention.
    • We should be thinking of how best to prepare students to read, think, problem solve, and communicate with others using the Internet.
  • What Lesson Have We Learned as We Have Worked to Support A Changing Literacy Curriculum?
  • Teachers become more important, though their role changes, in a new literacies classroom.
  • You deserve support and time to explore during this period of change so that…
  • ..all students achieve the futures they so richly deserve.
  • Thank you for your participation…
    • What stories do you have?
    • What have you noticed?
    • What concerns do you have?
    • What might instruction in new literacies look like in your classroom?
  • Julie Coiro, Ph.D. University of Rhode Island [email_address] How Does Reading and Learning Change on the Internet? … Responding to New Literacies
  • So, how can we teach & support online reading comprehension? One idea… Internet Reciprocal Teaching
  • Adapting Reciprocal Teaching To The New Literacies Of Online Reading Comprehension All levels of readers Low performing readers Exposition Narratives Whole Class Small Group 1-1 Computing - often different texts Books - often the same texts Internet Reciprocal Teaching Reciprocal Teaching
    • Three phases:
    • Teacher-led basic skills
    • Collaborative modeling of more complex skills
    • Independent Inquiry
    A single phase
    • Skills:
    • Questioning
    • Locating
    • Critically Evaluating
    • Synthesizing
    • Communicating
    • Skills:
    • Predicting
    • Questioning
    • Clarifying
    • Summarizing
    Greater Student Modeling Greater Teacher Modeling Internet Reciprocal Teaching Reciprocal Teaching
  • IRT: Phase I Teacher-led Basic Skills
    • Teacher-led demonstrations of basic Internet use skills and cooperative learning strategies
    • Explicit modeling by teacher
    • Largely whole class instruction
    • Mini-lessons as transition to Phase II
  • IRT: Phase II Collaborative modeling of online reading strategies
    • Students presented with information problems to solve.
    • Work in small groups to solve those problems.
    • Exchange strategies as they do so.
    • Debrief at the end of the lesson.
    • Initially: locating and critically evaluating
    • Later: Synthesis and communicating.
  • A Phase II Task
  • IRT: Phase III Inquiry
    • Initially, within the class.
    • Then, with others around the world.
  • What to Teach? A Preliminary Taxonomy Of Online Reading Comprehension Skills and Strategies (see handout)
  • Evaluating accuracy & bias… So, what do you think of Wikipedia?
  •  
  • Neutral Point of View
  • Revising content based on reliable research-based sources Shall we organize and separate arguments for and against? Making it more “NPOV”
  • Think carefully about the potential for thinking & learning with Wikipedia
  • Four Corners - Where do you sit on the issue of Wikipedia in schools? 4. A topic I might explore… 3. Oh … the issues to consider! 2. No Way! Not for my students… 1. I never realized….
  • What’s “new” about literacy?
    • New literacies are multiple in nature (multiple media forms, tools, and contexts)
    • New literacies are ever-changing as new forms & functions of literacy & technology influence each other - anticipate these changes!
    • New forms of strategic knowledge are required (hypertext, dynamic images, virtual worlds)
    • Speed counts in important, but different ways
    • Learning is often socially constructed
    • Teachers become more important, though their role changes, in a new literacies classroom
    (Coiro, Knobel, Lankshear & Leu, 2008)