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# Horizontal Application of Force

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### Horizontal Application of Force

1. 1. Applying Strength and Power
2. 2. Horizontal Forces  Sprints involve exerting force horizontally so that the athlete can move forward quickly.  All of the jumping events involve a run-up phase where the athlete attempts to maximize horizontal velocity.  Two of the jumps are concerned with minimizing the loss of horizontal velocity during the jump to maximize the distance jumped.  Two of the jumps are attempting to translate that horizontal velocity into vertical velocity to maximize height.  All of the throws are concerned with the horizontal application of force.  Problem: most strength training emphasizes vertical force application.
3. 3. Overview  Tools to enhance force production  Strategies (training approaches)  Program design thoughts
4. 4. Tools  Maximal strength training exercises  Olympic lift variations  Sleds/prowlers  Others
5. 5. Maximal Strength Training Exercises  Two types of exercises help train athletes to generate force against the ground:  Squats  Deadlifts
6. 6. Kettlebell Swing  Wear shoes   May be closest to horizontal force application  Rather than a rhythmic endurance exercise, can be done with lots of weight and low repetitions
7. 7. Plyometrics and Throws  Two of the best tools to teach horizontal force application.  Horizontal plyometrics are specific:  Bounds  Single effort jumps  Multiple effort jumps  Jumps to or over boxes
8. 8. Throws  Throws can teach the horizontal application of force  Medicine ball toss:  Forward  Chest pass  Step and throw  Rotational throws
9. 9. Plyometrics/Throws, Thoughts  Specific  However:  Strength base makes plyometrics more effective  Landing  Impact  CNS fatigue
10. 10. Overview of Tools General Tools Special Tools Specific Tools Squats Throws Plyometrics Deadlifts Kettlebell Swings Olympic Lifts Sleds/Prowlers
11. 11. Strategies/Training Approaches  Complex training  Combine strength and track training
12. 12. Complex Training  Idea is to combine a heavy, slow strength move with a fast movement like a plyo or Olympic lift.  Theory: heavy movement recruits more motor units. Fast movement takes advantage of that recruitment.  Today called post-activation potentiation (PAP)  Research very mixed on this.
13. 13. Complex Training: Horizontal Emphasis  Back squats + long jump  Split squats + standing triple jump  Front squat + Box jump  Etc.
14. 14. Complex Training Thoughts  Not a magic bullet  But, not harmful either  Great use of limited training time, especially during the season.
15. 15. Science Fiction: Combining Strength and Track Training  This can be an effective way to show the athlete how strength training applies to and supports the event.  Reinforces many of the technical cues common to both activities.
16. 16. Sample Combined Program  Split Cleans, 3x3 each legx60% + Bounds, 3x20 meters  Back Squats, 3x4-6x80-90% + Hurdle Hops, 3x10 meters  Romanian Deadlifts, 3x4-8-RM + Falling Starts, 3x10 meters
17. 17. Combining Strength and Track Training  Reinforces the applicability of strength training  Takes a lot of work on coach’s part  Requires enough equipment and enough help to move the equipment  Only practical with elite-level athletes
18. 18. Program Design Suggestions  Examine by level of development:  Fundamental  National-caliber  Elite
19. 19. Fundamental Program Design  Building a fitness/technique base  Narrow range of exercises  Focus is mostly on general exercises
20. 20. Building a Fitness Base  Getting the body used to sprinting and jumping  Strengthening ligaments, bones, and tendons  Muscle hypertrophy  Total body strength  Power
21. 21. Building a Fitness Base Goal Approaches Preparing the body for sprinting/jumping Technique drills, A/B drills, bounds, low volume sprints, single-effort plyometrics, shin splint drills, hamstring exercises Tendons/ligaments/bone Moderate-to-high volume strength training, multi-joint exercises, 30-60 seconds recovery Hypertrophy Moderate-to-high volume strength training, multi-joint exercises, 30-60 seconds recovery, high intensity (2-3 reps left in the tank) Total body strength Moderate volume strength training, multi- joint exercises, 60+ seconds recovery, high intensity (1-2 reps left in the tank) Power Single-effort plyometrics, increased strength, Olympic lifts
22. 22. Narrow Range of Exercises Goal Tools Preparing the body for sprinting/jumping Ankling, high knee drills, hip-to-heel drills, A/B drills, bounds, ankle hops, walking on toes, marches, crab walks, back pedaling, counter-movement jumps, squat jumps, standing long jumps Tendons/ligaments/bone Squats, deadlifts, hip extension exercises, lunges, bench press, military press, pull-ups, dips, push-ups, bent- over rows Hypertrophy Squats, deadlifts, hip extension exercises, lunges, bench press, military press, pull-ups, dips, push-ups, bent- over rows Total body strength Squats, deadlifts Power Power clean (hang), push jerk, pulls
23. 23. Fundamental Training: Example Day One Day Two Day Three Emphasis Strength/Acceleration Power/Max Velocity Hypertrophy/Enduran ce Speed Training Technique drills Falling/standing starts, up to 10 meters Technique drills Stride length drills Falling/standing sprints up to 40 meters Bounds Technique drills Stride length drills Falling/standing starts up to 100 meters Jump Training Jumps in place Jumps with 1-3 step run ups Jumps in place Jumps with 1-3 step run ups Strength Training Back squats or Deadlifts Romanian deadlifts Bench press Bent-over rows Military press Power clean (hang) Pulls Push jerk Squats Lunges Hip extension Bench press Pull-ups Dips Military press Other MB Throws MB Throws Conditioning