Strength Training for Track and Field

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Presentation examining the track and field events from a strength coach's perspective. Part of a presentation I did at the 2013 Australian Track and Field Coach's Association's Coaching Congress.

Presentation examining the track and field events from a strength coach's perspective. Part of a presentation I did at the 2013 Australian Track and Field Coach's Association's Coaching Congress.

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  • 1. The past is irretrievable, the present is incomplete, the future has already begun. Volkogonov.
  • 2. Overview  Characteristics of each event for the strength and conditioning coach.  Strength and conditioning needs/tools of each event.  Training thoughts  Challenges
  • 3. Event Overview  Sprints  Jumps  Throws  Endurance
  • 4. Sprints/Hurdles  Short sprinting events follow a pattern:  React to the gun  Get out of the blocks  Increase velocity  Achieve maximum velocity  Maintain maximum velocity  Attempt to slow the least
  • 5. Block Clearance  Strong legs help athletes get out of the blocks  However, when getting out of the blocks, the rear leg is exerting ~61% of the force that the front leg exerts (Coh et al 2009). http://www.lollylegs.com/training/starting.aspx
  • 6. 2009 World Championships, 200m 0-50m 50-100m 100- 150m 150- 200m Time (s), Bolt 5.6 4.32 4.52 4.75 Time (s), avg 2-8 5.8 4.5 4.7 5.01 Velocity (m/s), Bolt 8.93 11.57 11.06 10.53 Velocity (m/s), avg 2- 8 8.57 11 10.56 9.97
  • 7. 110 meter hurdles Take-off (Braking) Take-Off (Propulsion) Landing (Braking) Landing (Propulsion) Horiz. Vel. m/s 7.61 7.2 7.34 7.57 Vertical Vel. m/s 2.27 From Coh and Iskra (2012). Examining four hurdlers, mean 110m performance is 14.63 seconds. Hurdlers are still achieving significant horizontal velocities. Vertical velocity is also going to be a factor in their performance…
  • 8. Short sprint considerations  When clearing blocks, both legs don’t exert equal force.  One leg exerts force at a time when sprinting.  Exert force against the track.  Horizontal velocity is important.  Sprinting athletes are prone to hamstring injuries.
  • 9. Short Sprints, Training Considerations Consideration Requires Tools Block clearance Maximal strength Squats, Deadlifts, RDLs, etc. Power Olympic lifts, plyos One-legged focus Split Olympic lifts, one-leg Olympic lifts, split squats, lunges, one-leg RDLs, etc. Exerting force against track Maximal strength Squats, Deadlifts, RDLs, etc. Eccentric strength Pause/eccentric lifts, hip extension exercises Power Olympic lifts, plyos One-leg at a time One-legged focus Split Olympic lifts, one-leg Olympic lifts, split squats, lunges, one-leg RDLs, etc.
  • 10. What About the 400? From Hanson and Gajer (2009). Looking at world class, national, and regional level male athletes.
  • 11. 400, Energy Systems 400m Hurdle 400m Flat Best Time 55.69 52.04 Study Time 61.71 54.95 10 sec 57/43 62/38 20 sec 45/55 55/45 30 sec 43/57 55/45 40 sec 40/60 60/40 50 sec 40/60 60/40 From Zouhal et al (2010). Looking at six nationally ranked athletes. Splits represent anaerobic/aerobic contributions at each point in time.
  • 12. 400, Considerations  Same considerations as the short sprints without block clearance.  Hurdles and sprint may be different, though limitations to the study  If energy system information is correct, would require higher volume training than the short sprints.
  • 13. Jumps www.usatf.org
  • 14. Long Jump From www.britannica.com
  • 15. Long Jump  High take-off speed is essential for good performance.  Minimize knee flexion at takeoff (Muraki et al 2005).
  • 16. Long Jump Approach Speed (m/s) Hor. Velocity at Takeoff (m/s) Ver. Velocity at Takeoff Female 1984 Olympics 8.6 8.1 2.8 Male U.K. Long jumpers 9.95 8.55 3.37 From Hay et al (1985) and Graham-Smith and Lees (2005).
  • 17. Triple Jump From www.britannica.com
  • 18. Triple Jump  Phases:  Approach run  Hop: take off and land on same foot  Step: take off and land on different feet  Jump: take off from one foot and land on both
  • 19. Triple Jump Phase Velocity Avg. Horizontal Force Avg. Vertical Force Last stride of run-up 10.2 m/s Hop 9.4 m/s -0.5 3.2 Step 8.06 m/s -0.8 3.8 Jump 6.96 m/s -0.6 3.7 Forces and velocities during each phase of the triple jump, 1984 Olympic Games. From Hay and Miller (1985). Forces are in multiples of bodyweight.
  • 20. Long and Triple Jump: In Common Sprinting during the run up Leg stiffness during take-off Need for vertical force development Sprinting Leg Stiffness Vertical Force Development Technique Bounds Vertical Jumps in Place Acceleration Sprints Maximum Strength Maximum Strength Max. Vel. Sprints Eccentric Strength Olympic Lifts/Variations Resisted Sprinting Split/Single-Leg Olympic Lifts Stride Length Drills Split-Style Olympic Lifts
  • 21. Long Jump and Triple Jump: Differences Long Jump Triple Jump Same leg is take-off leg Different leg for hop/step and jump One effort Three efforts More impact on lower body
  • 22. Long Jump and Triple Jump: Differences Long Jump Same leg is take-off leg Single-leg maximal strength Single-leg Olympic lifts Single-leg plyometrics One effort Low volume, high intensity Triple Jump Different leg for Hop/step and jump Single-leg maximal strength, train both legs Single-leg Olympic lifts, train both legs Single-leg plyometrics, train both legs Three efforts Training hops, steps, and jumps separately and together Ability to maintain effort across three jumps
  • 23. High Jump  Approach run  Plant/takeoff  Flight phase/bar clearance
  • 24. High Jump Approach and Plant  Athlete achieves 6-8 m/sec on approach  Last 4-5 steps use a curved approach  Increasing stride frequency in the approach  Horizontal velocity decreases as the athlete begins the curved approach • Minimize knee flexion during the plant • Full body extension at toe-off
  • 25. High Jump Flight  Vertical velocity may exceed 4 meters/second during the flight phase www.benchallenger.com
  • 26. High Jump Velocities Hor. Vel. Touchdown (m/s) Vert. Vel. Touchdown (m/s) Hor. Vel. Takeoff (m/s) Vert. Vel. Takeoff (m/s) Male 2005 IAAF World Championships 7.78 0.33 4.31 4.3 Female, elite 6.13 0.27 4.57 3.41 From Antekolovic, et al (2006) and Isolehto et al (2007).
  • 27. High Jump Tools Phase Cue Addressing Run-Up Sprinting Technique Acceleration Sprints Max. Vel. Sprints Resisted Sprinting Stride Frequency Drills Split-Style Olympic Lifts Plant Minimize knee flexion Single-leg maximal strength Single-leg eccentric strength Single-leg Olympic lifts Single-leg plyometrics Full body extension Squats/deadlifts Olympic lifts Vertical plyometrics Flight Vertical velocity Maximal strength training Olympic lifts Vertical plyometrics
  • 28. Pole Vault
  • 29. Pole Vault  Run-up phase obtains a large horizontal velocity to prepare for the planting of the pole. But, the pole is a complication.  Take-off: Generate enough vertical impulse while minimizing loss in horizontal velocity.
  • 30. Pole Vault Stats Max Hor Vel Last Stride 9.44625 Hor Vel at Touchdown 9.36625 Hor Vel at Takeoff 7.66625 Hor Vel at Pole Release 1.68125 Ver Vel at Takeoff 2.81 Max Ver Vel 5.0375 Velocities in m/s. Taken from Angulo-Kinzler et al (1994). Analyzing 1992 Olympic Games (men).
  • 31. Pole Vault Tools Phase Cue Addressing Run-Up Sprinting Technique Acceleration Sprints Max. Vel. Sprints Resisted Sprinting Stride Frequency Drills Split-Style Olympic Lifts Plant Minimize knee flexion Single-leg maximal strength Single-leg eccentric strength Single-leg Olympic lifts Single-leg plyometrics
  • 32. Review of Jumps Males Females Long jump 10.25 9.41 Triple Jump 9.5 8.18 Pole Vault 8.6 7.41 Comparison of approach speed (last 5 meters in m/s) for top males and females in the 2002 European Championships. From Petrov (2004).
  • 33. Strength Training Concerns: Sprints/Jumps  Hypertrophy  Angle of pennation  Moving with mass  Injury prevention  Hamstrings  Injury causation
  • 34. General Thoughts  There are going to be common themes between the events:  Angle of release  Height of release  Velocity  Single leg/levering www.usatf.org
  • 35. Discus  The speed of the discus at release is the single most important contributor to long throws.  Females may use more sophisticated technique than males, males may rely more on physical strength (Leigh et al 2008).
  • 36. What Kind of Strength is Important?  Karampatsos et al 2011:  Male throwers  Mean 49.64 meter throws  Mean 1-RM Back Squat 252 kg, r=0.61 (n.s.)  Mean 1-RM Incline Press 127.5kg, r=0.96 (p<0.01) between press and throw  Perspective: How good are the throwers?
  • 37. Yu et al (2002)  Discus throwers at the 1998 camp at the U.S. Olympic Training Center (51.83- 60.22 meter throwers).  The greater vertical and horizontal ground reaction forces, the greater distance on the discus.
  • 38. Shot Put Men Result (meters) Velocity (m/sec) Angle Height (m) Height (%) 21.77 14.13 35 2.1 106 21.2 13.99 34 2.08 113.7 20.93 13.63 37 2.29 112.3 Women 20.19 13.33 36 2.34 119.4 19.74 13.31 39 1.93 107.2 19.09 13.1 36 1.93 110.9 2008 Indoor World Championships, shot put. From Gutierrez- Davila et al (2009).
  • 39. Hammer Variables Mean Age 25.8 Height (m) 1.85 Weight (kg) 116 Body Fat 22.40% Hammer Throw (m) 72.17 1-RM Snatch (kg) 131.7 1-RM Clean (kg) 165 1-RM Back Squat 245 % Type II Muscle fibers 60.1 % Type II Muscle Fiber CSA 66.10% Standing Broad Jump (m) 3.09 Information from six international-caliber male hammer throwers. Muscle information is from the vastus lateralis. From Terzis et al (2010).
  • 40. Hammer Velocities  The hammer is moving at velocities of up to 24 meters/second during the turns (Rojas-Ruiz et al 2009) with a release velocity that can be even higher. Best throw (m) Release velocity (m/s) Male 57.1 24.1 Female 56.4 23.7 From Brice et al (2011).
  • 41. Javelin Men Women Javelin Release Angle 38 42 Hor. Vel. Javelin (m/s) 21.3 16.2 Ver. Vel. Javelin (m/s) 17.1 14.55 Hor. Vel. COG, Run (m/s) 5.19 5.41 Hor. Vel. COG, Before final contact (m/s) 5.28 5.36 Vert. Vel. COG, Release (m/s) 1.59 0.89 Top 5 Men and Women, 1984 Olympic Games. From Komi and Mero (1985).
  • 42. Javelin Characteristics Men Women Distance (m) 86.11 66.6 Javelin Release Angle 35.3 36.23 Javelin Release Vel. (m/s) 29.3 25.6 Hor. Vel. COG, Before Final Contact (m/s) 6.91 6.23 Top three finishers, men’s and women’s, 2009 IAAF World Championships. From Lehman (2010).
  • 43. Throws: Commonalities  Base level of total body strength required for success, different for each event  Once that base level of strength is achieved, a need to learn  How to use it  How to apply it to the event  For each throw, horizontal/vertical velocities and height/angle of release are all important. These velocities exceed what can be achieved with free weights.
  • 44. Throws: Tools (Commonalities) Total Body Strength Lower Body Strength Squats, deadlifts, hip extensions Upper Body Strength Presses, rows Using Strength/Application Expressing Strength Quickly Olympic lifts, speed lifts, pause/eccentric lifts Plyos Throws Levering Eccentric Strength Maximum strength development, eccentric lifts, pause lifts, plyos Single-leg Strength Lunges, step-ups, split squats Single-leg Power Plyos, split-style Oympic lifts, one-leg Olympic lifts
  • 45. Throws: Event-Specific  Discuss: rotation, lever off one side, stretch  Shot: glide requires a push off one leg  Hammer: shoulders, rotation  Javelin: requires a run-up, lever off one side
  • 46. Endurance: Benefits  Running economy  Anaerobic threshold  Velocity  Leg stiffness
  • 47. Endurance and Strength Training  Paavolainen, et al (1999):  22 elite cross-country runners (maximal oxygen consumption ~64 ml/kg/min; 5K time ~18.25 minutes)  9 week study, 9 training sessions/week ○ Explosive group: 32% training was 20-100 meter sprints, plyos, and high velocity strength training ○ Rest of training standard below/above lactate threshold runs ○ Control group: 3% of training was explosive in nature  Results: ○ 5K time decreased from ~18.5 min to ~18 min for Explosive, no change for control ○ Ground contact time, running economy, and maximal oxygen consumption improved in explosive group, no change in control
  • 48. Concerns for Endurance Athletes  Takes time  Skill component  Joint wear and tear  Hypertrophy and running  Prejudices
  • 49. Principles  Strength training needs to support track and field training  Strength training needs to complement track and field training  Strength training should be brief, focused, and effective  Strength and power should be trained year-round
  • 50. Linking Training 1. Determine the most important focus for training 2. Set up the training for that 3. Determine the next-most important focus of training 4. Set up the training for that focus, make sure it syncs with the most important  Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each successive focus of training
  • 51. Preparation Phase I: General Preparation  Most important component: Track work  Second most: Strength training  Third most: Plyometrics  Fourth most: Everything else Preparation I (GP) Acceleration Maximum Velocity Speed Endurance Maximal Strength Power Hypertrophy 1x/week 1x/week 1x/week 1x/week 2x/week (1 wt, 1 plyo) 1x/week
  • 52. Speed Training Day of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Track Training Emphasis Accelerat ion: Falling / Standing / Crouching Starts, 3x10-20 meters each Recovery Maximum Velocity: Standing Starts, 3- 5x60 meters Recovery Speed Enduranc e: 4x150 meters Biomotor Ability/Energy System Speed/ Strength/ Phospha gen Endurance Speed/ Power/ Phosphagen Rest Enduranc e / Glycolytic
  • 53. Adding Strength Training Day of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Track Training Emphasis Acceleration: Falling / Standing / Crouching Starts, 3x10- 20 meters each Recovery Maximum Velocity: Standing Starts, 3-5x60 meters Recovery Speed Endurance: 4x150 meters Biomotor Ability/Energy System Speed/ Strength/ Phosphagen Endurance Speed/ Power/ Phosphagen Rest Endurance / Glycolytic Strength Training Emphasis Maximal Strength: Back Squats, 3x6-10x80- 90% RDLs, 3x6-10 Bench Press, 3x6-10x80- 90% Bent Over Rows, 3x6-10 Military Press, 3x6-10 Power Clean, h, AK, 3x3x60% Clean Pulls, h, K, 3x3x60% Push Jerk, 3x3x60% Upper/Lower Body Weight Circuit, 3x8- 12 reps
  • 54. Adding Plyometrics Day of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Track Training Emphasis Acceleration: Falling / Standing / Crouching Starts, 3x10- 20 meters each Recovery Maximum Velocity: Standing Starts, 3-5x60 meters Recovery Speed Endurance: 4x150 meters Biomotor Ability/Energ y System Speed/ Strength/ Phosphagen Endurance Speed/ Power/ Phosphagen Rest Endurance / Glycolytic Strength Training Emphasis Maximal Strength: Back Squats, 3x6-10x80- 90% RDLs, 3x6-10 Bench Press, 3x6-10x80- 90% Bent Over Rows, 3x6-10 Military Press, 3x6-10 Power Clean, h, AK, 3x3x60% Clean Pulls, h, K, 3x3x60% Push Jerk, 3x3x60% Upper/Lower Body Weight Circuit, 3x8- 12 reps Plyometric Emphasis Standing long jump, 3x10 Hurdle hops, 3x5 yards CM Jump, 3x10 Jump to box, 3x10
  • 55. Steps for Organizing Training  Identify the competitions  Organize the year around the competitions  Plan the concept  Plan the details
  • 56. Challenges  Most strength and conditioning coaches come from specific athletic backgrounds  Usually team sports with lots of contact  Requires education about the events, needs, and what kinds of motivational approaches work with athletes.  Training should help to improve track and field performance, not training.
  • 57. cissik@yourhpservices.com