The needs analysis

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The needs analysis is an important step for program design. Covers how to do it as well as provides a sample.

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The needs analysis

  1. 1. What is a needs analysis?  A process of determining what qualities are necessary for an athlete, a sport, or an individual.  It considers:  The needs of the sport/position/situation  The athlete/individual
  2. 2. Why is the needs analysis important?  Helps to focus training  Separates the “need to do” from the “want to do”
  3. 3. Considering the event, sport or situation  What are the needs?  Is there a model?  What kind of testing best meets the needs?  What is the competition schedule for the event/sport?
  4. 4. What are the needs of the event/sport/situation?  What major muscle groups are involved?  What muscles are involved in performance?  How are those muscles used? ○ Does performance involve exerting force against the ground? ○ Does performance involve unilateral or bilateral work? ○ Does performance involve rotation?
  5. 5. What are the needs of the event/sport/situation?  What energy systems contribute?  How long does the event last?  How much time is actually spent moving?  How much time is spent resting? What is the nature of the rest?  Is only one energy system involved? Does more than one contribute?  If more than one contributes, how significantly?
  6. 6. What are the needs of the event/sport/situation?  What is the speed of movement?  Does the athlete play a position that has specific needs?  For example, line vs. kickers vs. quarterback  Are there joints that are more frequently injured?
  7. 7. What are the needs of the event/sport/situation?  Examples:  100 meter sprinter  Shot putter  Baseball pitcher  Middle-aged exerciser losing weight  Elderly exerciser
  8. 8. 100 meter sprinter  Major muscles involved:  Abdominals and low back  Gluteus maximus  Gluteus minimus and medius  Hamstrings  Adductors  Quadriceps  Plantarflexors  Dorsiflexors  Period of time when only one leg on ground
  9. 9. 100 meter sprinter  This event will probably last 10-12 seconds, depending upon ability  Majority of energy from ATP/CP  Bulk of training should focus on ATP-CP system with some lactic acid focus
  10. 10. 100 meter sprinting  Speed of movement:  Very fast.  Stride frequency may range from 4.2 strides/second to 5 strides/second in an athlete who runs 100 meters in 10 seconds (Kuznyetsov, et al., 1983).
  11. 11. 100 meter sprinter, specific needs  Speed: faster leg turnover without sacrificing optimal stride length  Leg strength: clear blocks, force against ground  Contribution of each phase of 100 meter sprint to the outcome  Reaction time: 1%  Block clearance: 5%  Acceleration: 64%  Maintenance of maximum velocity: 18%  Lessen degree of acceleration: 12% (Gaffney, 1994)
  12. 12. 100 meter sprinter  Muscles/joints that are more frequently injured in 100 meter sprinters: hamstrings  From:  bad technique  muscle imbalance
  13. 13. What do we know about 100 meter sprinters and their conditioning requirements?  Muscles of the trunk, hip, and knee are important  Muscles need to be developed in a way that enhances the ATP-CP energy system  Muscles must be trained in a way that enhances speed  Leg strength will be needed to help with the start and force application  One-legged strength and power necessary  Special strength training should reinforce good sprinting technique  The hamstrings will need to be developed in terms of eccentric strength
  14. 14. Shot Putter  Major muscles involved, “Glide”  Quadriceps  Hip Flexors/Extensors  Glutes  Calves  Abs  Erector Spinae  Upper Body  Major muscles involved, “Rotation”  Quadriceps  Hip Flexors/Extensors  Glutes  Calves  Abs  Erector Spinae  Upper Body
  15. 15. Shot Putter  Delivery takes between 0.15 and 0.18 seconds  Long rest periods between throws  Energy from ATP-CP breakdown
  16. 16. Shot Put, specific needs  The shot put begins with a one-legged squat, involved exerting force from that position  Requires a blocking action with one side of the body  Unilateral work will need to be done
  17. 17. What do we know about shot putters and their conditioning requirements?  Muscles of the entire body need to be developed in a way that involves exerting force against the ground  Abs and lower back have to become strong and explosive in rotation  Muscles must be developed in a way that enhances the ATP-CP system  Muscles must be capable of great speed  One-legged work is necessary for the start and the block. Dumbbell movements (snatch, clean, jerk) and split-style lifts will be helpful for this.
  18. 18. Baseball Pitcher  Muscles Invovled:  Lower body is responsible for the leg drive, limb velocity in throwing is dependent upon this leg drive  Trunk rotation contributes approximately 50% of the force in throwing (Weatherly and Schinck, 1996)  Deltoid and rotator cuff muscles are necessary for throwing the ball and decelerating the arm
  19. 19. Baseball Pitcher  Series of short-duration, maximal intensity efforts  May last as little as 2 seconds  ATP-CP system  Perform these maximal efforts 100-120 times a game
  20. 20. Baseball Pitcher  Speed of movement?  Very fast. According to Panariello (1992): ○ Cocking phase: 1.5 seconds ○ Acceleration phase: 0.2 seconds ○ Follow through (deceleration): 0.4 seconds  Acceleration and Deceleration very important
  21. 21. Baseball Pitcher, Specific Needs  Conditioning to be able to decelerate the arm after the pitch. Use high-speed training (medicine balls) and eccentric training (PNF exercises).  Due to wear and tear, take it easy on upper body work (e.g. bands, etc.).
  22. 22. What do we know about pitchers and their conditioning requirements?  Pitching velocity is dependent upon lower extremity strength, trunk strength, and shoulder health.  Pitching takes place quickly, but is repeated often during a game.  Attention must be paid to eccentric strength and the ability to decelerate the arm.  Care needs to be taken with shoulder/upper body training.
  23. 23. Middle-Aged Exerciser Losing Weight  Muscles involved?  Energy systems?  Speed of movement?
  24. 24. Elderly Exerciser  Muscles involved?  Energy systems?  Speed of movement?
  25. 25. Is there a model for the event/sport?  Models give performance parameters. They may consist of:  Performance of the actual event  Anthropometric data  Physical preparation data
  26. 26. Performance Model, 100 Meters (Kuznyetsov, V.V., et al., 1983) Total Starting Time 10 m 20 m 30 m 40 m 50 m 60 m 70 m 80 m 90 m 100 m Time (sec) 0.39 1.8 2.9 3.8 4.7 5.6 6.5 7.4 8.4 9.2 10 Avg. Speed (m/sec) 7.2 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.9 11.6 11.4 11.6 11.4 10.9
  27. 27. Performance Model, 100 meters, Trends 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 10m 30m 50m 70m 90m Avg. Speed  Sprinter should be accelerating through 60 meters  Sprinter should be maintaining or slowing minimally for the rest of the race  How does our athlete compare?
  28. 28. Height/Weight Model, Weightlifting (Medvedev, A.S., 1989) Weight Class (kg) Average Height (cm) 52 149 +/- 3 56 153 +/- 3 60 159 +/- 3 67.5 164 +/- 3 75 168.5 +/- 3 82.5 172.5 +/- 3 90 176 +/- 3 100 178 +/- 3 110 181 +/- 3 110+ 185 +/- 3
  29. 29. Physical Preparation Model, Sprinters (Tabatschnik, B., 1983) Tests 10-12 years 13-15 years 16-17 years 60m (sec) 9.0-8.6 7.6-7.4 7.2-7.0 100m (sec) - 11.8-11.6 11.3-11.0 200m (sec) - 24.0-23.7 22.8-22.5 30m crouch start (sec) 5 4.6-4.4 4.3-4.2 30m flying start (sec) 4 3.3-3.1 3.1-3.0 St. triple jump (in) 21'4"-21'3" 24'3"-25'7" 26'3"-26'11"
  30. 30. Physical Preparation Model, Trends  By 17 the athlete should already possess a great deal of speed  After 17 it may not be possible to improve speed that much (11 seconds to 10 seconds)
  31. 31. Other Standards?  Are there other standards that may be imposed?  Example:  Be able to bench press body weight  Be able to squat double body weight  Etc.
  32. 32. Applying the models  How does our athlete’s performance compare to the model?  What does that tell us about the athlete’s needs?
  33. 33. Applying the models, cont.  Our athlete’s average speed is not high enough  Our athlete is having trouble accelerating to 10 meters  Our athlete is unable to accelerate into 60 meters 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 10m 40m 70m 100m Model Athlete
  34. 34. Applying the models, cont.  Based upon the model and the athlete’s performance, we know he/she needs to focus on:  Starts  Acceleration  Speed-endurance
  35. 35. What kind of testing best meets the needs of the event/sport?  Strength: 1-RM, 3-RM, 5-RM, 10-RM  Bench Press  Back/Front Squat  Power Clean  Power Clean + Jerk  Power Snatch  Deadlift
  36. 36. Testing, Cont.  Endurance: timed, 5-RM, 10- RM, reps to failure  Bench Press  Back Squat  Leg Press  Dips  Push-Ups  Pull-Ups  Sit-Ups  Crunches
  37. 37. Testing, Cont.  Flexibility: sit and reach, shoulder, trunk  Acceleration: 10, 20, and 40 yard sprints  Maximum Speed: 40+ yard sprints  Speed Endurance: 400+ yard sprints  Anaerobic Conditioning: sport-specific (300-yard shuttle)  Aerobic: 1.5 mile run, 12-minute run, etc.
  38. 38. Testing, Cont.  Agility:  T-test  L drill  Power:  Vertical Jump  Standing Long/Broad Jump  Triple Jump
  39. 39. What is the competition schedule?  This will determine the training schedule.  Things to consider:  What days of the week are competitions?  Are all of the competitions equally important?  Are all of the competitions going to be equally difficult?  Are there any camps that the athlete needs to be peaked for?
  40. 40. Sample Competition Schedule, Division I Football Date Opponent Home (H) or Away (A)? 2-Sep School ranked #10 A 9-Sep Walkover University H 16-Sep Easy Victory College H 23-Sep Bye Bye 30-Sep School ranked #20 H 7-Oct School ranked #15 H 14-Oct 0-7 College A 21-Oct Red-headed Stepchildren University A 28-Oct School ranked #3 H 4-Nov School ranked #18 A 11-Nov School ranked #23 H 18-Nov School ranked #6 A 2-Dec Conference Championships A
  41. 41. Sample Competition Schedule, cont.  The schedule tells us the following:  7 opponents are ranked  These games will require serious preparation and peaking  4 opponents “should” be gimmies  Is peaking required for those 4 schools?  Should we focus more on the 7 ranked opponents?  All games except Dec. 2 are on Saturdays, we can organize training accordingly
  42. 42. Why examine the event, sport, or situation?  This analysis tell us:  What are the needs?  Is there a model? How do our athletes compare?  What kind of testing best meets the needs?  What is the competition schedule?
  43. 43. Examining the Athlete or Individual  How long has the athlete been training?  What is the athlete’s injury status?  What level is the athlete competing at?  How did the athlete perform last year?  Based upon the testing, what kind of shape is the athlete currently in?
  44. 44. Training History  How long has the athlete been training?  What has the athlete been doing in his/her training?  Gives you an idea of what they can tolerate, what they know, work ethic, etc.  Beginner: low volume, low intensity, few exercises  Advanced: high volume, high intensity, great fitness, variety of exercises
  45. 45. Injury Status  Is the athlete currently healthy?  If not, can it be trained around? For example: shoulder, lower back  If so, does he/she have a history of particular injuries? Why? For example, groin or hamstring injuries.
  46. 46. What level is the athlete competing at?  Elite athletes have very different needs than beginners.  Pro’s and elite’s are not developmental.  Advanced athletes require much more specific and focused training.  Beginners need to work on everything!
  47. 47. How did the athlete perform last year?  Did the athlete peak on time?  If not, when did the athlete peak?  Was the athlete over-trained?  If athlete was over-trained, was that our fault or due to other circumstances?  Gives feedback about the program!
  48. 48. Based upon testing, where is the athlete/individual currently?  Where is the athlete deficient?  Are those important enough to warrant a focus?
  49. 49. Basketball Guard  Basketball is a total body sport  There is contact between players and this is a source of injuries
  50. 50. Basketball Movement Patterns Activity Speed of Movement Total Distance Covered Percentage of Time Spent in Activity Standing 0 0 32% Walking ≤6 km/h 1720 meters 31% Jogging 6.1-12 km/h 1870 meters 5.6% Running 12.1-18 km/h 928 meters 4.5% Sprinting >24 km/h 763 meters 2.8% Striding 18.1-24 km/h 406 meters 2.4% Low Intensity Shuffling ≤6 km/h 606 meters 8.5% Moderate Intensity Shuffling 6.1-9 kh/h 691 meters 6.5% High Intensity Shuffling >9 km/h 169 meters 3.1% Sideways Running >12 km/h 218 meters 1.9% Jumping 0 0 1.7% Adapted from Abdelkrim et al 2010.
  51. 51. Basketball: Injuries  Ankles and knees are the most commonly injured areas in basketball.  These are largely ligament strains and muscle/tendon sprains.
  52. 52. Basketball Guards  Guards prepare offensive situations via: turnovers, passing, steals, ball control, assists, and three-point field goals.  They are faster, stronger in terms of lifting their own body weight, and jump higher than forwards and centers.
  53. 53. Ideal Characteristics of a Guard Variable Model Height (cm) 189.5 Weight (kg) 84.5 Body Fat (%) 9 Vertical Jump (cm) 61 5m Sprint (sec) 1 10m Sprint (sec) 1.9 40m Sprint (sec) 4.1 T Test (sec) 9.3 Bench Press (% of Body Weight) 1.1 Back Squat (% of Body Weight) 2 Adapted from Abdelkrim et al 2010, Berg and Latin 1995; Ostojic et al 2006.
  54. 54. Hypothetical Guard  Plagued by non-contact ankle injuries.  Good three-point shooter, does not contribute in terms of steals and assists.  Gets fatigued after the first half of play and three-point accuracy deteriorates after the first half.
  55. 55. Player vs. Model Variable Model Sample Player Height (cm) 189.5 189 Weight (kg) 84.5 92.9 Body Fat (%) 9 12 Vertical Jump (cm) 61 62 5m Sprint (sec) 1 1.2 10m Sprint (sec) 1.9 2.2 40m Sprint (sec) 4.1 5 T Test (sec) 9.3 11.2 Bench Press (% of Body Weight) 1.1 1.2 Back Squat (% of Body Weight) 2 2.3

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