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Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
Influence of persuasion
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Influence of persuasion

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Notes on The Influence of Persuasion by Robert Cialdini

Notes on The Influence of Persuasion by Robert Cialdini

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  • 1. Psychology: The Influence of Persuasion Robert Cialdini
  • 2. Weapons of Influence • Jewelry Store; x2 markup, all jewelry sold People will think something is more valuable depending on the cost • Fixed Action Patterns Intricate series of behaviors, such as mating, in which behaviors preceding happen the exact same way every time Turkey attacks baby if doesn’t make cheep-cheep sound, cares for it if it does make the sound Trigger Feature What brings out the fixed action pattern Such as the color of an invasive species Ellen Langer does this for humans More successful asking for a favor if you provide a reason for the favor May I use ____ because ______________
  • 3. Weapons of Influence • Alfred North Whitehead “Civilization advances when we extend the amount of actions we can perform without thinking about them” Need for shortcuts, otherwise human brain will freeze with limitless options • Sid and Harry Drubeck Tailors who scammed people by pretending to miscommunicate prices so the item seemed cheaper than it already was • Contrast Principle If one item is different than the second, we see the second item as more different than it actually is If you lift a light object then a heavy object, the second object will seem heavier than it actually is Sell and present the most expensive objects first; or inflate prices of a shitty thing, then present the real thing
  • 4. Weapons of Influence • Humans hold on to something to prevent falling Can be used for more than physical falling? Rebounds, such and such • Graylag Goose and the Egg • We hold on to something more vehemently when we are afraid we will lose it • We make our own opinions about something, and attempt to bend our perceptions so that it fits in line with our original opinions; first impressions basically
  • 5. How to Apply Weapons of Influence • With requests, always supply a reason for your actions. It doesn’t matter what the reason is. There are times to offer no reason when one is expected, because it stimulates the mind and makes one think about why you did something however. • Contrast Principle Can be used with a wingman? By setting expectations for yourself through your reputation, you can make yourself seem better than you are with much less effort. Set the bar low • Strike when people are vulnerable e.g. after a breakup. Plenty of love and love. Make them feel secure again. Always work with opposites; when they’re happy, make them miserable. When they’re miserable, make them happy. Bitchy, make them insecure. Always stand out like this. It’s a roller coaster ride, make them love the ups and the downs, and make them follow you into hell and back. • Ace in the hole, threaten abandonment or loss of opportunity, because people will chase thinking they will lose it. Cannot be used too often, good for sales however (Limited time offer)
  • 6. How to Apply Weapons of Influence • People act the opposite of what they want most of the time Give people what they want the most and they will be tied around your finger. • Always rep yourself well. People will see you in a more positive light if you present yourself in a positive light. Present what you want to be seen as. Be who you want to be.
  • 7. Reciprocation • This shit is powerful • No human society has ever not abided by this rule • We feel obligated to pay what was done in kind to us Help strangers on the street when you see the chance you never know what’ll happen • Personal relations do not matter when it comes to reciprocity • Krishna’s religious group giving roses • Can be exploited easily • DO NOT BE A MOOCHER
  • 8. Reciprocal Concessions • “Will you buy my candy bar” No? Well then would you at least buy a lollipop? • Start with bigger request, and concede to a smaller request Invokes contrast principle, and makes people feel obligated to at least give you something
  • 9. Commitment and Consistency • Leonardo Da Vinci “It’s easier to resist at the beginning than at the end” • Someone, after placing a bet, is much more confident in their bet Due to our obsessive desire, deep down, to remain consistent with what we’ve done Convince themselves they made the right decision, and stand by it, even if it was the wrong decision • Thomas Moriarty Experiment staging a theft on a beach First time, only 20% of people stop theft Second time, he asks people to watch his stuff, 95% of people stop the theft • Toy Companies Undersupply desired toys during Christmas season that kids want; parents feel obligated to buy toys; buy toys after Christmas seasons to keep toy sales high after season.
  • 10. Commitment and Consistency • Extracting commitment is the key Basically a trap • Steven Sherman Surveyed people if they would spend three hours volunteering for cancer After trapping commitment, got 700% increases in volunteers when he asked them to volunteer after survey • When meeting new people, asking how are you provokes superficial reply; I’m fine, etc… Can be used to advantage, because people won’t want to contradict that statement Can be used with something like “Are you a generous person; etc…”
  • 11. Commitment and Consistency • Chinese prisoner of war camps would use psychology, not brutalization First would get American soldiers to provide mildly anti-American/Pro- Communism sentiments (“The US isn’t perfect, etc…) Would have soldier write a list, maybe an essay, of problems Would be broadcasted around camp and labeled a collaborator Soldier would change his image to appear consistent with this accusation • Used in Sales First sale only to establish someone as “customer” Can be used in relationships; first kiss establishes as more than friends • Freedman and Fraser Had people sign a state beautification petition Rallied the same people, already established with them, to accept a large, unsightly sign on their front lawn; a completely unrelated topic. Once you change someone’s self-image, they will comply naturally
  • 12. Commitment and Consistency • Actions describe everything Using someone’s past actions can influence their self-image By manipulating someone into your desired action, no matter how innocuous, you can use it to modify their perception of their self-image Can be done indirectly In Korea, they censored letters to families from POW; therefore, soldiers wrote pro-communism in hopes they would be sent through; the letters were then used for propaganda • The more effort that goes into a commitment, the more effective it is for modifying self-image • The more pain and trial someone goes through for something, the more it means to them • Threats and Rewards can be used to gain compliance, but in order for it to be effective, it must make use of inner-responsibility
  • 13. Commitment and Consistency • Freedman Toy Experiment Threatened children not to play with robot; most didn’t. Six weeks later, brought children in a room with five toys including robot. 77% of children played with the robot. Took second group of children, warned children against playing with robot but with no threat. Most, once again, did not. Six weeks later, brought children in a room to play with five toys, including the robot. However, this time, a smaller percentage, 33%, played with it. • Threats and Rewards do not influence long term behavior changes • Seeking compliance and building up is a very powerful tool
  • 14. Social Proof • One thing we use to determine an opinion about something is how others feel about it When a lot of people laugh, you think it’s funnier, when a lot of girls like a guy, you think he’s more attractive, etc… • So reflexive and ingrained that even obviously fake social proof works (E.g. canned laughter) • Phobias Shown that small children can overcome phobias by watching others play with it; e.g. fear of dogs can be overcome by watching peers play with dogs • The more people involved, the more powerful it is • Best time to use is when there is a shaken confidence Acceptance by others makes you “Truer” • Pluralistic Ignorance Most people in a group reject a practice, but continue it because they believe the group at large accepts it; people as a whole do not know
  • 15. Social Proof • Bystander Effect The more people around, the less likely someone will intervene in an emergency situation Absolutely astounding; the murder of Catherine Genovese, 30 minutes long chase and multiple incidents of stabbing in public, no one intervened Pluralistic Ignorance may have been involved, people may not have known what was going on Since no one else was doing anything, it must not have been a big deal • Social Proof is much more effective when we view the other people as similar to ourselves • Social Conditions that cause purposeful deaths (Suicide) also increase accidental deaths 1000% increase in airplane crashes the day after a highly publicized suicide story is on the front page of the news Called the Werther Effect, it is very powerful (Copycat Suicide)
  • 16. Liking • Physical Attractiveness Plays role in social interactions, looks dominate what one person thinks of another • Similarity We like people who are similar to us Ways we present ourselves, attire, past experiences, interests Mirror and match mannerisms, mood, speaking patterns • Compliments We like to feel special; we like compliments when we don’t think it’s being used for manipulation (So a compliment right when meeting someone won’t work) We believe the positive traits are true; reward good behavior, punish bad • Contact and Cooperation We like people we are familiar with Repeated contact under frustrating situations however, breeds hatred Camp Experiment Separating campers into cabins, cabin names, competitive activities bred contempt Positive activities, requiring cooperation, mended gaps
  • 17. Liking • Good Cop/Bad Cop Bad cop instills fear of the punishment, makes it seem like they’re out to get him Good cop does favors for the suspect, tries to help him out behind the other cops back, talks to other cop and defends suspect, etc… • Conditioning and Assignment People associate something with who delivers it “The Nature of News infects the teller” “Guilty by association” Watch the company you keep, because you’ll be judged by it Connection doesn’t have to be logical, just positive People become fonder of people they associate with food; provide food for someone to like you Ivan Pavlov Showed that you can get a dog to associate something training with food
  • 18. Liking • Conditioning and Assignment (Cont.) Shown in sports with referees and opposing players Very strong “All things being equal, you root for your own sex, your own culture, your own locality, and want to prove you’re better than the other team” We flaunt positive connections and bury negative connections “We’re number one” vs. “They sucked tonight” Seek glory mainly when our prestige is low at the time People with personality defects try hard to bolster image through association • Be wary when you like someone more than you should given the circumstances; timing is key to deflect negative impact on you
  • 19. Authority • Professor Milgram Experiment with “Learner” and “Teacher” Teacher gave test questions, would administer shock if answer was wrong. Pain got so bad the learner could not possibly answer questions anymore and just accepted the punishment. Despite pleas from the learner, 2/3 of the teachers did not stop, even though most predicted a miniscule percentage would go all the way to 450 volt shocks (The highest level) Female teachers were just as likely as male teachers to deliver full shock Concluded that we all have a deep-rooted duty to authority Professor did not allow the Teacher to stop, despite pleas from the Learner When the Professor and Learner switched roles (Learner said he wanted to tough it out, Professor pleaded to stop), not one person delivered another shock • Most people are hesitant to question greater authority
  • 20. Authority • Titles Simultaneously the easiest and hardest things to acquire Authority makes people seem bigger Not the pleasantness, but rather the importance • Clothes Suit and tie give the appearance of power The color red is power, or colors can give other vibes (White=clean, blue=friendly, etc…) • Trappings Jewelry, Cars, etc… • Trustworthiness By establishing truth on a minor thing, can gain trust on a larger scale “Expensive but better” Can be gained by switching identities based on the scenario
  • 21. Scarcity • Opportunities seem more valuable when they are limited • People are more motivated by the idea of losing something than by the idea of gaining something • Best shown through limited number sales like Jordans • We want something more when we are in competition for it • Prod for commitment when an object seems most valuable (Most scarce) • Supply and Demand; keep Supply lower • By taking away options, we lose freedoms, and we hate losing freedoms Psychological Reactance Theory When free choice is limited or threatened, the need to retain increases exponentially • Romeo And Juliet Effect Limiting exposure to an interest of young love makes desirability increase Being banned from something makes it seem more desirable; e.g. Prohibition • Drop from abundance to scarcity has exponential effect
  • 22. Keys to Psychology • Reciprocation is one of the most powerful human behaviors Concessions and providing a reason are a great way to get what you want • People will attempt to remain consistent with their image (Think someone who claims to be a great fuck but isn’t) • Social proof: Positive trumps logical; people associate you with the news you bring, with the people you’re with • Four traits of liking; physical attractiveness (Perception proven to increase the more you like someone), similarity, rewards (Compliments) that aren’t manipulative, positive and frequent contact The more you suffer for something, the more it means to you • Most people will not question what they perceive as authority Decisiveness, demeanor, etc… and traits associated with power will go a long way • Supply and demand; scarcity is important for how someone values something short term

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