The Black DeathPlague Doctors Without Borders May 23,1349 3/4 A-D Demo
Causes The Black Death (the plague) is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis “pestis” is the root for the modern word “pestilence”There are 3 forms of the plague:* bubonic(plague of the lymphatic system)* pneumonic(plague of the lungs)* septicemic(plague of the blood) www.plaguepictures.com
Methods of Transmission From infected animals or fleas Transmission can be directly from the bite of an infected animal, or from contact with infected tissue www.rat.com or fluids of dead animals From the bite of a flea that has fed on infected animals From person to person www.flea.com Persons who have pneumonic plague can transmit the disease by coughing and sneezing www.sneeze.com
Disease Symptoms Bubonic Pneumonic Septicemic* Buboes * High fever * Fever and chills * Shock(swollen, painful, warm lymph * Weakness * Abdominal pain, diarrhea andnodes) vomiting* Sudden onset of fever and chills * Signs of pneumonia, including* Headache chest pain, difficulty breathing and * Bleeding from mouth, nose or a cough with bloody sputum rectum, or under your skin* Fatigue or malaise* Muscle aches * Nausea and vomiting * Blackening and death of tissue in your extremities www.leg.com www.chestxray.com www.groxarm.com
Treatments of the Middle AgesOnly the symptoms of the plague could betreated: Headaches were relieved by rose, lavender, sage and bay. Sickness or nausea was treated with wormwood, mint, and balm. Lung problems were treated with licorice and comfrey. Vinegar was used as a cleansing agent as it was believed that it would kill disease. Black Death was also treated by lancing the buboes www.boodletting.com and applying a warm poultice of butter, onion and garlic. Various other remedies were tried including tobacco, arsenic, lily root and dried toad! Bloodletting was commonly thought to be one of the best ways to treat the plague. The blood that exuded was black, thick and vile smelling with a greenish scum mixed in it.
Means of Prevention Because they did not know the cause of the disease, there was no viable means of prevention, only treatment for the symptoms www.deadpeople.com
Travels of the Disease www.map.comThe hardest hit countries include Italy, France and Spain which lost, in areas, up to 80% of their population.
Impact on the Population Large percentages of European population were killed - approx. 25 million people Lack of workers: Fields remained unplowed and animals untended - resulting in food shortages Lack of leadership: Social structurewww.plaguedoctocrl.com collapsed without lords or priests
Social Effects Families Communities Countries• Loss of family members • Serf were free to leave • Many courts andcould be devastating their land to seek higher legislatures were• Sickness was wages abandonedpotentially long and • The power of the • The “100 Years War”painful, while family church was weakened was postponed due to themembers watched •Persecution of minority large number of deaths• Family name could not groups as scapegoats • Art changed to reflectbe carried on in many the plagues effectscases All pictures from: www.blackandwhitpics ofthe plague.com
Economic Effects Family Communities Countries• With the death of • Wages rose, due to • Nation-wide recessionfamily members, wages lack of qualified labor, •Inflation of prices,could not be earned blurring the lines between particularly wheat• Increased standards of classes •Trade betweenliving for survivors - more • Higher class citizens countries becomesresources for fewer began to dress more difficultpeople extravagantly - to • Riots by the working emphasize their class class for better conditions standing www.dansemacabre.com
Possible Solutions Make sure that the population has ample supplies of: rose, lavender, wormwood, mint, and other herbs for remedies (especially dried toad) Appropriate apparel: to prevent infections Pray to God for salvation Flagellation Isolation www.flagellation.com
ObstaclesFewer doctors due to mortality ratesLack of scientific research to identify acureNo knowledge of how the disease wasspreadDense areas of population where thedisease spreads fastest