Antiviral Drugs


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Antiviral Drugs

  1. 1. Generic Name: Zanamivir Brand Name/S: : Relenza Company: GlaxoSmithKline
  2. 2. Zanamivir is used in the treatment of the infection caused by the flu virus (influenza A and influenza B). This medicine may also be used to prevent and treat swine influenza A.
  3. 3. Zanamivir may reduce flu symptoms (weakness, headache, fever, cough, runny or stuffy nose, and sore throat) by 1 to 1.5 days.
  4. 4. Zanamivir may not be for you if you are severely sick or have a breathing problem (e.g., asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).
  5. 5. Usual Adult Dose for Influenza •10 mg (2 inhalations) inhaled orally twice a day (12 hours apart) for 5 days
  6. 6. Usual Adult Dose for Influenza Prophylaxis •10 mg (2 inhalations) inhaled orally once a day
  7. 7. The proposed mechanism of action of zanamivir is via inhibition of influenza virus neuraminidase with the possibility of alteration of virus particle aggregation and release.
  8. 8. By binding and inhibiting the neuraminidase protein, the drug renders the influenza virus unable to escape its host cell and infect others.
  9. 9. Influenza A Virus •causes influenza in birds and some mammals •cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans •transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry
  10. 10. Influenza B Virus •infect humans and seals giving them influenza •evolve slower than A viruses •mutates enough that lasting immunity is not possible
  11. 11. FDA: Termination of Declarations of Emergency Justifying Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of Certain Antiviral Drugs Zanamivir, Oseltamivir Phosphate, and Peramivir
  12. 12. ROCKVILLE, Md., June 23, 2010--The FDA has posted on its web site letters that announce the termination of declarations for the emergency use antiviral drugs Zanamivir, Oseltamivir Phosphate, etc
  13. 13. The declarations described will terminate when the Public Health Emergency determination for 2009 H1N1 influenza expires on June 23, 2010.
  14. 14. GENERIC NAME: FAMCICLOVIR BRAND NAME/S: U.S. : Famvir® Canadian: Apo- Famciclovir® CO Famciclovir Famvir® PMS Famciclovir Sandoz-Famciclovir
  15. 15. Famvir (famciclovir) is an antiviral drug that slows the growth and spread of the herpes virus so that the body can fight off the infection.
  16. 16. Famvir is used to treat infections caused by herpes viruses, including genital herpes, cold sores, and shingles.
  17. 17. FAMVIR for Cold Sores are white, oval, filmcoated tablets with "FV 500" on one side. Each carton contains 3 tablets in a blister pack with 'FAMVIR famciclovir 500mg printed on the foil backing
  18. 18. Tablets: 125, 250, and 500 mg storage: famciclovir should be stored at room temperature, 15-30 C (59-86 F).
  19. 19. DOSING: may be taken with or without food. The recommended doses are: •Recurrent genital herpes: 1,000 mg every 12 hours for one day. •Recurrent cold sores: 1,500 mg as a single dose
  20. 20. •Suppression of recurrent genital herpes: 250 mg twice daily. •Shingles: 500 mg every 8 hours for 7 days. •HIV-infected patients (cold sores or genital herpes): 500 mg twice daily for 7 days.
  21. 21. Famciclovir undergoes rapid biotransformation to the active antiviral compound penciclovir, which has inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV).
  22. 22. In cells infected with HSV1, HSV-2 or VZV, viral thymidine kinase phosphorylates penciclovir to a monophosphate form that, in turn, is converted to penciclovir triphosphate by cellular kinases
  23. 23. In vitro studies demonstrate that penciclovir triphosphate inhibits HSV-2 DNA polymerase competitively with deoxyguanosine triphosphate. Consequently, herpes viral DNA synthesis and, therefore, replication are selectively inhibited.
  24. 24. Penciclovir triphosphate has an intracellular halflife of 10 hours in HSV-1-, 20 hours in HSV-2-and 7 hours in VZV-infected cells grown in culture. However, the clinical significance of the intracellular half-life is unknown.
  25. 25. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) -oral sores •causes sores around the mouth and lips •sometimes called fever blisters or cold sores.
  26. 26. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) •genital sores •sores around the genitals or rectum •Although HSV-2 sores may occur in other locations, these sores usually are found below the waist.
  27. 27. Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) •chickenpox virus •varicella virus •zoster virus • human herpes virus type 3 (HHV-3).
  28. 28. •causes chickenpox and herpes zoster (shingles). •Chickenpox follows initial exposure to the virus and is typically relatively mild, and selflimiting with a characteristic exanthem, but can become disseminated.