The Most Interesting Things I've Learnt About Learning

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A collection of learning concepts that I thought most people would find interesting and unexpected

A collection of learning concepts that I thought most people would find interesting and unexpected

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  • 1. The most interesting things I’ve learnt about learning Jason Yip j.c.yip@computer.org jcyip@thoughtworks.com @jchyip http://jchyip.blogspot.com
  • 2. Break up into small groups of 5 • 10 minutes • Identify a skill that you know very well and design an approach to teach it, including assessment • Include rationale for choices if you can
  • 3. Prepare for redesign 1. I will introduce some concepts 2. Jot down ideas for improvement for your teaching approach 3. Share with group at end
  • 4. MASTERY VS GRADES
  • 5. In Australia, what is a passing grade? • Letter or %?
  • 6. Simple availability calculation 50% 50% 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25 or 25%
  • 7. What level of performance do we expect here? Compound skill A Just passed… AA B C Did ok… Aced it! BB CC Just passed… DD
  • 8. Can do it or can’t do it; there is no “passing grade” http://www.flickr.com/photos/bwjones/2619602001/in/photostream/
  • 9. Compound skill A B C
  • 10. ROUTINE VS ADAPTIVE EXPERTISE
  • 11. d = ½gt2 d What is d if… t=2s g = 10 m / s2
  • 12. Let’s work through it d= d= d= d= ½gt2 ½(10)(2) 2 5*4 20 But I’m sure you could do this faster…
  • 13. Speed round 1. I’ll show the question and 3 possible answers 2. Raise 1 finger to choose the first answer, 2 to choose the second, 3 to choose the third 3. Answer as fast as you can 4. Ready?
  • 14. Dropped from the same height, ignoring air resistance, which one hits the ground first? Other (1) (2) (3)
  • 15. Were we learning an equation or an underlying concept?
  • 16. Speed round 2 1. I’ll show the question and 3 possible answers 2. Raise 1 finger to choose the first answer, 2 to choose the second, 3 to choose the third 3. Answer as fast as you can 4. Ready?
  • 17. You’re about to shoot at an apple when it just starts to fall out of the tree. Where should you aim? (1) (2) (3)
  • 18. Routine Expertise (context-specific) Adaptive Expertise (survives change in context) Indistinguishable without change in context
  • 19. Superficial Semantic Qualitative What equation do I use? The equation indicates that d is independent of mass Just shoot the apple, the arrow will fall at the same rate
  • 20. Routine expertise comes from mastering visible behaviour; adaptive expertise comes from mastering invisible concepts
  • 21. MISCONCEPTIONS
  • 22. Did you know this? • The success of Toyota comes from the cumulative impact of daily kaizen from every employee
  • 23. How many people agree with this?
  • 24. Actually that’s wrong • Most impact of improvements come from project kaizen and strategic kaizen. Daily kaizen is not about impact so much as learning and values http://kaizeninstituteindia.wordpress.com/2013/06/12/kaizen-flag-its-all-about-people-people-people/
  • 25. How did you feel when I said “Actually, that’s wrong”?
  • 26. This is not learning • “blah blah blah A” • “Yeah, I already knew about B”
  • 27. This is learning • • • • “blah blah blah B” “Yeah, I already knew about B” “Actually, B is wrong. Blah blah blah A.” “Huh?”
  • 28. “Yeah, I already knew that” = not learning “Huh?” = learning
  • 29. If it feels comfortable, you’re probably not learning anything
  • 30. Learning starts with unlearning misconceptions
  • 31. SIMULATIONS VS DELIBERATE PRACTICE
  • 32. How many people have played an Agile game / simulation?
  • 33. Try to think back to what was happening and how you felt. How many people when playing the game, were playing to win?
  • 34. How many people were playing the game, intentionally focusing on exercising their weaknesses and thus probably losing the game?
  • 35. What stage is best for performance? 1. 2. 3. 4. Unconscious incompetence Conscious incompetence Conscious competence Unconscious competence
  • 36. What stage is best for learning? 1. 2. 3. 4. Unconscious incompetence Conscious incompetence Conscious competence Unconscious competence
  • 37. There is no learning when you are in flow
  • 38. Staying conscious and out of flow during practice is a deliberate act, hence “deliberate practice”
  • 39. In simulations and games people tend to exercise their strengths; deliberate practice needs to address weaknesses
  • 40. TEACH ONE CONCEPT AT A TIME
  • 41. What’s the better delivery approach?
  • 42. Why?
  • 43. What’s the better learning approach?
  • 44. We only have so much working memory (7+/-2) See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_load
  • 45. One-point lessons • “…create lessons based on a single point, typically on a single piece of paper, which is then reviewed during the daily meeting.” http://jchyip.blogspot.com.au/2012/01/instead-of-teaching-whole-bunch-of.html
  • 46. THEORY VS PRACTICE
  • 47. If someone understands all the theoretical concepts behind a skill, but never practices, will they master the skill?
  • 48. If someone practices but has no real understanding about theory and rationale, will they master the skill?
  • 49. Theory without practice means no skill; practice without theory means wasted effort
  • 50. So, what’s the role of a teacher?
  • 51. Effective teaching is not about conveying facts so much as enabling effective practice and exploration
  • 52. Share your insights
  • 53. To learn more • http://www.ted.com/talks/salman_khan_le t_s_use_video_to_reinvent_education.html • http://www.dtic.mil/cgibin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. pdf&AD=ADA413046 • http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/super/thes es/PhD(Muller).pdf